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Technical Paper

3D CFD Analysis of the Influence of Some Geometrical Engine Parameters on Small PFI Engine Performances - The Effects on Tumble Motion and Mean Turbulent Intensity Distribution

2012-10-23
2012-32-0096
In scooter/motorbike engines coherent and stable tumble motion generation is still considered an effective mean in order to both reduce engine emissions and promote higher levels of combustion efficiency. The scientific research also assessed that squish motion is an effective mean for speeding up the combustion in a combustion process already fast. In a previous technical paper the authors demonstrated that for an engine having a high C/D ratio the squish motion is not only not necessary but also detrimental for the stability of the tumble motion itself, because there is a strong interaction between these two motions with the consequent formation of secondary vortices, which in turn penalizes the tumble breakdown and the turbulent kinetic energy production.
Journal Article

A 1D/Quasi-3D Coupled Model for the Simulation of I.C. Engines: Development and Application of an Automatic Cell-Network Generator

2017-03-28
2017-01-0514
Nowadays quasi-3D approaches are included in many commercial and research 1D numerical codes, in order to increase their simulation accuracy in presence of complex shape 3D volumes, e.g. plenums and silencers. In particular, these are regarded as valuable approaches for application during the design phase of an engine, for their capability of predicting non-planar waves motion and, on the other hand, for their low requirements in terms of computational runtime. However, the generation of a high-quality quasi-3D computational grid is not always straightforward, especially in case of complex elements, and can be a time-consuming operation, making the quasi-3D tool a less attractive option. In this work, a quasi-3D module has been implemented on the basis of the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM and coupled with the 1D code GASDYN.
Technical Paper

A Chemical-Kinetic Approach to the Definition of the Laminar Flame Speed for the Simulation of the Combustion of Spark-Ignition Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0035
The laminar burning speed is an important intrinsic property of an air-fuel mixture determining key combustion characteristics such as turbulent flame propagation. It is a function of the mixture composition (mixture fraction and residual gas mass fraction) and of the thermodynamic conditions. Experimental measurements of Laminar Flame Speeds (LFS) are common in literature, but initial pressure and temperature are limited to low values due to the test conditions: typical pressure values for LFS detection are lower than 25 bar, and temperature rarely exceeds 550 K. Actual trends in spark ignition engines are to increase specific power output by downsizing and supercharging, thus the flame front involves even more higher pressure and temperature since the beginning of combustion.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse

2017-03-28
2017-01-0837
Modeling plume interaction and collapse for direct-injection gasoline sprays is important because of its impact on fuel-air mixing and engine performance. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic interaction between plumes and the complicated two-phase coupling of the evaporating spray has shown to be notoriously difficult to predict. With the availability of high-speed (100 kHz) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, we compare velocity field predictions between plumes to observe the full temporal evolution leading up to plume merging and complete spray collapse. The target “Spray G” operating conditions of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is the focus of the work, including parametric variations in ambient gas temperature. We apply both LES and RANS spray models in different CFD platforms, outlining features of the spray that are most critical to model in order to predict the correct aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Model to Predict the Initial Stage of Combustion in SI Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1087
A correct prediction of the initial stages of the combustion process in SI engines is of great importance to understand how local flow conditions, fuel properties, mixture stratification and ignition affect the in-cylinder pressure development and pollutant formation. However, flame kernel growth is governed by many interacting processes including energy transfer from the electrical circuit to the gas phase, interaction between the plasma channel and the flow field, transition between different combustion regimes and gas expansion at very high temperatures. In this work, the authors intend to present a comprehensive, multi-dimensional model that can be used to predict the initial combustion stages in SI engines. In particular, the spark channel is represented by a set of Lagrangian particles where each one of them acts as a single flame kernel.
Journal Article

A Control-Oriented Knock Intensity Estimator

2017-09-04
2017-24-0055
The performance optimization of modern Spark Ignition engines is limited by knock occurrence: heavily downsized engines often are forced to work in the Knock-Limited Spark Advance (KLSA) range. Knock control systems monitor the combustion process, allowing to achieve a proper compromise between performance and reliability. Combustion monitoring is usually carried out by means of accelerometers or ion sensing systems, but recently the use of cylinder pressure sensors is also becoming frequent in motorsport applications. On the other hand, cylinder pressure signals are often available in the calibration stage, where SA feedback-control based on the pressure signal can be used to avoid damages to the engine during automatic calibration. A predictive real-time combustion model could help optimizing engine performance, without exceeding the allowed knock severity.
Journal Article

A Coupled 1D-multiD Nonlinear Simulation of I.C. Engine Silencers with Perforates and Sound-Absorbing Material

2009-04-20
2009-01-0305
Nowadays a great attention is paid to the level and quality of noise radiated from the tailpipe end of intake and exhaust systems, to control the gas dynamic noise emitted by the engine as well as the characteristics of the cabin interior sound. The muffler geometry can be optimized consequently, to attenuate or remark certain spectral components of the engine noise, according to the result expected. Evidently the design of complex silencing systems is a time-consuming operation, which must be carried out by means of concurrent experimental measurements and numerical simulations. In particular, 1D and multiD linear/non-linear simulation codes can be applied to predict the silencer behavior in the time and frequency domain. This paper describes the development of a 1D-multiD integrated approach for the simulation of complex muffler configurations such as reverse chambers with inlet and outlet pipe extensions and perforated silencers with the addition of sound absorbing material.
Technical Paper

A Coupled Tabulated Kinetics and Flame Propagation Model for the Simulation of Fumigated Medium Speed Dual-Fuel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0098
The present work describes the numerical modeling of medium-speed marine engines, operating in a fumigated dual-fuel mode, i.e. with the second fuel injected in the ports. This engine technology allows reducing engine-out emissions while maintaining the engine efficiency and can be fairly easily retrofitted from current diesel engines. The main premixed fuel that is added can be a low-carbon one and can additionally be of a renewable nature, thereby reducing or even completely removing the global warming impact. To fully optimize the operational parameters of such a large marine engine, computational fluid dynamics can be very helpful. Accurately describing the combustion process in such an engine is key, as the prediction of the heat release and the pollutant formation is crucial. Auto-ignition of the diesel fuel needs to be captured, followed by the combustion and flame propagation of the premixed fuel.
Journal Article

A Kinetic Modelling Study of Alcohols Operating Regimes in a HCCI Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0077
Pursuing a sustainable energy scenario for transportation requires the blending of renewable oxygenated fuels such as alcohols into commercial hydrocarbon fuels. From a chemical kinetic perspective, this requires the accurate description of both hydrocarbon reference fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, etc.) and oxygenated fuels chemistry. A recent systematic investigation of linear C2-C5 alcohols ignition in a rapid compression machine at p = 10-30 bar and T = 650- 900 K has extended the scarcity of fundamental data at such conditions, allowing for a revision of the low temperature chemistry for alcohol fuels in the POLIMI mechanism. Heavier alcohols such as n-butanol and n-pentanol present ignition characteristic of interest for application in HCCI engines, due to the presence of the hydroxyl moiety reducing their low temperature reactivity compared to the parent linear alkanes (i.e. higher octane number).
Technical Paper

A LES Study on the Evolution of Turbulent Structures in Moving Engine Geometries by an Open-Source CFD Code

2014-04-01
2014-01-1147
The dynamics and evolution of turbulent structures inside an engine-like geometry are investigated by means of Large Eddy Simulation. A simplified configuration consisting of a flat-top cylinder head with a fixed, axis-centered valve and low-speed piston has been simulated by the finite volume CFD code OpenFOAM®; the standard version of the software has been extended to include the compressible WALE subgrid-scale model, models for the generation of synthetic turbulence, some improvements to the mesh motion strategy and algorithms for LES data post-processing. In order to study both the initial transient and the quasi- steady operating conditions, ten complete engine cycles have been simulated. Phase and spatial averages have been performed over cycles three to ten in order to extract first and second moment of velocity; these quantities have then been used to validate the numerical procedure by comparison against experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Low Cost System for Active Gear Shift and Clutch Control

2015-04-14
2015-01-0228
The objective of this study is to demonstrate the design and construction of an innovative active gear-shift and clutch for racecars, applied to a Formula Student car, based on the use of DC gear-motors. Racecars require extremely quick gear-shifts and every system to be as light as possible. The proposed solution is designed to reduce energy consumption, weight and improve gear-shift precision compared to traditionally employed electro-hydraulic solutions, although maintaining state of the art performances.
Technical Paper

A Method for the Characterization of Off-Road Terrain Severity

2006-10-31
2006-01-3498
Highway and roadway surface measurement is a practice that has been ongoing for decades now. This sort of measurement is intended to ensure a safe level of road perturbances. The measurement may be conducted by a slow moving apparatus directly measuring the elevation of the road, at varying distance intervals, to obtain a road profile, with varying degrees of resolution. An alternate means is to measure the surface roughness at highway speeds using accelerometers coupled with high speed distance measurements, such as laser sensors. Vehicles out rigged with such a system are termed inertial profilers. This type of inertial measurement provides a sort of filtered roadway profile. Much research has been conducted on the analysis of highway roughness, and the associated metrics involved. In many instances, it is desirable to maintain an off-road course such that the course will provide sufficient challenges to a vehicle during durability testing.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for In-Cylinder Flow Field Evaluation in a Low Stroke-to-Bore SI Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-1119
This paper presents a methodology for the 3D CFD simulation of the intake and compression processes of four stroke internal combustion engines.The main feature of this approach is to provide very accurate initial conditions by means of a cost-effective initialization step. Calculations are applied to a low stroke-to-bore SI engine, operated at full load and maximum engine speed. It is demonstrated that initial conditions for this kind of engines have an important influence on flow field development, particularly in terms of mean velocities close to the firing TDC. Simulation results are used to discuss the choice of a set of parameters for the flow field characterization of low stroke-to-bore engines, as well as to provide an insight into the flow patterns during the overlapping period.
Technical Paper

A New Electric Powertrain for Light Trucks: Indoor Testing and Advanced Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1977
A new electric powertrain and axle for light/medium trucks is presented. The indoor testing and the simulation of the dynamic behavior are performed. The powertrain and axle has been produced by Streparava and tested at the Laboratory for the Safety of Transport of the Politecnico di Milano. The tests were aimed at defining the multi-physics perfomance of the powertrain and axle (efficiency, acceleration and braking, temperature and NVH). The whole system for indoor tests was composed by the powertrain and axle (electric motor, driveline, suspensions, wheels) and by the test rig (drums, driveline and electric motor). The (driving) axle was positioned on a couple of drums, and the drums provided the proper torques to the wheels to reproduce acceleration and braking. Additionally a cleat fixed on one drum excited the vibration of the suspensions and allowed assessing NVH performance. The simulations were based on a special co-simulation between 1D-AMESIM and VIRTUAL.LAB.
Technical Paper

A Novel 1D Co-Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Tailpipe Emissions under Different IC Engine Operating Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0147
The accurate prediction of pollutant emissions generated by IC engines is a key aspect to guarantee the respect of the emission regulation legislation. This paper describes the approach followed by the authors to achieve a strict numerical coupling of two different 1D modeling tools in a co-simulation environment, aiming at a reliable calculation of engine-out and tailpipe emissions. The main idea is to allow an accurate 1D simulation of the unsteady flows and wave motion inside the intake and exhaust systems, without resorting to an over-simplified geometrical discretization, and to rely on advanced thermodynamic combustion models and kinetic sub-models for the calculation of cylinder-out emissions. A specific fluid dynamic approach is then used to track the chemical composition along the exhaust duct-system, in order to evaluate the conversion efficiency of after-treatment devices, such as TWC, GPF, DPF, DOC, SCR and so on.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Methodology for the Multi-Objective Optimization of an Automotive DI Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0019
Nowadays, an automotive DI Diesel engine is demanded to provide an adequate power output together with limit-complying NOx and soot emissions so that the development of a specific combustion concept is the result of a trade-off between conflicting objectives. In other words, the development of a low-emission DI diesel combustion concept could be mathematically represented as a multi-objective optimization problem. In recent years, genetic algorithm and CFD simulations were successfully applied to this kind of problem. However, combining GA optimization with actual CFD-3D combustion simulations can be too onerous since a large number of simulations is usually required, resulting in a high computational cost and, thus, limiting the suitability of this method for industrial processes.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Sensitivity of Soot and NOx Formation to the Operating Conditions in Heavy Duty Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0177
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are employed to describe the effect of flow parameters on the formation of soot and NOx in a heavy duty engine under low load and high load. The complexity of diesel combustion, specially when soot, NOx and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution. In this work, Multiple Representative Interactive Flamelets (MRIF) method is employed to describe the chemical reactions, ignition, flame propagation and emissions in the engine. A phenomenological model for soot formation, including soot nucleation, coagulation and oxidation with O2 and OH is incorporated into the flamelet combustion model. Different strategies for modelling NOx are chosen to take into account the longer time scale for NOx formation. The numerical results are compared with experimental data to show the validity of the model for the cases under study.
Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0734
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-3D Model for the Simulation of the Unsteady Flows in I.C. Engine Pipe Systems

2012-04-16
2012-01-0675
Increasing demands on the capabilities of engine simulation and the ability to accurately predict both performance and acoustics has lead to the development of several numerical tools to help engine manufacturers during the prototyping stage. The aid of CFD tools (3D and 1D) can remarkably reduce the duration and the costs of this stage. The need of achieving good accuracy, along with acceptable computational runtime, has given the spur to the development of a geometry based quasi-3D approach. This is designed to model the acoustics and the fluid dynamics of both intake and exhaust system components used in internal combustion engines. Models of components are built using a network of quasi-3D cells based primarily on the geometry of the system. The solution procedure is based on an explicitly time marching staggered grid approach making use of a flux limiter to prevent numerical instabilities.
Technical Paper

A RANS CFD 3D Methodology for the Evaluation of the Effects of Cycle By Cycle Variation on Knock Tendency of a High Performance Spark Ignition Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1223
Knocking combustions heavily limits the efficiency of Spark Ignition engines. The compression ratio is limited in the design stage of the engine development, letting to Spark Advance control the task of reducing the odds of abnormal combustions. A detailed analysis of knocking events can help improving engine performance and diagnosis strategies. An effective way is to use advanced 3D CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation for the analysis and prediction of combustion performance. Standard 3D CFD approach is based on RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) equations and allows the analysis of the mean engine cycle. However knocking phenomenon is not deterministic and it is heavily affected by the cycle to cycle variation of engine combustions. A methodology for the evaluation of the effects of CCV (Cycle by Cycle Variability) on knocking combustions is here presented, based on both the use of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools and experimental information.
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