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Technical Paper

A New Diagnostic Method of Knocking in a Spark-Ignition Engine Using the Wavelet Transform

The wavelet transform, which is a well-known and remarkable way of processing unsteady signals, is considered to surpass Fourier analysis and is applied in various fields. In this study, we analyze the pressure signal in a spark-ignition engine and the vibration of the engine block under the knocking conditions when knocking is caused. We then propose a new knocking detection method which we call wavelet pattern matching and is based on the frequency characteristics of the knocking signal to detect the knocking. Our experiments demonstrate the advantages of our approach and the main results obtained can been summarized as follows: 1) Knocking resonant frequencies decrease with time, and this phenomenon is useful for the knocking detection. 2) The wavelet pattern matching method which is based on the frequency characteristics of the knocking is very useful for knocking detection, even when the noise level is higher than the knocking level.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic of Knocking by Wavelet Transform Method Utilizing Real Signal as Mother Wavelet

It is well known that the wavelet transform is a useful time-frequency analysis method for an unsteady signal and major attention has been focused on the selection of the mother wavelet (MW) because the MW plays an important role in the wavelet transform. In this study, we analyze the pressure signal in a spark-ignition engine and the vibration of the engine block measured by a knock sensor under the knocking conditions when knocking is caused. We then propose a new method of the knocking detection that utilizes the knocking signal measured with a knock sensor as a MW. We call this method the Instantaneous Correlation Method (ICM). The degree of similarity between the MW and the vibration of the engine block was judged and only the knocking signal from the vibration of the engine block was extracted. The results obtained here show that the method proposed in this study is useful for knocking detection even if the engine speed is very high of 6000rpm.
Journal Article

High-Pressure Hydrogen Jet and Combustion Characteristics in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Engine

Hydrogen spark-ignition (SI) engines based on direct-injection (DI) promise significant advantages in terms of thermal efficiency and power output, as well as a means of overcoming problems related to knocking, backfiring, and pre-ignition. In a DI hydrogen engine, the fuel/air mixture is formed by injecting a jet of hydrogen into the air inside the combustion chamber. An Ar-ion laser beam was used as a light source to visualize the hydrogen jet in a constant-volume chamber. This allowed us to study the structure of the jet in addition to other physical processes resulting from hydrogen gas injection. Combustion experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder SI optical research engine equipped with a DI system to detect the early kernel growth assisted by the spark, as well as flame propagation. Various equivalence ratios and fuel injection timings were analyzed to identify the effects on combustion.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Observations of Chemiluminescence in Turbulent Premixed Flames Using a Spark Plug Sensor with an Optical Fiber

The purpose of this study was to characterize the air/fuel ratio (AFR) of turbulent premixed flames in a spark-ignition (SI) engine. We developed a spark plug sensor with an optical fiber to detect the chemiluminescence spectra, specifically the intensity of the spectral lines related to OH*, CH*, and C2* free radicals. The sensor was composed of a sapphire window and optical fiber and is applicable to automobile SI engines. Measurements of the chemiluminescence intensity from OH*, CH*, and C2* radicals were obtained in turbulent premixed flames with a propane-air mixture for different AFRs in a compression-expansion machine (CEM). The performance of the spark plug sensor was compared with a Cassegrain reflector using an intensified charge-coupled device. The results showed good agreement with measurements obtained using the Cassegrain reflector. The spark plug sensor was shown to be useful for measuring chemiluminescence of turbulent premixed flames in an SI engine.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Simulation of Turbulent Flame Propagation in a Spark Ignition Engine by Using Fractal Burning Model

The several burning models based on the wrinkled laminar flame concept had been proposed and applied to the turbulent premixed flame in a spark ignition engine. Fractal burning model is one of the flamelet burning models. However the formulations of fractal characteristics such as fractal dimension, inner cutoff scale and outer cutoff scale weren't established. These formulations based on the results of the fractal analysis in a constant volume vessel and a spark ignition engine were proposed in this study. The fractal dimension is expressed as a function of non-dimensional turbulence intensity and the density of mixture. Non-dimensional inner cutoff scale is expressed a function of Karlovitz number. Outer cutoff scale is equal to the flame radius. Finally the quasidimensional model for turbulent combustion was performed by using the fractal burning model with our formulations.
Technical Paper

Turbulent Premixed Flames Under Lean Conditions Studied with Ion Current Measurement in a Homogeneous Charge Spark-Ignition Engine

The structures of the turbulent premixed flame in the engine cylinder under lean burn conditions were investigated using ion probe method. The flow fields were measured with an LDA for two tumble ratios and two compression ratios. And ion-current signal was analyzed to discuss the interaction between the turbulence and the flame structure. The effects of turbulence and equivalence ratio on the characteristic values of the turbulent flame, that is to say number of ion-current peaks, thickness of flame front and thickness of burning zone of the flamelet, were investigated. In normal combustion, the structure of the turbulent flame front is almost the same as the laminar flame. In the lean limit, the flamelet is broken and stretched and then the structure may change.