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Technical Paper

A Physically-Based, Lumped-Parameter Model of an Electrically-Heated Three-Way Catalytic Converter

2012-04-16
2012-01-1240
The impact of cold-start emissions is well known on conventional and hybrid electric vehicles. Plug-in electric vehicles offer a unique challenge in that there are opportunities for prolonged engine-off conditions which can lead to catalyst cooling and elevated emissions on engine re-start. This research investigates the development and validation of a system for controlling emissions under these conditions, with an emphasis on a catalytic converter model used for design and analysis. The model is a one-dimensional, lumped-parameter model of a three-way catalytic converter developed in Matlab/Simulink. The catalyst is divided into discrete, axial elements and each discrete element contains states for the temperatures of the gas, substrate, and can wall. Heat transfer mechanisms are modeled from physics-based equations.
Technical Paper

A Safety and Security Testbed for Assured Autonomy in Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1291
Connectivity and autonomy in vehicles promise improved efficiency, safety and comfort. The increasing use of embedded systems and the cyber element bring with them many challenges regarding cyberattacks which can seriously compromise driver and passenger safety. Beyond penetration testing, assessment of the security vulnerabilities of a component must be done through the design phase of its life cycle. This paper describes the development of a benchtop testbed which allows for the assurance of safety and security of components with all capabilities from Model-in-loop to Software-in-loop to Hardware-in-loop testing. Environment simulation is obtained using the AV simulator, CARLA which provides realistic scenarios and sensor information such as Radar, Lidar etc. MATLAB runs the vehicle, powertrain and control models of the vehicle allowing for the implementation and testing of customized models and algorithms.
Technical Paper

A Unified, Scalable and Replicable Approach to Development, Implementation and HIL Evaluation of Autonomous Shuttles for Use in a Smart City

2019-04-02
2019-01-0493
As the technology in autonomous vehicle and smart city infrastructure is developing fast, the idea of smart city and automated driving has become a present and near future reality. Both Highway Chauffeur and low speed shuttle applications are tested recently in different research to test the feasibility of autonomous vehicles and automated driving. Based on examples available in the literature and the past experience of the authors, this paper proposes the use of a unified computing, sensing, communication and actuation architecture for connected and automated driving. It is postulated that this unified architecture will also lead to a scalable and replicable approach. Two vehicles representing a passenger car and a small electric shuttle for smart mobility in a smart city are chosen as the two examples for demonstrating scalability and replicability.
Technical Paper

Adaptation of TruckSim Models to Simulate Experimental Heavy Truck Hard Braking Test Data Under Various Levels of Brake Disablement

2010-10-05
2010-01-1920
This research focuses on the development and performance of analytical models to simulate a tractor-semitrailer in straight-ahead braking. The simulations were modified and tuned to simulate full-treadle braking with all brakes functioning correctly, as well as the behavior of the tractor-semitrailer rig under full braking with selected brakes disabled. The models were constructed in TruckSim and based on a tractor-semitrailer used in dry braking performance testing. The full-scale vehicle braking research was designed to define limits for engineering estimates on stopping distance when Class 8 air-braked vehicles experience partial degradation of the foundation brake system. In the full scale testing, stops were conducted from 30 mph and 60 mph, with the combination loaded to 80,000 lbs (gross combined weight or GCW), half payload, and with the tractor-semitrailer unladen (lightly loaded vehicle weight, or LLVW).
Journal Article

Analysis and Mathematical Modeling of Car-Following Behavior of Automated Vehicles for Safety Evaluation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0142
With the emergence of Driving Automation Systems (SAE levels 1-5), the necessity arises for methods of evaluating these systems. However, these systems are much more challenging to evaluate than traditional safety features (SAE level 0). This is because an understanding of the Driving Automation system’s response in all possible scenarios is desired, but prohibitive to comprehensively test. Hence, this paper attempts to evaluate one such system, by modeling its behavior. The model generated parameters not only allow for objective comparison between vehicles, but also provide a more complete understanding of the system. The model can also be used to extrapolate results by simulating other scenarios without the need for conducting more tests. In this paper, low speed automated driving (also known as Traffic Jam Assist (TJA)) is studied. This study focused on the longitudinal behavior of automated vehicles while following a lead vehicle (LV) in traffic jam scenarios.
Journal Article

Analysis of Motor Vibration Isolation System with Focus on Mount Resonances for Application to Electric Vehicles

2015-06-15
2015-01-2364
The vibration isolation effectiveness of powertrain mount configurations is examined for electric vehicle application by considering the effect introduced by internal mount resonances. Unlike internal combustion engines where mounts are typically designed only for static support and low frequency dynamics, electric motors have higher excitation frequencies in a range where mount resonances often occur. The problem is first analytically formulated by considering a simple 3-dimensional powertrain system, and the vibration isolation effectiveness significantly deteriorates at the mount resonance(s). It is shown that by modifying the mount shape, the mount resonance(s) can be shifted while maintaining the same static rate, tuning the frequency away from any engine excitation or natural frequencies. Further, internal mount resonances are utilized to improve vibration isolation over a narrow frequency range, using non-identical mounts to split mount resonance peaks.
Technical Paper

Benchmarking Computational Time of Dynamic Programming for Autonomous Vehicle Powertrain Control

2020-04-14
2020-01-0968
Dynamic programming (DP) has been used for optimal control of hybrid powertrain and vehicle speed optimization particularly in design phase for over a couple of decades. With the advent of autonomous and connected vehicle technologies, automotive industry is getting closer to implementing predictive optimal control strategies in real time applications. The biggest challenge in implementation of optimal controls is the limitation on hardware which includes processor speed, IO speed, and random access memory. Due to the use of autonomous features, modern vehicles are equipped with better onboard computational resources. In this paper we present a comparison between multiple hardware options for dynamic programming. The optimal control problem considered, is the optimization of travel time and fuel economy by tuning the torque split ratio and vehicle speed while maintaining charge sustaining operation.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Design and Implementation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0496
In this manuscript a design and implementation of CACC on an autonomous vehicle platform (2017 Ford Fusion) is presented. The developed CACC controls the intervehicle distance between the target vehicle and ego vehicle using a feedforward PD controller. In this design the feedforward information is the acceleration of the target vehicle which is communicated through Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) modem. The manuscript explains the detailed architecture of the designed CACC with used hardware and methods for the both simulation and experiments. Also, an approach to overcome detection failures at the curved roads is presented to improve overall quality of the designed CACC system. As a result, the initial simulation and experimental results with the designed CACC system is presented in the paper. The presented results indicate that CACC improves the car following performance of the ego vehicle as compared to the classical Adaptive Cruise Controller.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Collision Avoidance in a Connected Vehicle Environment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0488
Connected vehicle (CV) technology is among the most heavily researched areas in both the academia and industry. The vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle to pedestrian (V2P) communication capabilities enable critical situational awareness. In some cases, these vehicle communication safety capabilities can overcome the shortcomings of other sensor safety capabilities because of external conditions such as 'No Line of Sight' (NLOS) or very harsh weather conditions. Connected vehicles will help cities and states reduce traffic congestion, improve fuel efficiency and improve the safety of the vehicles and pedestrians. On the road, cars will be able to communicate with one another, automatically transmitting data such as speed, position, and direction, and send alerts to each other if a crash seems imminent. The main focus of this paper is the implementation of Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) for connected vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of Virtual Fuel Economy Trend Evaluation Process

2019-04-02
2019-01-0510
With the advancement of the autonomous vehicle development, the different possibilities of improving fuel economy have increased significantly by changing the driver or powertrain response under different traffic conditions. Development of new fuel-efficient driving strategies requires extensive experiments and simulations in traffic. In this paper, a fuel efficiency simulator environment with existing simulator software such as Simulink, Vissim, Sumo, and CarSim is developed in order to reduce the overall effort required for developing new fuel-efficient algorithms. The simulation environment is created by combining a mid-sized sedan MATLAB-Simulink powertrain model with a realistic microscopic traffic simulation program. To simulate the traffic realistically, real roads from urban and highway sections are modeled in the simulator with different traffic densities.
Technical Paper

Development of the Design of a Plug-In Hybrid-Electric Vehicle for the EcoCAR 3 Competition

2016-04-05
2016-01-1257
The design of a performance hybrid electric vehicle includes a wide range of architecture possibilities. A large part of the design process is identifying reasonable vehicle architectures and vehicle performance capabilities. The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team designed a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of reducing the environmental impact of the vehicle, the Ohio State Camaro has been designed with a 44-mile all-electric range. It also features an 18.9 kWh Li-ion energy storage system, a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85) fuel, a 5-speed automated manual transmission, and a 150 kW peak electric machine. This report details the design and modeling process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 1 of the competition. The process included researching the customer needs of the vehicle, determining team design goals, initial modeling, and selecting a vehicle architecture.
Technical Paper

Discrete-time Robust PD Controlled System with DOB/CDOB Compensation for High Speed Autonomous Vehicle Path Following

2019-04-02
2019-01-0674
In recent years, there has been increasing research on automated driving technology. Autonomous vehicle path following performance is one of significant consideration. This paper presents discrete time design of robust PD controlled system with disturbance observer (DOB) and communication disturbance observer (CDOB) compensation to enhance autonomous vehicle path following performance. Although always implemented on digital devices, DOB and CDOB structure are usually designed in continuous time in the literature and also in our previous work. However, it requires high sampling rate for continuous-time design block diagram to automatically convert to corresponding discrete-time controller using rapid controller prototyping systems. In this paper, direct discrete time design is carried out. Digital PD feedback controller is designed based on the nominal plant using the proposed parameter space approach.
Journal Article

Driver’s Response Prediction Using Naturalistic Data Set

2019-04-02
2019-01-0128
Evaluating the safety of Autonomous Vehicles (AV) is a challenging problem, especially in traffic conditions involving dynamic interactions. A thorough evaluation of the vehicle’s decisions at all possible critical scenarios is necessary for estimating and validating its safety. However, predicting the response of the vehicle to dynamic traffic conditions can be the first step in the complex problem of understanding vehicle’s behavior. This predicted response of the vehicle can be used in validating vehicle’s safety. In this paper, models based on Machine Learning were explored for predicting and classifying driver’s response. The Naturalistic Driving Study dataset (NDS), which is part of the Strategic Highway Research Program-2 (SHRP2) was used for training and validating these Machine Learning models.
Journal Article

Dynamic Analysis of a Hydraulic Body Mount with Amplitude and Preload Dependence

2017-06-05
2017-01-1909
The application of hydraulic body mounts between a pickup truck frame and cab to reduce freeway hop and smooth road shake has been documented in literature and realized in production vehicles. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of these devices, often through iterative prototype evaluation. Component dynamic characterization has also shown that these devices exhibit significant dependence to preload and dynamic amplitude; however, analysis of these devices has not addressed these dependences. This paper aims to understand the amplitude and preload dependence on the spectrally-varying properties of a production hydraulic body mount. This double-pumping, three-spring mount construction has a shared compliant element between the two fluid-filled chambers.
Technical Paper

Effects of Thermal and Auxiliary Dynamics on a Fuel Cell Based Range Extender

2018-04-03
2018-01-1311
Batteries are useful in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) to fulfill transient demands and for regenerative braking. Efficient energy management strategies paired with optimal powertrain design further improves the efficiency. In this paper, a new methodology to simultaneously size the propulsive elements and optimize the power-split strategy of a Range Extended Battery Electric Vehicle (REBEV), using a Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), is proposed and preliminary studies on the effects of the driving mission profile and the auxiliary power loads on the sizing and optimal performance of the powertrain design are carried out. Dynamic Programming is used to compute the optimal energy management strategy for a given driving mission profile, providing a global optimal solution.
Technical Paper

Engine-in-the-Loop Study of a Hierarchical Predictive Online Controller for Connected and Automated Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0592
This paper presents a cohesive set of engine-in-the-loop (EIL) studies examining the use of hierarchical model-predictive control for fuel consumption minimization in a class-8 heavy-duty truck intended to be equipped with Level-1 connectivity/automation. This work is motivated by the potential of connected/automated vehicle technologies to reduce fuel consumption in both urban/suburban and highway scenarios. The authors begin by presenting a hierarchical model-predictive control scheme that optimizes multiple chassis and powertrain functionalities for fuel consumption. These functionalities include: vehicle routing, arrival/departure at signalized intersections, speed trajectory optimization, platooning, predictive optimal gear shifting, and engine demand torque shaping. The primary optimization goal is to minimize fuel consumption, but the hierarchical controller explicitly accounts for other key objectives/constraints, including operator comfort and safe inter-vehicle spacing.
Journal Article

Ensuring Fuel Economy Performance of Commercial Vehicle Fleets Using Blockchain Technology

2019-04-02
2019-01-1078
In the past, research on blockchain technology has addressed security and privacy concerns within intelligent transportation systems for critical V2I and V2V communications that form the backbone of Internet of Vehicles. Within trucking industry, a recent trend has been observed towards the use of blockchain technology for operations. Industry stakeholders are particularly looking forward to refining status quo contract management and vehicle maintenance processes through blockchains. However, the use of blockchain technology for enhancing vehicle performance in fleets, especially while considering the fact that modern-day intelligent vehicles are prone to cyber security threats, is an area that has attracted less attention. In this paper, we demonstrate a case study that makes use of blockchains to securely optimize the fuel economy of fleets that do package pickup and delivery (P&D) in urban areas.
Technical Paper

FMVSS 126 Sine with Dwell ESC Regulation Test for Autonomous Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1011
Electronic stability control (ESC) has been an essential part of road vehicle safety for almost three decades. In April of 2007, the United States federal government issued a regulation to test the validity of ESC in development vehicles, and the regulation is called Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 126 in North America (NA), and an equivalent test in other countries outside of NA called ECE13-H (Economic Commission for Europe). While these standards have been used to certify ESC in development passenger cars for over a decade, this has not yet been scrutinized for the application of autonomous vehicles. Autonomous cars have sensors and control systems which can be used to improve ESC, where commercial standard vehicles do not.
Technical Paper

Flight Investigation of Natural Laminar Flow on the Bellanca Skyrocket II

1983-02-01
830717
Two major concerns have inhibited the use of natural laminar flow (NLF) for viscous drag reduction on production aircraft. These are the concerns of achieveability of NLF on practical airframe surfaces, and maintainability in operating environments. Previous research in this area left a mixture of positive and negative conclusions regarding these concerns. While early (pre-1950) airframe construction methods could not achieve NLF criteria for waviness, several modern construction methods (composites for example) can achieve the required smoothness. This paper presents flight experiment data on the achieveability and maintainability of NLF on a high-performance, single-propeller, composite airplane, the Bellanca Skyrocket II. The significant contribution of laminar flow to the performance of this airplane was measured. Observations of laminar flow in the propeller slipstream are discussed, as are the effects of insect contamination on the wing.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop, Traffic-in-the-Loop and Software-in-the-Loop Autonomous Vehicle Simulation for Mobility Studies

2020-04-14
2020-01-0704
This paper focuses on finding and analyzing the relevant parameters affecting traffic flow when autonomous vehicles are introduced for ride hailing applications and autonomous shuttles are introduced for circulator applications in geo-fenced urban areas. For this purpose, different scenarios have been created in traffic simulation software that model the different levels of autonomy, traffic density, routes, and other traffic elements. Similarly, software that specializes in vehicle dynamics, physical limitations, and vehicle control has been used to closely simulate realistic autonomous vehicle behavior under such scenarios. Different simulation tools for realistic autonomous vehicle simulation and traffic simulation have been merged together in this paper, creating a realistic simulator with Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL), Traffic-in-the-Loop (TiL), and Software in-the-Loop (SiL) simulation capabilities.
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