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Journal Article

A Study of Anisotropy and Post-Necking Local Fracture Strain of Advanced High Strength Steel with the Utilization of Digital Image Correlation

The automotive industry has a strong need for lightweight materials capable of withstanding large mechanical loads. Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS), which have high tensile strength and formability, show great promise for automotive applications, yet if they are to be more widely used, it's important to understand their deformation behavior; this is particularly important for the development of forming limit diagrams (FLD) used in stamping processes. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which anisotropy introduced by the rolling direction affects the local fracture strain. Three grades of dual-phase AHSS and one high-strength low-alloy (HSL A) 50ksi grade steel were tested under plane strain conditions. Half of the samples were loaded along their rolling direction and the other half transverse to it. In order to achieve plane strain conditions, non-standard dogbone samples were loaded on a wide-grip MTS tensile test machine.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Methods for Determining Sheared Edge Formability

Imposing tensile stress on an edge of a sheet metal blank is a common condition in many sheet metal forming operations, making edge formability a very important factor to consider. Because edge formability varies greatly among different materials, cutting methods (and their control parameters), it is very important to have access to an experimental technique that would allow for quick and reliable evaluation of edge formability for a given case. In this paper, two existing techniques are compared: the hole expansion test and the tensile test. It is shown that the hole expansion test might not be adequate for many cases, and is prone to overestimating the limiting strain, because the burr on the sheared edge is typically smaller than what is observed in production. The tensile test represents an effective alternative to the hole expansion test. Advantages and disadvantages of each case are discussed.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Stretchability of Sheared Edge of Aluminum Sheet 6111-T4

Experimental results on influence of trimming conditions on the shape of the sheared surface are combined with the results of stretching sheared samples after trimming. The objective of the research described in this paper is to study the mechanism of fracture initiation and cracks propagation during half-a-dog bone tensile test representing sheared edge stretching condition. One side of the sample had sheared surface obtained by the trimming process while the other side of the sample had a smooth surface. Significant attention was paid to understanding of fracture sources. An interrupted tensile test approach was employed to track fracture initiation and propagation during stretching of sheared surface. The results of the experimental study indicated that multiple sources of fracture were observed in the burr area for trimming with clearances exceeding 10% of the material thickness.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Stiffness and Damping Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR), a copolymer of butadiene and styrene, is widely used in the automotive industry due to its high durability and resistance to abrasion, oils and oxidation. Some of the common applications include tires, vibration isolators, and gaskets, among others. This paper characterizes the dynamic behavior of SBR and discusses the suitability of a visco-elastic model of elastomers, known as the Kelvin model, from a mathematical and physical point of view. An optimization algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the Kelvin model. The resulting model was shown to produce reasonable approximations of measured dynamic stiffness. The model was also used to calculate the self heating of the elastomer due to energy dissipation by the viscous damping components in the model. Developing such a predictive capability is essential in understanding the dynamic behavior of elastomers considering that their dynamic stiffness can in general depend on temperature.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Draw Bead Coefficient of Friction Using Surface Temperature

Sheet metal stamping involves a system of complex tribological (friction, lubrication, and wear), heat transfer, and material strain interactions. Accurate coefficient of friction, strain, and lubrication regime data is required to allow proper modeling of the various sheet stamping processes. In addition, non-intrusive means of monitoring the coefficient of friction in production stamping operations would be of assistance for efficiently maintaining proper stamping quality and to indicate when adjustments to the various stamping parameters, including maintenance, would be advantageous. One of the key sub-systems of the sheet metal stamping process is the draw bead. This paper presents an investigation of the tribology of the draw bead using a Draw Bead Simulator (DBS) Machine and automotive zinc-coated sheet steels. The investigation and findings include: 1) A new, non-intrusive method of measuring the surface temperature of the sheet steel as it passes through the draw bead.
Technical Paper

Rapid Measurement of Residual Stress by Computerized Shearography

This paper presents an optical method for evaluating residual stresses. The approach is based on measuring the deformation due to the relief of stress produced by a blind-hole drilling technique. The deformation is rapidly measured by shearography. Unlike the strain gage method, this method does not require mounting strain gages /transducers. A rapid process for detection of residual stress using a micro-indentation technique is also present. The method is practical for employment in a production/field environment.
Technical Paper

U.S. Automotive Corrosion Trends at 5 & 6 Years

In 1985, the Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) concluded that an automotive body corrosion survey for public consumption was needed. The committee proceeded to develop a survey methodology and conducted surveys in the Detroit area every second year starting in 1985. The survey is a closed car parking lot survey of nineteen panels or partial panels checking for perforations, blisters and surface rust. Similar surveys have and will continue to be conducted at biyearly intervals for comparison purposes to track the results of industry wide corrosion protection “improvements”. This is a report of the results of the first three surveys. THE ACAP COMMITTEE BODY DIVISION has now completed the third in its series of biyearly surveys. It is now possible to see some very clear results of industry actions and some indication of future performance.
Technical Paper

Validation of Digital Image Correlation for Sheet Metal Strain Measurement

The automobile industry has an increasing demand for lightweight components, improve product performance, efficiency and increase safety. For optimization of design and manufacturing of these components the detail measurement of critical material properties such as strain limit, strength coefficients, anisotropy coefficients et al, are required. The most commonly used method for finding the material properties is tensile test with extensometer. But this system only provides an average strain over the specimen gauge length and is not applicable to post diffuse necking. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique is the latest state of art technique. Because of its capability of fast data acquisition, this technique is suited well for characterization of material properties both in the elastic and plastic ranges. It also has advantages of full field, non-contact, and considerately high precision for displacement and strain measurements.
Journal Article

Warranty Forecasting of Repairable Systems for Different Production Patterns

Warranty forecasting of repairable systems is very important for manufacturers of mass produced systems. It is desired to predict the Expected Number of Failures (ENF) after a censoring time using collected failure data before the censoring time. Moreover, systems may be produced with a defective component resulting in extensive warranty costs even after the defective component is detected and replaced with a new design. In this paper, we present a forecasting method to predict the ENF of a repairable system using observed data which is used to calibrate a Generalized Renewal Processes (GRP) model. Manufacturing of products may exhibit different production patterns with different failure statistics through time. For example, vehicles produced in different months may have different failure intensities because of supply chain differences or different skills of production workers, for example.
Technical Paper

Whole Field Bonded Steel Tensile Test Using Digital Image Correlation System

Adhesive bonding has many applications in the automotive industry. The single-lapped bonded joint is the most typically used among various bonding types. This paper presents experimental research for determining the strain field of the single-lapped joint under tensile loading. The materials for the joint are epoxy-based structural adhesive and low-carbon electrolytic zinc steel plate. In the study, a DIC (digital image correlation) system was adopted to measure the strain distribution of the bonded joint during a tensile test. The bonded steel coupons in the tensile test were prepared according to the ASTM standard. During the measurement, images of the coupon joint were taken before and after the deformation process. Then the DIC system measured the strain of bonded joint by comparing two consecutive images. The measured data from the DIC was compared to data taken simultaneously from a traditional extensometer.