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Technical Paper

Correlation of Explicit Finite Element Road Load Calculations for Vehicle Durability Simulations

Durability of automotive structures is a primary engineering consideration that is evaluated during a vehicle's design and development. In addition, it is a basic expectation of consumers, who demand ever-increasing levels of quality and dependability. Automakers have developed corporate requirements for vehicle system durability which must be met before a products is delivered to the customer. To provide early predictions of vehicle durability, prior to the construction and testing of prototypes, it is necessary to predict the forces generated in the vehicle structure due to road inputs. This paper describes an application of the “virtual proving ground” approach for vehicle durability load prediction for a vehicle on proving ground road surfaces. Correlation of the results of such a series of simulations will be described, and the modeling and simulation requirements to provide accurate simulations will be presented.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Trajectory Privacy in Autonomous Vehicular Communications

Autonomous vehicles might one day be able to implement privacy preserving driving patterns which humans may find too difficult to implement. In order to measure the difference between location privacy achieved by humans versus location privacy achieved by autonomous vehicles, this paper measures privacy as trajectory anonymity, as opposed to single location privacy or continuous privacy. This paper evaluates how trajectory privacy for randomized driving patterns could be twice as effective for autonomous vehicles using diverted paths compared to Google Map API generated shortest paths. The result shows vehicles mobility patterns could impact trajectory and location privacy. Moreover, the results show that the proposed metric outperforms both K-anonymity and KDT-anonymity.
Technical Paper

GPU Implementation for Automatic Lane Tracking in Self-Driving Cars

The development of efficient algorithms has been the focus of automobile engineers since self-driving cars become popular. This is due to the potential benefits we can get from self-driving cars and how they can improve safety on our roads. Despite the good promises that come with self-driving cars development, it is way behind being a perfect system because of the complexity of our environment. A self-driving car must understand its environment before it makes decisions on how to navigate, and this might be difficult because the changes in our environment is non-deterministic. With the development of computer vision, some key problems in intelligent driving have been active research areas. The advances made in the field of artificial intelligence made it possible for researchers to try solving these problems with artificial intelligence. Lane detection and tracking is one of the critical problems that need to be effectively implemented.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Vehicles Designed by Intelligent Students

The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization for college engineering students. They design, build, and compete with autonomous vehicles in events ranging from lane following, obstacle avoidance, platooning, to Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation. Technologies involved include electronic controls, computer-based vision systems, object detection, rangefinding, and global positioning. The real world applications are in intelligent transportation systems, the military, and manufacturing automation. Students have been creative and have learned a great deal. Industry recruiters have been highly supportive.
Technical Paper

Keyless Message Authentication by Verifying Position and Velocity for Inter-Vehicle Communication

Inter-vehicle communication is being considered as a means for increasing safety and efficiency in future intelligent highways. However, the security in these future mobile ad hoc networks of vehicles should not be an after thought. The main challenges in developing such security schemes are the highly dynamic environment and the cost restrictions. In this paper, we propose a keyless scheme for message authentication in inter-vehicle communication by verifying the sender’s position and velocity. The approach relies on signal propagation time to authenticate messages being communicated. No infrastructure or dedicated hardware beyond standard GPS is required.
Technical Paper

Real Time 2D Pose Estimation for Pedestrian Path Estimation Using GPU Computing

Future fully autonomous and partially autonomous cars equipped with Advanced Driver Assistant Systems (ADAS) should assure safety for the pedestrian. One of the critical tasks is to determine if the pedestrian is crossing the road in the path of the ego-vehicle, in order to issue the required alerts for the driver or even safety breaking action. In this paper, we investigate the use of 2D pose estimators to determine the direction and speed of the pedestrian crossing the road in front of a vehicle. Pose estimation of body parts, such as right eye, left knee, right foot, etc… is used for determining the pedestrian orientation while tracking these key points between frames is used to determine the pedestrian speed. The pedestrian orientation and speed are the two required elements for the basic path estimation.
Technical Paper

Towards Video Sharing in Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure for Road Safety

Current implementations of vision-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are largely dependent on real-time vehicle camera data along with other sensory data available on-board such as radar, ultrasonic, and GPS data. This data, when accurately reported and processed, helps the vehicle avoid collisions using established ADAS applications such as Forward Collision Avoidance (FCA), Autonomous Cruise Control (ACC), Pedestrian Detection, etc. Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) over Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) provides basic sensory data from other vehicles or roadside infrastructure including position information of surrounding traffic. Exchanging rich data such as vision data between multiple vehicles, and between vehicles and infrastructure provides a unique opportunity to advance driver assistance applications and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS).