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Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of the Timing System on a Small 2-Wheeler Engine (SOHC): Methodology and Case Study

In recent years the 2-wheelers engines companies have been focused on increasing the overall engine efficiency, that can be achieved amongst other by engine down-speeding, engine down-sizing and by reducing the frictions; however, to maintain or improve vehicle performance, it is necessary to provide a corresponding increase in specific power. In accordance with these trends, the studied approaches and methodologies have been exploited, during the development of the new Piaggio small scooter engine. In this work a multi-objective analysis has been applied to the valve train system design, in order to optimize the engine performance in terms of friction reduction, power curve and timing system response. Along with this optimization methodology, a robust design has been studied to make the peak cranking compression pressure insensitive to the engine starting device working.
Technical Paper

Predictive Energy Management Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Fuel Economy Improvement and Battery Capacity Sensitivity Analysis

This paper shows the influence of different battery charge management strategies on the fuel economy of a hybrid parallel axle-split vehicle in a real driving scenario, for a vehicle control system that has the additional possibility to split the torque between front and rear axles. The first section regards the validation of a self-developed Model in the Loop (MiL) environment of a P1-P4 plug-in hybrid electric car, using experimental data of a New European Driving Cycle test. In its original version, which is implemented on-board the vehicle, the energy management supervisor implements a heuristic, or rule-based, Energy Management Strategy (EMS). During this project, a different EMS has been developed, consisting of a sub-optimal control scheme called Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS), explained in detail in the second section.