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Technical Paper

3-D Machine-Vision Technique for Rapid 3D Shape Measurement and Surface Quality Inspection

1999-03-01
1999-01-0418
A novel computer vision technique for rapid measurement of surface coordinates is presented. The technique is based on the marriage of a digital fringe projection technique and a fringe-phase extraction algorithm. A digitally controlled video signal in the form of linear and parallel fringes of cosinusoidal intensity variation is projected onto an object. The fringe pattern is perturbed by the three-dimensional object surface with fringe-phase containing information on the depth of the object. A phase extraction algorithm is used to determine the fringe-phase distribution, from which the three-dimensional surface coordinates are determined. The theoretical basis of this technique and some experimental results are presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

A 1-D Platform to Simulate the Effects of Dedicated EGR on SI Engine Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0524
The thermal efficiency of spark-ignition engines can be enhanced by increasing the rate of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) such that the low temperature combustion regime could be achieved. However, there is an upper limit on the amount of EGR rate, beyond which flame speed becomes slow and unstable, and local quenching starts to hurt the combustion stability, efficiency, and emission. To resolve this issue, the concept of dedicated EGR has been proposed previously to be an effective way to enhance flame propagation under lean burn condition with even higher levels of EGR with reformate hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In this study, the effects of thermochemical fuel reforming on the reformate composition under rich conditions (1.0 < ϕ < 2.0) have been studied using detailed chemistry for iso-octane, as the representative component for gasoline.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Method for Piston Secondary Dynamics and Piston-Bore Contact

2007-04-16
2007-01-1249
Low vibration and noise level in internal combustion engines has become an essential part of the design process. It is well known that the piston assembly can be a major source of engine mechanical friction and cold start noise, if not designed properly. The piston secondary motion and piston-bore contact pattern are critical in piston design because they affect the skirt-to-bore impact force and therefore, how the piston impact excitation energy is damped, transmitted and eventually radiated from the engine structure as noise. An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model. The method includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading, piston barrelity and ovality, piston flexibility and skirt-to-bore clearance. The method accounts for piston kinematics, rigid-body dynamics and flexibility.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on Laminar Flame Propagation in Mixtures with Non-Zero Reaction Progress

2019-04-02
2019-01-0946
Flame speed data reported in most literature are acquired in conventional apparatus such as the spherical combustion bomb and counterflow burner, and are limited to atmospheric pressure and ambient or slightly elevated unburnt temperatures. As such, these data bear little relevance to internal combustion engines and gas turbines, which operate under typical pressures of 10-50 bar and unburnt temperature up to 900K or higher. These elevated temperatures and pressures not only modify dominant flame chemistry, but more importantly, they inevitably facilitate pre-ignition reactions and hence can change the upstream thermodynamic and chemical conditions of a regular hot flame leading to modified flame properties. This study focuses on how auto-ignition chemistry affects flame propagation, especially in the negative-temperature coefficient (NTC) regime, where dimethyl ether (DME), n-heptane and iso-octane are chosen for study as typical fuels exhibiting low temperature chemistry (LTC).
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on the Critical Ignition Energy and Chemical Kinetic Feature for Li-Ion Battery Thermal Runaway

2018-04-03
2018-01-0437
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and issues related to their thermal management and safety have been attracting extensive research interests. In this work, based on a recent thermal chemistry model, the phenomena of thermal runaway induced by a transient internal heat source are computationally investigated using a three-dimensional (3D) model built in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3. Incorporating the anisotropic heat conductivity and typical thermal chemical parameters available from literature, temperature evolution subject to both heat transfer from an internal source and the activated internal chemical reactions is simulated in detail. This paper focuses on the critical runaway behavior with a delay time around 10s. Parametric studies are conducted to identify the effects of the heat source intensity, duration, geometry, as well as their critical values required to trigger thermal runaway.
Technical Paper

A Cost-Driven Method for Design Optimization Using Validated Local Domains

2013-04-08
2013-01-1385
Design optimization often relies on computational models, which are subjected to a validation process to ensure their accuracy. Because validation of computer models in the entire design space can be costly, we have previously proposed an approach where design optimization and model validation, are concurrently performed using a sequential approach with variable-size local domains. We used test data and statistical bootstrap methods to size each local domain where the prediction model is considered validated and where design optimization is performed. The method proceeds iteratively until the optimum design is obtained. This method however, requires test data to be available in each local domain along the optimization path. In this paper, we refine our methodology by using polynomial regression to predict the size and shape of a local domain at some steps along the optimization process without using test data.
Technical Paper

A Decision Analytic Approach to Incorporating Value of Information in Autonomous Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0799
Selecting the right transportation platform is challenging, whether it is at a personal level or at an organizational level. In settings where predominantly the functional aspects rule the decision making process, defining the mobility of a vehicle is critical for comparing different offerings and making acquisition decisions. With the advent of intelligent vehicles, exhibiting partial to full autonomy, this challenge is exacerbated. The same vehicle may traverse independently and with greater tolerance for acceleration than human occupied vehicles, while, at the same time struggle with obstacle avoidance. The problem presents itself at the individual vehicle sensing level and also at the vehicle/fleet level. At the sensing and information level, one can be looking at issues of latency, bandwidth and optimal information fusion from multiple sources including privileged sensing. At the overall vehicle level, one focuses more on the ability to complete missions.
Technical Paper

A FEM Model to Predict Pressure Loading Cycle for Hydroforming Processes

1999-03-01
1999-01-0677
Tubular hydroforming is a novel process that has recently gained much attention due to its cost-effective application in the automotive industry. Hydroformed automotive parts have high strength to weight ratio and have good repeatability with high dimensional accuracy. At this time, there is little experience in modeling the hydroforming process to better understand its application and researchers have tried using stamping simulation software to analyze the process. Unlike conventional sheet stamping which is a displacement driven process, tubular hydroforming is a force driven process and its success is governed by the nature of internal pressurization. Hence, a new three-dimensional finite element model using a computationally efficient 6-noded shell element has been developed. A simple pressure prediction model has been developed and integrated into the formulation for effective control of the process.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Vision-Based Lane Line Detection in Adverse Weather Conditions Using Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) Communication

2019-04-02
2019-01-0684
Lane line detection is a very critical element for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Although, there has been significant amount of research dedicated to the detection and localization of lane lines in the past decade, there is still a gap in the robustness of the implemented systems. A major challenge to the existing lane line detection algorithms stems from coping with bad weather conditions (e.g. rain, snow, fog, haze, etc.). Snow offers an especially challenging environment, where lane marks and road boundaries are completely covered by snow. In these scenarios, on-board sensors such as cameras, LiDAR, and radars are of very limited benefit. In this research, the focus is on solving the problem of improving robustness of lane line detection in adverse weather conditions, especially snow. A framework is proposed that relies on using Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication to access reference images stored in the cloud.
Journal Article

A Group-Based Space-Filling Design of Experiments Algorithm

2018-04-03
2018-01-1102
Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is an important tool routinely used to simulate complex engineering systems. Virtual simulations enhance engineering insight into prospective designs and potential design issues and can limit the need for expensive engineering prototypes. For complex engineering systems, however, the effectiveness of virtual simulations is often hindered by excessive computational cost. To minimize the cost of running expensive computer simulations, approximate models of the original model (often called surrogate models or metamodels) can provide sufficient accuracy at a lower computing overhead compared to repeated runs of a full simulation. Metamodel accuracy improves if constructed using space-filling designs of experiments (DOEs). The latter provide a collection of sample points in the design space preferably covering the entire space.
Technical Paper

A Mesoscopic-Stress Based Fatigue Limit Theory - A Revised Dang Van's Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0902
Dang Van (Dang Van et al., 1982 and Dang Van, 1993) states that for an infinite lifetime (near fatigue limit), crack nucleation in slip bands may occur at the most unfavorable oriented grains, which are subject to plastic deformation even if the macroscopic stress is elastic. Since the residual stresses in these plastically deformed grains are induced by the restraining effect of the adjacent grains, it is assumed that the residual stresses are stabilized at a mesoscopic level. These stresses are currently approximated by the macroscopic hydrostatic stress defined by the normal stresses to the faces of an octahedral element oriented with the faces symmetric to the principal axis; mathematically they are equal to each other and they are the average of the principal stresses.
Journal Article

A Methodology for Design Decisions using Block Diagrams

2013-04-08
2013-01-0947
Our recent work has shown that representation of systems using a reliability block diagram can be used as a decision making tool. In decision making, we called these block diagrams decision topologies. In this paper, we generalize the results and show that decision topologies can be used to make many engineering decisions and can in fact replace decision analysis for most decisions. We also provide a meta-proof that the proposed method using decision topologies is entirely consistent with decision analysis at the limit. The main advantages of the method are that (1) it provides a visual representation of a decision situation, (2) it can easily model tradeoffs, (3) it can incorporate binary attributes, (4) it can model preferences with limited information, and (5) it can be used in a low-fidelity sense to quickly make a decision.
Journal Article

A Methodology for Fatigue Life Estimation of Linear Vibratory Systems under Non-Gaussian Loads

2017-03-28
2017-01-0197
Fatigue life estimation, reliability and durability are important in acquisition, maintenance and operation of vehicle systems. Fatigue life is random because of the stochastic load, the inherent variability of material properties, and the uncertainty in the definition of the S-N curve. The commonly used fatigue life estimation methods calculate the mean (not the distribution) of fatigue life under Gaussian loads using the potentially restrictive narrow-band assumption. In this paper, a general methodology is presented to calculate the statistics of fatigue life for a linear vibratory system under stationary, non-Gaussian loads considering the effects of skewness and kurtosis. The input loads are first characterized using their first four moments (mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis) and a correlation structure equivalent to a given Power Spectral Density (PSD).
Technical Paper

A Methodology of Design for Fatigue Using an Accelerated Life Testing Approach with Saddlepoint Approximation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0159
We present an Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) methodology along with a design for fatigue approach, using Gaussian or non-Gaussian excitations. The accuracy of fatigue life prediction at nominal loading conditions is affected by model and material uncertainty. This uncertainty is reduced by performing tests at a higher loading level, resulting in a reduction in test duration. Based on the data obtained from experiments, we formulate an optimization problem to calculate the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) values of the uncertain model parameters. In our proposed ALT method, we lift all the assumptions on the type of life distribution or the stress-life relationship and we use Saddlepoint Approximation (SPA) method to calculate the fatigue life Probability Density Functions (PDFs).
Technical Paper

A Model for Crank-Angle-Resolved Engine Cylinder Pressure Estimation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1157
Real-time measurement or estimation of crank-angle-resolved engine cylinder pressure may become commonplace in the next generation of engine controllers to optimize spark, valve timing, or compression ratio. Toward the development of a real-time cylinder pressure estimator, this work presents a crank-angle-resolved engine cylinder pressure estimation model that could accept inputs such as speed, manifold pressure and throttle position, and deliver crank-angle resolved cylinder pressure in real-time, at engine speeds covering the useful operating range of most engines. The model was validated by comparing simulated cylinder pressure with thirteen sets of cylinder pressure data, from two different commercial engines from two different OEMs. Estimated pressures were compared against the actual measured pressure traces. The average relative error is about 3% while the maximum relative error is 5%. Both can be improved with further tuning.
Technical Paper

A New Calibration Method for Digital 3D Profilometry System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1380
Recently the use of digital 3D profilometry in the automotive industries has become increasingly popular. The effective techniques for 3D shape measurement, especially for the measurement of complicated structures, have become more and more significant. Different optical inspective methods, such as 3D profilometry, laser scanning and Coordinate-Measuring Machine (CMM), have been applied for 3D shape measurement. Among these methods, 3D profilometry seems to be the fastest and inexpensive method with considerably accurate result, and it has simple setup and full field measuring ability compared with other techniques. In this paper, a novel calibration method for 3D-profilometry will be introduced. In this method, a multiple-step calibration procedure is utilized and best-fit calibration curves are obtained to improve measurement accuracy. A recursive algorithm is used for data evaluation, along with calibration data.
Technical Paper

A New Measurement of Aluminum Alloy Edge Stretching Limit Based on Digital Image Correlation Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0417
In Aluminum Alloy, AA, sheet metal forming, the through thickness cracking at the edge of cut out is one of the major fracture modes. In order to prevent the edge cracking in production forming process, practical edge stretch limit criteria are needed for virtual forming prediction and early stamping trial evaluations. This paper proposes new methods for determining the edge stretching limit of the sheet coupons, with and without pre-stretching, based on the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. A numbers of sets of notch-shaped smaller coupons with three different pre-stretching conditions (near 5%, 10% and fractured) are cut from the prestretched large specimens. Then the notch-shaped smaller coupons are stretched by uniaxial tension up to through edge cracking observed. A dual-camera 3D-DIC system is utilized to measure both coupon face strain and thickness strain in the notch area at the same time.
Technical Paper

A Radial-Ply Tire's Three-Dimensional Transmissibility Analysis

2006-04-03
2006-01-0498
A nonlinear finite element passenger car radial-ply tire model was developed to investigate a tire's three-dimensional transmissibility in the X, Y, and Z directions. The reaction forces of the tire axle in longitudinal (X axis), lateral (Y axis), and vertical (Z axis) directions were recorded when the tire encountered a cleat, and then the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) algorithm was applied to extract tire's transient response information in the frequency domain. The result showed that this passenger car tire has clear peaks at 47-51 and 91-92 Hz longitudinal, 41-45 Hz lateral, and 80-83Hz vertical. An analytical rigid ring model was also formulated, based on the dynamic equations of the rigid ring tire model. The characteristic equations were obtained and solved for eigenvalues and eigenvectors, which represent tire's free vibration natural frequencies and mode shapes.
Technical Paper

A Rigid Shearographic Endosscopic for Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0488
Shearography has been proved to be highly effective for nondestructive testing (NDT), especially for NDT of composite materials used in the automotive and aerospace engineering. While its application in material testing and material research has already achieved more and more acceptance in research and industry, its applications are mainly limited to the inspection and testing of an object surface which can directly be observed by a shearographic camera. Its application is mainly limited to inspect and test an object surface which can directly be observed by a shearographic camera. It is impossible to inspect an internal surface of a container. If the reflected light of the surface, which has to be examined, can’t reach the shearographic camera there is still no inspection possible. This paper presents the development of a rigid shearographic endoscope. The development enabled shearographic inspection on both external and internal surfaces of objects.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of Simulation Parameters on Springback Prediction

2000-03-06
2000-01-1109
The use of commercial finite element analysis (FEA) software to perform stamping feasibility studies of automotive components has grown extensively over the last decade. Although product and process engineers have now come to rely heavily on results from FEA simulation for manufacturability of components, the prediction of springback has still not been perfected. Springback prediction for simple geometries is found to be quite accurate while springback prediction in complex components fails to compare with experimental results. Since most forming simulation FEA software uses a dynamic explicit solution method, the choice of various input parameters greatly affects the prediction of post formed stresses in the final component. Accurate stress prediction is critical for determination of springback, therefore this study focuses on the effects of some of the simulation parameters such as, element size, tool/loading speed and loading profile.
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