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Technical Paper

A Computer Code for S.I. Engine Control and Powertrain Simulation

2000-03-06
2000-01-0938
A computer code oriented to S.I. engine control and powertrain simulation is presented. The model, developed in Matlab-Simulink® environment, predicts engine and driveline states, taking into account the dynamics of air and fuel flows into the intake manifold and the transient response of crankshaft, transmission gearing and vehicle. The model, derived from the code O.D.E.C.S. for the optimal design of engine control strategies now in use at Magneti Marelli, is suitable both for simulation analysis and to achieve optimal engine control strategies for minimum consumption with constraints on exhaust emissions and driveability via mathematical programming techniques. The model is structured as an object oriented modular framework and has been tested for simulating powertrain system and control performance with respect to any given transient and control strategy.
Technical Paper

A Mesh Based Approach for Unconventional Unmanned Airship Added Masses Computation

2013-09-17
2013-01-2191
Added masses computation is a crucial aspect to be considered when the density of a body moving in a fluid is comparable to the density of the fluid displaced: added mass can be defined as the inertia added to a system because an accelerating or decelerating body displaces some volume of neighboring fluid as it moves through it. The motion of vehicles like airships and ships can be addressed only by keeping into account the effect of added masses, while in case of aircrafts and helicopters this contribution is usually neglected. Lighter Than Air flight simulation, unmanned airships flight control system, airships flight dynamics are typical applications in which added masses are fundamental to achieve an effective and realistic modeling. A panel based method using the mesh of an airship external shape is developed to account for the added massed.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Methodology for the Multi-Objective Optimization of an Automotive DI Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0019
Nowadays, an automotive DI Diesel engine is demanded to provide an adequate power output together with limit-complying NOx and soot emissions so that the development of a specific combustion concept is the result of a trade-off between conflicting objectives. In other words, the development of a low-emission DI diesel combustion concept could be mathematically represented as a multi-objective optimization problem. In recent years, genetic algorithm and CFD simulations were successfully applied to this kind of problem. However, combining GA optimization with actual CFD-3D combustion simulations can be too onerous since a large number of simulations is usually required, resulting in a high computational cost and, thus, limiting the suitability of this method for industrial processes.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study Towards Possible Improvements of Common Rail Injectors

2002-03-04
2002-01-0500
The aim of this work is to propose modifications to the managing of the 1st generation Common Rail injectors in order to reduce actuation time towards multiple injection strategies. The current Common Rail injector driven by 1st ECU generation is capable of operating under stable conditions with a minimum dwell between two consecutive injections of 1.8 ms. This limits the possibility in using proper and efficient injection strategies for emission control purposes. A previous numerical study, performed by the electro-fluid-mechanical model built up by Matlab-Simulink environment, highlighted different area where injector may be improved with particular emphasis on electronic driving circuit and components design. Experiments carried out at injector Bosch test-bench showed that a proper control of the solenoid valve allowed reducing drastically the standard deviation during the pilot pulses.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Software Environment for UAV Missions Support

2013-09-17
2013-01-2189
This paper describes the design and development of a virtual environment conceived to support flight operations of an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) used for wind mapping in the proximity of existing or planned wind farms. The virtual environment can be used in pre-flight briefings aiming to define a trajectory from a list of waypoints, to change and eventually re-plan the mission in case of intersection with no fly zones, to simulate the mission, and to preview images/videos taken from the UAV on-board cameras. During flight, the tool can be used to compute the wind speed along the trajectory by analyzing the data streaming from the UAV. The integration of Augmented Reality (AR) techniques in the flight environment provides assistance in remotely piloted landings, and allows visualizing flight and environmental information that are critical to the mission.
Journal Article

Combustion Indexes for Innovative Combustion Control

2017-09-04
2017-24-0079
The continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at combustion control improvement. Nowadays, performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for drivability improvement, efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. These aspects are even more crucial when innovative combustions (such as LTC or RCCI) are performed, due to the high instability and the high sensitivity with respect to the injection parameters that are associated to this kind of combustion. Aging of all the components involved in the mixture preparation and combustion processes is another aspect particularly challenging, since not all the calibrations developed in the setup phase of a combustion control system may still be valid during engine life.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design and Analytic Assessment of 48V Electric Hybrid Powertrain Architectures for Passenger Cars

2019-04-02
2019-01-0353
To meet the requirements in relation to pollutants, CO2-emissions, performances, comfort and costs for 2025 timeframe, many technology options for the powertrain, that plays a key role in the vehicle, are possible. Beside the central aspect of reducing standard cycle consumption levels and emissions, consumer demands are also growing with respect to comfort and functionality. In addition, there is also the challenge of finding cost efficient ways of integrating technologies into a broad range of vehicles with different levels of hybridization. High degrees of electrification simultaneously provide opportunities to reduce the technology content of the internal combustion engines (ICE), resulting in a cost balancing compromise between combustion engine and hybrid technology. The design and optimization of powertrain topologies, functionalities, and components require a complex development process.
Technical Paper

Design and Implementation of a Dual Processor Platform for Powertrain Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C050
This paper describes a dual-processor platform for automotive powertrain control with a high-bandwidth interconnection network among processors, memory, and I/O sub-systems, which is suitable for a System-On-Chip (SOC) implementation. The two processors share memory and I/O address space and can operate in parallel at full speed. The cost of this solution, in terms of gates and power dissipation, is not substantially higher than more classical architectures with a multi-master bus or multiple processor busses connected through gateways, but offers almost twice the performance.
Technical Paper

Detailed Study of Ethanol In-cylinder Combustion Behavior by means of a Numerical Virtual Engine Model Approach

2005-11-22
2005-01-3989
The paper presents a study made to define the optimal parameter configuration, which enables the mixture preparation, and ignition systems to perform a low-temperature engine start by pure ethanol fuelling without misfiring or failure. A numerical virtual engine, simulating the behavior of a real small displacement 8 valves passenger car engine, is set up to describe and understand the physical phenomena of mixture preparation, spatial and temporal in-cylinder mixture distribution and the ignition/combustion events. The complex phenomena, which govern the gas flow patterns and mixture formation in the intake port and the combustion chamber are particularly analyzed during low-temperature engine cranking. Furthermore is discussed the influence of open and closed valve injection modes.
Journal Article

Development and Implementation of Hardware in the Loop Simulation for Dual Clutch Transmission Control Units

2013-04-08
2013-01-0816
A control oriented model of a Dual Clutch Transmission was developed for real time Hardware In the Loop (HIL) applications. The model is an innovative attempt to reproduce the fast dynamics of the actuation system maintaining a step size large enough for real time applications. The model comprehends a detailed physical description of hydraulic circuit, clutches, synchronizers and gears, and simplified vehicle and internal combustion engine sub-models; a stable real time simulation is achieved with a simplification of the model without losing physical validity. After an offline validation, the model was implemented in a HIL system and connected to the TCU (Transmission Control Unit) via two input-output boards, and to a load plate which comprehends all the actuators.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Control-Oriented Analytic Engine Simulator

2019-09-09
2019-24-0002
Due to the recent anti-pollution policies, the performance increase in Spark Ignition (SI) engines is currently under the focus of automotive manufacturers. This trend drives control systems designers to investigate accurate solutions and build more sophisticated algorithms to increase the efficiency of this kind of engines. The development of a control strategy is composed of several phases and steps, and the first part of such process is typically spent in defining and investigating the logic of the strategy. During this phase it is often useful to have a light engine simulator, which allows to have robust synthetic combustion data with a low calibration and computational effort. In the first part of this paper, a description of the control-oriented ANalytical Engine SIMulator (ANESIM) is carried out.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Mixture Preparation Approach for Lean Stratified SI-Combustion by a Combined Use of GDI and Electronically Controlled Valve-Timing

2000-03-06
2000-01-0532
The first part of the paper gives an overview of the current status in fuel consumption gain of the GDI-vehicles previously launched on the European market. In order to increase the potential for a further gain in specific fuel consumption the behaviour of 3 different combustion chamber layouts are studied. The chamber layouts are aimed to adapt as well as possible to the particular requirements for application to a small displacement/small bore engine working in stratified lean conditions. The paper continues with a description of the application that shows the different steps of a structured optimisation methodology for a 1.2 litre, small bore 4-cylinder engine. The applications of an air-motion-guided and a wall-guided layout with a mechanically actuated valve train to the same combustion chamber are discussed. The potential of the air-motion-guided concept is enhanced through the introduction of an electromagnetic fully variable valve train.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Model-Based Water Injection Combustion Control System for On-Board Application

2019-09-09
2019-24-0015
Water Injection (WI) has become a key technology for increasing combustion efficiency in modern GDI turbocharged engines. In fact, the addition of water mitigates significantly the occurrence of knock, reduces exhaust gas temperatures, and opens the possibility to reach optimum heat release phasing even at high load. This work presents the latest development of a model-based WI controller, and its experimental validation on a GDI TC engine. The controller is based on a novel approach that involves an analytic combustion model to define the spark advance (SA) required to reach a combustion phase target, considering injected water mass effects. The calibration and experimental validation of the proposed controller is shown in detail in the paper.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Approach to Productionizing a GDI-2 Stroke Spark Ignited Small Displacement Engine Design

1999-09-28
1999-01-3290
The first part of the paper gives an overview of the environmental conditions with which a future two stroke powered vehicle must comply and explains the reasons for which a direct gasoline injection into the combustion chamber offers a potential solution. The paper continues with a description of the fuel/air mixture injection used in the F.A.S.T. concept and gives a detailed overview of the layout of the 125 cc engine to which it is applied. The structure of its electronic engine management system, mandatory for the necessary control precision, is presented. Hereafter is made a short introduction to the visualization and numerical computation tools used for the engine design optimization. The paper concludes with a detailed presentation and discussion of the experimental results obtained with the engine operated, either in steady state and transient conditions on an engine test rig, and mounted in a classic small dimension two-wheel vehicle submitted to road tests.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of Spray Generated by a High Pressure Gasoline Swirl Injector

2002-10-21
2002-01-2697
Experimental measurements and numerical computations were made to characterize a spray generated by a high-pressure swirl injector. The Phase Doppler technique was applied to get information on droplet sizes (d10) and axial velocities at defined distances from the injector tip. Global spray visualization was also made. Computations were carried out using a modified version of KIVA 3V. In particular, the break-up length of the sheet and its dimension were computed from a semi-empirical correlation related to the wave instability theory suggested by Dombrowski, including the modifications introduced by Han and Reitz. Two different approaches were used to describe the initial spray conditions. According to the first, discrete particles with a characteristic size equal to the thickness of the sheet are injected. The second approach assumes, that the particles having a SMD computed by a semi-empirical correlation are injected according to a statistical distribution.
Technical Paper

Fast Algorithm for On-Board Torque Estimation

1999-03-01
1999-01-0541
Electronic Throttle Control systems substitute the driver in commanding throttle position, with the driver acting on a potentiometer connected to the accelerator pedal. Such strategies allow precise control of air-fuel ratio and of other parameters, e.g. engine efficiency or vehicle driveability, but require detailed information about the engine operating conditions, in order to be implemented inside the Electronic Control Unit (ECU). In order to determine throttle position, an interpretation of the driver desire (revealed by the accelerator pedal position) is performed by the ECU. In our approach, such interpretation is carried out in terms of a torque request that can be appropriately addressed knowing the actual engine-vehicle operating conditions, which depend on the acting torques. Estimates of the torque due to in-cylinder pressure (indicated torque), as well as the torque required by the vehicle (load torque), must then be available to the control module.
Technical Paper

Fast Prototyping of a Racing Diesel Engine Control System

2008-12-02
2008-01-2942
This paper shows how Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques have been applied to design and implement an engine control system for a common rail diesel engine. The project aim is to setup a high performance engine in order to participate to the Italian Tractor Pulling Championship (Prostock category). The original engine is a John Deere 6081 Tier2 model, already equipped with a common rail system. Engine performance is substantially determined by the control system, which is in charge of limiting engine speed, boost pressure and Air to Fuel Ratio (AFR). Given that typically the information and equipment needed to change control parameters are not accessible to customers, the first step of the project has been to replace the original control system, while maintaining injectors and pumps. This solution can guarantee the best performance, but it requires time to design the new control system, both in terms of hardware and software.
Journal Article

Geometric and Fluid-Dynamic Characterization of Actual Open Cell Foam Samples by a Novel Imaging Analysis Based Algorithm

2017-10-05
2017-01-9288
Metallic open-cell foams have proven to be valuable for many engineering applications. Their success is mainly related to mechanical strength, low density, high specific surface, good thermal exchange, low flow resistance and sound absorption properties. The present work aims to investigate three principal aspects of real foams: the geometrical characterization, the flow regime characterization, the effects of the pore size and the porosity on the pressure drop. The first aspect is very important, since the geometrical properties depend on other parameters, such as porosity, cell/pore size and specific surface. A statistical evaluation of the cell size of a foam sample is necessary to define both its geometrical characteristics and the flow pattern at a given input velocity. To this purpose, a procedure which statistically computes the number of cells and pores with a given size has been implemented in order to obtain the diameter distribution.
Technical Paper

High Spatial Resolution Visualization and Spectroscopic Investigation of the Flame Front Propagation in the Combustion Chamber of a Scooter Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0351
The match between the increasing performance demands and stringent requirements of emissions and fuel consumption reduction needs a strong evolution in the 2-wheel vehicle technology. In particular many steps forward should be taken for the optimization of modern small motorcycle and scooter at low engine speeds and low temperature start. To this aim, the detailed understandings of thermal and fluid-dynamic phenomena that occur in the combustion chamber are fundamental. In this work, experimental activities were realized in the combustion chamber of a single-cylinder 4-stroke optical engine. The engine was equipped with a four-valve head of a commercial scooter engine. High spatial resolution imaging was used to follow the flame kernel growth and flame front propagation. Moreover, the effects of an abnormal combustion due to firing of fuel deposition near the intake valves and on the piston surface were investigated.
Technical Paper

Image Processing Based Air Vehicles Classification for UAV Sense and Avoid Systems

2015-09-15
2015-01-2471
The maturity reached in the development of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) systems is making them more and more attractive for a vast number of civil missions. Clearly, the introduction of UAVs in the civil airspace requiring practical and effective regulation is one of the most critical issues being currently discussed. As several civil air authorities report in their regulations “Sense and Avoid” or “Detect and Avoid” capabilities are critical to the successful integration of UAV into the civil airspace. One possible approach to achieve this capability, specifically for operations beyond the Line-of-Sight, would be to equip air vehicles with a vision-based system using cameras to monitor the surrounding air space and to classify other air vehicles flying in close proximity. This paper presents an image-based application for the supervised classification of air vehicles.
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