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Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Review of Pedestrian Impact Reconstruction

This paper presents a review on pedestrian impact reconstruction methodology and offers a comprehensive review of the literature. Several types of analyses are discussed which can be used to reconstruct the accident scenario using the facts collected from the scene. Inclusive in this review is the utilization of skid mark analysis, debris analysis, injury/damage match-up, trajectory analysis, nighttime visibility, and alcohol effects. The pedestrian impact reconstruction methodology is illustrated with a real world case example to point out different observations which can provide insight into the pedestrian/vehicle collision reconstruction approach. The literature review provides a broad foundation of information on pedestrian impact reconstruction and can be used to supplement the techniques presented in this paper in areas related to pedestrian impact. Research advances in the area of pedestrian impact reconstruction are also discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Study of In-Cylinder Mixing in a Natural Gas Powered Engine by Planar Laser-Induced Fluorcence

There is currently a large effort in industry to make natural gas a viable alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. While the use of natural gas offers several advantages such as reduced emissions and potentially higher efficiency, it also has some inherent difficulties. Among these is the challenge of producing a consistently homogeneous air/fuel mixture while retaining the advantages which accompany modern, multi-point, fuel injection systems. The purpose of the research described here is to investigate the in-cylinder mixture formation process in a port injected natural gas fueled engine. Planar laser-induced fluorescence has been used to produce qualitative air fuel ratio maps in the engine cylinder, in selected planes, throughout the intake and compression strokes. The process consists of impinging a sheet of ultraviolet laser light on various planes parallel to, and normal to, the cylinder axis.
Technical Paper

A Survey of Automotive Diagnostic Equipment and Procedures

The introduction of advanced electronic controls in passenger vehicles over the last decade has made traditional diagnostic methods inadequate to satisfy on- and off-board diagnostic needs. Due to the complexity of today's automotive control systems, it is imperative that appropriate diagnostic tools be developed that are capable of satisfying current and projected service and on-board requirements. The performance of available diagnostic and test equipment is still amenable to further improvement, especially as it pertains to the diagnosis of incipient and intermittent faults. It is our contention that significant improvement is possible in these areas. This paper briefly summarizes the evolution of on- and off-board diagnostic tools documented in the published literature, with the aim of giving the reader an understanding of their capabilities and limitations, and it further proposes alternative solutions that may be adopted as a basis for an advanced diagnostic instrument.
Technical Paper

Addressing Drivability in an Extended Range Electric Vehicle Running an Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS)

The EcoCAR Challenge team at The Ohio State University has designed an extended-range electric vehicle capable of 50 miles all-electric range via a 22 kWh lithium-ion battery pack, with range extension and limited parallel operation supplied by a 1.8 L dedicated E85 engine. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This vehicle design is implemented in a GM crossover utility vehicle as part of the EcoCAR Challenge. This paper explains the implementation of the vehicle's control strategy in order to maintain high efficiency and improve drivability. The vehicle control strategy employs both distinct operating modes and an Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) to find the most efficient operating point. The ECMS strategy does an online search for the most efficient torque split in order to meet the driver's command.
Journal Article

Advanced Control Strategies for a Roll Simulator - A Feedback Linearization Technique Explored

This paper presents a feedback linearization control technique as applied to a Roll Simulator. The purpose of the Roll Simulator is to reproduce in-field rollovers of ROVs and study occupant kinematics in a laboratory setting. For a system with known parameters, non-linear dynamics and trajectories, the feedback linearization algorithm cancels out the non-linearities such that the closed-loop dynamics behave in a linear fashion. The control inputs are computed values that are needed to attain certain desired motions. The computed values are a form of inverse dynamics or feed-forward calculation. With increasing system eigenvalue, the controller exhibits greater response time. This, however, puts a greater demand on the translational actuator. The controller also demonstrates that it is able to compensate for and reject a disturbance in force level.
Journal Article

An Iterative Markov Chain Approach for Generating Vehicle Driving Cycles

For simulation and analysis of vehicles there is a need to have a means of generating drive cycles which have properties similar to real world driving. A method is presented which uses measured vehicle speed from a number of vehicles to generate a Markov chain model. This Markov chain model is capable of generating drive cycles which match the statistics of the original data set. This Markov model is then used in an iterative fashion to generate drive cycles which match constraints imposed by the user. These constraints could include factors such number of stops, total distance, average speed, or maximum speed. In this paper, systematic analysis was done for a PHEV fleet which consists of 9 PHEVs that were instrumented using data loggers for a period of approximately two years. Statistical analysis using principal component analysis and a clustering approach was carried out for the real world velocity profiles.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Off-Line of Action Contact at the Tips of Gear Teeth

A mathematical basis for predicting loaded off-line of action contact at the tips of undermodified gear teeth is discussed. Two methods of solving the contact problem, using a modified simplex algorithm, are used to predict the load distribution. The methods differ in the compliance matrix formulation and the way they search for contact. The first method uses a tapered plate model and the second method uses a finite element model. The effects of off-line of action contact on load sharing, effective contact ratio and motion curves are shown.

Autonomous Ground Vehicles

In the near future, we will witness vehicles with the ability to provide drivers with several advanced safety and performance assistance features. Autonomous technology in ground vehicles will afford us capabilities like intersection collision warning, lane change warning, backup parking, parallel parking aids, and bus precision parking. Providing you with a practical understanding of this technology area, this innovative resource focuses on basic autonomous control and feedback for stopping and steering ground vehicles. Covering sensors, estimation, and sensor fusion to percept the vehicle motion and surrounding objects, this unique book explains the key aspects that makes autonomous vehicle behavior possible. Moreover, you find detailed examples of fusion and Kalman filtering.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Intake-Generated Flow Fields in I.C. Engines Using 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3-D PTV)

Flow fields generated during the intake stroke of a 4-stroke I.C. engine are studied experimentally using water analog simulation. The fluid is seeded by small flow tracer particles and imaged by two digital cameras at BDC. Using a 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry technique recently developed, the 3-D motion of these flow tracers is determined in a completely automated way using sophisticated image processing and PTV algorithms. The resulting 3-D velocity fields are ensemble averaged over a large number of successive cycles to determine the mean characteristics of the flow field as well as to estimate the turbulent fluctuations. This novel technique was applied to three different cylinder head configurations. Each configuration was run for conditions simulating idle operation two different ways: first with both inlet ports open and second with only the primary port open.
Journal Article

Development of a Non-Linear Clutch Damper Experiment Exhibiting Transient Dynamics

Many powertrain structural sub-systems are often tested under steady state conditions on a dynamometer or in a full vehicle. This process (while necessary) is costly and time intensive, especially when evaluating the effect of component properties on transient phenomena, such as driveline clunk. This paper proposes a laboratory experiment that provides the following: 1) a bench experiment that demonstrates transient behavior of a non-linear clutch damper under non-rotating conditions, 2) a process to efficiently evaluate multiple non-linear clutch dampers, and 3) generates benchmark time domain data for validation of non-linear driveline simulation codes. The design of this experiment is based on a previous experimental work on clunk. A commercially available non-linear clutch damper is selected and the experiment is sized accordingly. The stiffness and hysteresis properties of the clutch damper are assumed from the measured quasi-static torque curve provided by the manufacturer.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Analysis of Layshaft Gears in Automotive Transmission

In this paper, we will present parametric results of performing dynamic analysis of layshaft gear trains typically used in automotive transmissions with emphasis on the vibratory response due to transmission error excitation. A three-dimensional multiple degrees of freedom lumped parameter dynamic model of a generic layshaft type geared rotor system (with three parallel rotating shafts coupled by two sets of gear pairs) has been formulated analytically. The model includes the effects of both rotational and translational displacements of each gears, and bounce and pitch motions of the counter-shaft. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are computed numerically by solving an eigenvalue problem derived from applying harmonic solutions to the equations of motion. The complete set of mode shapes are then used in forced response calculations based on the modal expansion method to predict gear accelerations, dynamic transmission errors, mesh force and bearing loads.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flow on Helmholtz Resonator Acoustics: A Three-Dimensional Computational Study vs. Experiments

The effectiveness of the Helmholtz resonator as a narrow band acoustic attenuator, particularly at low frequencies, makes it a highly desirable component in a wide variety of applications, including engine breathing systems. The present study investigates the influence of mean flow grazing over the neck of such a configuration on its acoustic performance both computationally and experimentally. Three-dimensional unsteady, turbulent, and compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by using the Pressure-Implicit-Splitting-of-Operators algorithm in STAR-CD to determine the time-dependent flow field. The introduction of mean flow in the main duct is shown to reduce the peak transmission loss and shift the fundamental resonance frequency to a higher value.
Technical Paper

Empirical-Numerical Simulation Technique for Improving the Quality of Rolled Rods by Roll Pass Design

Improper roll pass designs can lead to either underfill which results in the formation of hairline cracks on the surface of the finished bars or overfill which results in roll overloading and the formation of fins. Therefore to reduce downtime, and improve yield and quality, it becomes important to design an acceptable roll pass in reasonable time. This paper presents a methodology for roll pass design which uses a three dimensional finite element technique along with an empirical procedure to arrive at an iterative scheme for reducing the number of passes and improving metal flow in the passes. This methodology is applied to improving an existing seven pass square - to - round rolling sequence, resulting in the reduction of the number of passes and improved distributions of effective strains in the rolled product.
Technical Paper

Engine Vibration Control Using Passive, Active, and Adaptive Hydraulic Mount Systems

Performance characteristics of passive, active, and broadband adaptive engine mounts are compared over a wide frequency range up to 250 Hz in the context of a quarter-vehicle heave model. The optimal damping coefficient of a rubber-metal mount is determined using random vibration theory. The small-scale active mount employs proportional-plus-integral control based on linear optimal control theory. The new adaptive hydraulic mount system implements an on-off damping control mode by using engine intake-manifold vacuum and a microprocessor-based solenoid valve controller. Through analytical methods, it is observed that this adaptive mount provides most desirable dynamic performance with regard to the engine-bounce control, shock absorption and vibration isolation performance requirements. Although technical prospects of the proposed adaptive system appear promising, in-situ performance needs to be evaluated.
Technical Paper

Establishing Occupant Response Metrics on a Roll Simulator

This paper presents the results of an in-depth study of the measurement of occupant kinematic response on the S-E-A Roll Simulator. This roll simulator was built to provide an accurate and repeatable test procedure for the evaluation of occupant protection and restraint systems during roll events within a variety of occupant compartments. In the present work this roll simulator was utilized for minimum-energy, or threshold type, rollover events of recreational off-highway vehicles (ROVs). Input profiles for these tests were obtained through a separate study involving autonomous full vehicle tests [1]. During simulated roll events anthropomorphic test device (ATD) responses were measured using on-board high speed video, an optical three-dimensional motion capture system (OCMS) and an array of string potentiometers.
Technical Paper

Estimate of IC Engine Torque from Measurement of Crankshaft Angular Position

Crankshaft angular position measurements are fundamental to all modern automotive engines. These measurements are required to control fuel injection timing as well as ignition timing. However, many other functions can be performed from such measurements through the use of advanced signal processing. These additional functions are essentially diagnostic in nature although there is potential for substitution of primary fuel and ignition control functions. This paper illustrates the application of crankshaft angular position measurement to the estimation of individual cylinder indicated and/or brake torque in IC engines from measurement of crankshaft position/velocity.
Technical Paper

Finite Modeling of Sheet Stamping Operations

A wide variety of choices confront the potential user of finite element modeling (FEM) for sheet forming analysis. In the first part of this paper, a brief summary of the basic formulations available and sample references to them are provided. Several kinds of finite element models have been developed for analyzing sheet forming operations at OSU and in the Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. These variations began with in-plane FEM and grew into 3-D versions. In the second part of this paper, some key conclusions from these developments will be summarized. More recently, a section analysis program (SHEET-S) has been prepared and transferred to industry. The capabilities and limitations of SHEET-S will be presented in greater detail, including comparisons with experiments and industrial trials.
Technical Paper

IVHS~Ohio: A state initiative

The state of Ohio has recognized the importance and potential impact of Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems (IVHS) to its citizens and business enterprises. In response to the identified need, a small group of individuals representing Federal and state government, academia, and the private sector have worked together over the past year to initiate a statewide IVHS effort. This initiative is referred to as IVHS~Ohio. The objective of the effort is to "coordinate and foster a public, private, and academic partnership to make the urban and rural surface transportation system in the state of Ohio significantly safer, more effective, and more efficient by accelerating the identification, development, integration, and deployment of IVHS technologies." A May 1993 symposium was attended by over 220 people from government, academia, and the private sector. The result was a unanimous decision to establish a statewide IVHS program.
Journal Article

Ignition Delay Correlation for Predicting Autoignition of a Toluene Reference Fuel Blend in Spark Ignition Engines

An ignition delay correlation was developed for a toluene reference fuel (TRF) blend that is representative of automotive gasoline fuels exhibiting two-stage ignition. Ignition delay times for the autoignition of a TRF 91 blend with an antiknock index of 91 were predicted through extensive chemical kinetic modeling in CHEMKIN for a constant volume reactor. The development of the correlation involved determining nonlinear least squares curve fits for these ignition delay predictions corresponding to different inlet pressures and temperatures, a number of fuel-air equivalence ratios, and a range of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. In addition to NO control, EGR is increasingly being utilized for managing combustion phasing in spark ignition (SI) engines to mitigate knock. Therefore, along with other operating parameters, the effects of EGR on autoignition have been incorporated in the correlation to address the need for predicting ignition delay in SI engines operating with EGR.
Technical Paper

Improving Steering Feel for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) plans to evolve the state-of-the-art of steering system modeling for driving simulators with the ultimate goal being the development of a high fidelity steering feel model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). The VRTC plans on developing reliable research tools that can be used to determine the necessary features for a steering model that will provide good objective and subjective steering feel. This paper reviews past and continuing work conducted at the VRTC and provides a plan for future work that will achieve this goal.