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Technical Paper

Effect of Motor Oil Composition on Engine Performance

This paper discusses a laboratory evaluation of both ashless and ash-containing motor oils for use in modern internal combustion engines. The conclusion based on data from recognized laboratory engine tests is that ash-containing additives at the present state-of-the-art provide greater flexibility for overall quality in formulating motor oils. In addition, certain ash-containing materials offer a superior balance of overall crankcase lubricant performance.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Butadiene-Styrene Viscosity Index Improver

Extensive laboratory and field test data are presented on multigrade motor oils formulated with a new VI improver developed by Phillips Petroleum Company. This VI improver is a hydrogenated copolymer of butadiene and styrene. Its unique features are outstanding shear and oxidation stability, and excellent performance in Caterpillar 1-H diesel tests. Attention is focused not only on the unique features but on its overall performance in multigraded oils. Although this VI improver was originally developed for passenger car multigrade oils, data are present to show application in truck multigrade oils, high VI hydraulic oils, automatic transmission fluids, farm tractor hydraulic fluids, and use as a VI improver and thickener in several synthetic oils.
Technical Paper

Improved Greases Through Use of High Density Polyethylene

Improved automotive chassis, body, and multipurpose greases can be formulated using high density polyethylene. These greases provide excellent frictional properties in automotive suspension bearings as indicated by both bench and field tests. Steering torque measurements have shown reductions in suspension friction up to 35%, compared to grease containing no polymer. Oxidation tests under both static and dynamic conditions show high stability for this grease component. High density polyethylene also improves the apparent viscosity versus temperature relationship, thereby functioning similarly to a viscosity index improver. Greases containing high density polyethylene as the sole thickener or as a major component can give 100,000 miles of satisfactory performance in sutomotive ball joint application.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Temporary and Permanent Shear with the Instron Capillary Rheometer

The Instron Capillary Rheometer, with special extremely fine capillaries, has been used to measure the apparent viscosities of non-Newtonian polymer-thickened multigrade oils at temperatures from 100°F to 320°F and shear rates to 106 sec-1. The same apparatus can produce permanent shear under extreme conditions. Temporary shear data at 100°, 150°, 210°, 280° and 320°F are reported for eight commercial oils and five experimental oils formulated with different VI improvers in the same base oil. Permanent shear data are given for a larger set of oils.