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Technical Paper

A Computational Study on the Critical Ignition Energy and Chemical Kinetic Feature for Li-Ion Battery Thermal Runaway

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and issues related to their thermal management and safety have been attracting extensive research interests. In this work, based on a recent thermal chemistry model, the phenomena of thermal runaway induced by a transient internal heat source are computationally investigated using a three-dimensional (3D) model built in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3. Incorporating the anisotropic heat conductivity and typical thermal chemical parameters available from literature, temperature evolution subject to both heat transfer from an internal source and the activated internal chemical reactions is simulated in detail. This paper focuses on the critical runaway behavior with a delay time around 10s. Parametric studies are conducted to identify the effects of the heat source intensity, duration, geometry, as well as their critical values required to trigger thermal runaway.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Vision-Based Lane Line Detection in Adverse Weather Conditions Using Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) Communication

Lane line detection is a very critical element for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Although, there has been significant amount of research dedicated to the detection and localization of lane lines in the past decade, there is still a gap in the robustness of the implemented systems. A major challenge to the existing lane line detection algorithms stems from coping with bad weather conditions (e.g. rain, snow, fog, haze, etc.). Snow offers an especially challenging environment, where lane marks and road boundaries are completely covered by snow. In these scenarios, on-board sensors such as cameras, LiDAR, and radars are of very limited benefit. In this research, the focus is on solving the problem of improving robustness of lane line detection in adverse weather conditions, especially snow. A framework is proposed that relies on using Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication to access reference images stored in the cloud.
Technical Paper

A New Calibration Method for Digital 3D Profilometry System

Recently the use of digital 3D profilometry in the automotive industries has become increasingly popular. The effective techniques for 3D shape measurement, especially for the measurement of complicated structures, have become more and more significant. Different optical inspective methods, such as 3D profilometry, laser scanning and Coordinate-Measuring Machine (CMM), have been applied for 3D shape measurement. Among these methods, 3D profilometry seems to be the fastest and inexpensive method with considerably accurate result, and it has simple setup and full field measuring ability compared with other techniques. In this paper, a novel calibration method for 3D-profilometry will be introduced. In this method, a multiple-step calibration procedure is utilized and best-fit calibration curves are obtained to improve measurement accuracy. A recursive algorithm is used for data evaluation, along with calibration data.
Technical Paper

An Application of Ant Colony Optimization to Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles

With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Journal Article

An Experimental Survey of Li-Ion Battery Charging Methods

Lithium-Ion batteries are the standard portable power solution to many consumers and industrial applications. These batteries are commonly used in laptop computers, heavy duty devices, unmanned vehicles, electric and hybrid vehicles, cell phones, and many other applications. Charging these batteries is a delicate process because it depends on numerous factors such as temperature, cell capacity, and, most importantly, the power and energy limits of the battery cells. Charging capacity, charging time and battery pack temperature variations are highly dependent on the charging method used. These three factors can be of special importance in applications with strict charging time requirements or with limited thermal management capabilities. In this paper, three common charging methods are experimentally studied and analyzed. Constant-current constant-voltage, the time pulsed charging method, and the multistage constant current charging methods were considered.
Technical Paper

Austempering Process for Carburized Low Alloy Steels

There is a continual need to apply heat treatment processes in innovative ways to optimize material performance. One such application studied in this research is carburizing followed by austempering of low carbon alloy steels, AISI 8620, AISI 8822 and AISI 4320, to produce components with high strength and toughness. This heat treatment process was applied in two steps; first, carburization of the surface of the parts, second, the samples were quenched from austenitic temperature at a rate fast enough to avoid the formation of ferrite or pearlite and then held at a temperature just above the martensite starting temperature to partially or fully form bainite. Any austenite which was not transformed during austempering, upon further cooling formed martensite or was present as retained austenite.
Technical Paper

Bendability Study of 7xxx Aluminum Alloy Based on the DIC Technique

Bendability is a critical characteristic of sheet metal during the stamping process in automobile industry. Bending operation plays an important role in the panels forming of vehicles. In this study, the recently developed “Incremental Bending” method was utilized to evaluate the ambient bendability of 7xxx series avoiding bending crack. A 3D digital image correlation (DIC) measurement system is improved to capture the displacement and strain information on the stretched side of the sheet samples. The background, experimental method and data post-procedure are introduced in detail. After several sequential images acquisition and data processing, the major strain histories on the stretch zone of the samples are measured. With different bending process and parameters, the location of peak strain and the surface major strain distribution were evaluated as a function of R/T ratio (the inner radius over sheet thickness).
Technical Paper

CAN Crypto FPGA Chip to Secure Data Transmitted Through CAN FD Bus Using AES-128 and SHA-1 Algorithms with A Symmetric Key

Robert Bosch GmBH proposed in 2012 a new version of communication protocol named as Controller area network with Flexible Data-Rate (CANFD), that supports data frames up to 64 bytes compared to 8 bytes of CAN. With limited data frame size of CAN message, and it is impossible to be encrypted and secured. With this new feature of CAN FD, we propose a hardware design - CAN crypto FPGA chip to secure data transmitted through CAN FD bus by using AES-128 and SHA-1 algorithms with a symmetric key. AES-128 algorithm will provide confidentiality of CAN message and SHA-1 algorithm with a symmetric key (HMAC) will provide integrity and authentication of CAN message. The design has been modeled and verified by using Verilog HDL – a hardware description language, and implemented successfully into Xilinx FPGA chip by using simulation tool ISE (Xilinx).
Technical Paper

Charge Capacity Versus Charge Time in CC-CV and Pulse Charging of Li-Ion Batteries

Due to their high energy density and low self-discharge rates, lithium-ion batteries are becoming the favored solution for portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. Lithium-Ion batteries require special charging methods that must conform to the battery cells' power limits. Many different charging methods are currently used, some of these methods yield shorter charging times while others yield more charge capacity. This paper compares the constant-current constant-voltage charging method against the time pulsed charging method. Charge capacity, charge time, and cell temperature variations are contrasted. The results allow designers to choose between these two methods and select their parameters to meet the charging needs of various applications.
Journal Article

Consequences of Deep Cycling 24 Volt Battery Strings

Deep charge and discharge cycling of 24 Volt battery strings composed of two 12 Volt VRLA batteries wired in series affects reliability and life expectancy. This is a matter of interest in vehicle power source applications. These cycles include those specific operational cases requiring the delivery of the full storage capacity during discharge. The concern here is related to applications where batteries serve as a primary power source and the energy content is an issue. It is a common practice for deep cycling a 24 volt battery string to simply add the specified limit voltages during charge and discharge for the individual 12 Volt batteries. In reality, the 12 Volt batteries have an inherent capacity variability and are not identical in their performance characteristics. The actual voltages of the individual 12 Volt batteries are not identical.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Explicit Finite Element Road Load Calculations for Vehicle Durability Simulations

Durability of automotive structures is a primary engineering consideration that is evaluated during a vehicle's design and development. In addition, it is a basic expectation of consumers, who demand ever-increasing levels of quality and dependability. Automakers have developed corporate requirements for vehicle system durability which must be met before a products is delivered to the customer. To provide early predictions of vehicle durability, prior to the construction and testing of prototypes, it is necessary to predict the forces generated in the vehicle structure due to road inputs. This paper describes an application of the “virtual proving ground” approach for vehicle durability load prediction for a vehicle on proving ground road surfaces. Correlation of the results of such a series of simulations will be described, and the modeling and simulation requirements to provide accurate simulations will be presented.
Technical Paper

Design Approach for Online Measuring the Distance of the Gap between the Contactors of Electric Relay Switch

The assembling accuracy of two contactors during the relay switch production is an important factor affecting the quality of relay. An embedded machine vision quality Inspection system has been developed for electric relay production line inspection. The proposed system can provide online feedback on the quality of the relays by measuring the distance of the gap between the contacts of them. Two CMOS imaging sensors are operated for image acquisition and the parallel working mode is realized under dual-channel mode. A red light illumination system has been adopted to eliminate the imaging noise from the reflection of the surfaces of copper sheet. Before the test, the features areas in the image of same type relay is selected as template and saved in the computer. During the inspection procedure, a rotation invariance detection scheme based on circular projection matching algorithm has been used for fast recognizing and locating detected object with the help of these feature areas.
Journal Article

Development of a Fork-Join Dynamic Scheduling Middle-Layer for Automotive Powertrain Control Software

Multicore microcontrollers are rapidly making their way into the automotive industry. We have adopted the Cilk approach (MIT 1994) to develop a pure ANSI C Fork-Join dynamic scheduling runtime middle-layer with a work-stealing scheduler targeted for automotive multicore embedded systems. This middle-layer could be running on top of any AUTOSAR compliant multicore RTOS. We recently have successfully integrated our runtime layer into parts of legacy Ford powertrain software at Ford Motor Company. We have used the 3-core AURIX multicore chip from Infineon and the multicore RTA-OS. For testing purposes, we have forked some parallelizable functions inside two periodic tasks in Ford legacy powertrain software to be dynamically scheduled and executed on the available cores. Our preliminary evaluation showed 1.3–1.4x speedups for these two forked tasks.
Technical Paper

ECU Development for a Formula SAE Engine

Motivated by experiences in the Formula SAE® competition, an engine control unit (ECU) was designed, developed and tested at Oakland University. A systems approach was taken in which the designs of the electronic architecture and software were driven by the mechanical requirements and operational needs of the engine, and by the need for dynamometer testing and tuning functions. An ECU, powered by a 68HC12 microcontroller was developed, including a four-layer circuit board designed for EMC. A GUI was written with Visual C++® for communication with a personal computer (PC). The ECU was systematically tested with an engine simulator, a 2L Ford engine and a 600cc Honda engine, and finally in Oakland's 2004 FSAE vehicle.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Trajectory Privacy in Autonomous Vehicular Communications

Autonomous vehicles might one day be able to implement privacy preserving driving patterns which humans may find too difficult to implement. In order to measure the difference between location privacy achieved by humans versus location privacy achieved by autonomous vehicles, this paper measures privacy as trajectory anonymity, as opposed to single location privacy or continuous privacy. This paper evaluates how trajectory privacy for randomized driving patterns could be twice as effective for autonomous vehicles using diverted paths compared to Google Map API generated shortest paths. The result shows vehicles mobility patterns could impact trajectory and location privacy. Moreover, the results show that the proposed metric outperforms both K-anonymity and KDT-anonymity.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Residual Stresses in Plastics and Composites By Shearography

This paper presents an application of shearography, an optical method for full-field strain measurement, for evaluating residual stresses in plastic/composite components. The approach is based on measuring the change in slope of the component surface, which is caused by the release of residual stresses, in the vicinity of a small, shallow blind-hole or of a small indentation made on the underside of the component during testing. The severity of slope-change, and hence the fringe density, gives a measure of the residual stresses in the component. This method does not require laborious mounting of strain gages or transducers whose stiffness could affect the accuracy of measurements, and is therefore practical for use in both production and field environment.
Technical Paper

Forming Limit Measurement Using a Multi-Sensor Digital Image Correlation System

A multi-sensor Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is employed to measure the deformation of metal specimens during tensile tests. The multi-sensor DIC system is capable of providing high quality contour and deformation data of a 3D object. Methodology and advantages of the multi-sensor DIC system is introduced. Tests have been done on steel and aluminum specimens to prove the performance of the system. With the help of the multi-sensor DIC system, we proposed our approaches to determine the forming limit based on shape change around the necking area instead of calculate the FLD based on the in-plane strains. With the employed system, all measurements are done post-deformation, no testing controlling mechanism, such as load force control or touching control, is required. The extracted data is analyzed and the result shows a possibility that we may be able to improve current technique for Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) measurement.
Technical Paper

GPU Implementation for Automatic Lane Tracking in Self-Driving Cars

The development of efficient algorithms has been the focus of automobile engineers since self-driving cars become popular. This is due to the potential benefits we can get from self-driving cars and how they can improve safety on our roads. Despite the good promises that come with self-driving cars development, it is way behind being a perfect system because of the complexity of our environment. A self-driving car must understand its environment before it makes decisions on how to navigate, and this might be difficult because the changes in our environment is non-deterministic. With the development of computer vision, some key problems in intelligent driving have been active research areas. The advances made in the field of artificial intelligence made it possible for researchers to try solving these problems with artificial intelligence. Lane detection and tracking is one of the critical problems that need to be effectively implemented.
Technical Paper

Improving Material Property Measurement by Using Multi-Camera Digital Image Correlation

In this work, a multi-camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is applied to measure the material properties of aluminum (5754) specimens. Such tests are usually done using 2D (one-camera) or 3D (two-camera) DIC systems. A multi-camera DIC system includes three or more cameras and inherits all the advantages of a conventional 3D DIC system (with two cameras) such as, full-field measurement, high accuracy and high speed. In addition, this system further improves the measured results by including redundant data. In this work, we will show the potential of this system to measure a variety of material properties at one time.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Vehicles Designed by Intelligent Students

The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization for college engineering students. They design, build, and compete with autonomous vehicles in events ranging from lane following, obstacle avoidance, platooning, to Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation. Technologies involved include electronic controls, computer-based vision systems, object detection, rangefinding, and global positioning. The real world applications are in intelligent transportation systems, the military, and manufacturing automation. Students have been creative and have learned a great deal. Industry recruiters have been highly supportive.