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Technical Paper

1-D Modeling and Room Temperature Experimental Measurements of the Exhaust System Backpressure: Limits and Advantages in the Prediction of Backpressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0676
It is well known that backpressure is one of the important parameters to be minimised during the exhaust system development. Unfortunately, during the first phases of an engineering process of a new engine, engine prototypes are not available yet. Due to this the exhaust system backpressure is generally evaluated using simulation software, and/or measuring the backpressure by a flow rig test at room temperature. Goal of this paper is to compare exhaust backpressure results obtained respectively: i) at the room temperature flow rig; ii) at the engine dyno bench; iii) by simulation with one of the most common 1D fluidodynamics simulation tool (Gt-Power). A correlation of the three different techniques is presented.
Technical Paper

A Commercial Excavator: Analysis, Modelling and Simulation of the Hydraulic Circuit

2012-09-24
2012-01-2040
The paper addresses some aspects of an ongoing research on a commercial compact excavator. The interest is focused on the analysis and modelling of the whole hydraulic circuit that, beside a load sensing variable displacement pump, features a stack of nine proportional directional control valves modules of which seven are of the load sensing type. Loads being sensed are the boom swing, boom, stick and bucket, right and left track motors and work tools; instead, the blade and the turret swing users do not contribute to the load sensing signal. Of specific interest are the peculiarities that were observed in the stack. In fact, to develop an accurate AMESim modelling, the stack was dismantled and all modules analysed and represented in a CAD environment as 3D parts. The load sensing flow generation unit was replaced on the vehicle by another one whose analysis and modelling have been developed using available design and experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Different Hybrid Powertrain Solutions for an European Mid-Size Passenger Car

2010-04-12
2010-01-0818
Different hybrid powertrains for a European mid-size passenger car were evaluated in this paper through numerical simulation. Different degrees of hybridizations, from micro to mild hybrids, and different architectures and power sources management strategies were taken into account, in order to obtain a preliminary assessment of the potentialities of different hybrid systems for the European passenger car market. Both diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines were considered: a 1.6 dm₃ Common Rail turbocharged diesel, and a 1.4 dm₃ spark ignition turbocharged engine, equipped with an innovative Variable Valve Actuation system. Diesel hybrid powertrains, although being subject to NOx emissions constraints that could jeopardize their benefits, offered substantial advantages in comparison with gasoline hybrid powertrains. Potentialities for fuel consumption reductions up to 25% over the NEDC were highlighted, approaching the 2020 EU 95 g/km CO₂ target.
Technical Paper

A Contribution to Engine and Vehicle Performance Prediction

2000-03-06
2000-01-1266
The application of computational methods for the development of the whole engine-vehicle system has been evaluated in this paper, to highlight the potential of computer simulation techniques applied to the analysis of engine-vehicle matching. First, engine performance was simulated using a one-dimensional fluid dynamic code, and predicted data were compared to experimental results, to assess the accuracy of the engine computer model not only as far as gross engine performance parameters are concerned, but also for the prediction of pressure values at several locations inside the engine. The simulation was also extended to the whole engine operating range, including part-load operating conditions. Afterwards, a vehicle simulation code was employed, to predict vehicle performance and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A Deep Learning based Virtual Sensor for Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation: Experimental Results

2018-04-03
2018-01-1089
Modern vehicles have several active systems on board such as the Electronic Stability Control. Many of these systems require knowledge of vehicle states such as sideslip angle and yaw rate for feedback control. Sideslip angle cannot be measured with the standard sensors present in a vehicle, but it can be measured by very expensive and large optical sensors. As a result, state observers have been used to estimate sideslip angle of vehicles. The current state of the art does not present an algorithm which can robustly estimate the sideslip angle for vehicles with all-wheel drive. A deep learning network based sideslip angle observer is presented in this article for robust estimation of vehicle sideslip angle. The observer takes in the inputs from all the on board sensors present in a vehicle and it gives out an estimate of the sideslip angle. The observer is tested extensively using data which are obtained from proving grounds in high tire-road friction coefficient conditions.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for HEV Powertrains Using Battery Power as State Variable

2020-04-14
2020-01-0271
One of the first steps in powertrain design is to assess its best performance and consumption in a virtual phase. Regarding hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), it is important to define the best mode profile through a cycle in order to maximize fuel economy. To assist in that task, several off-line optimization algorithms were developed, with Dynamic Programming (DP) being the most common one. The DP algorithm generates the control actions that will result in the most optimal fuel economy of the powertrain for a known driving cycle. Although this method results in the global optimum behavior, the DP tool comes with a high computational cost. The charge-sustaining requirement and the necessity of capturing extremely small variations in the battery state of charge (SOC) makes this state vector an enormous variable. As things move fast in the industry, a rapid tool with the same performance is required.
Journal Article

A Feed-Forward Approach for the Real-Time Estimation and Control of MFB50 and SOI In Diesel Engines

2014-05-05
2014-01-9046
Feed-forward low-throughput models have been developed to predict MFB50 and to control SOI in order to achieve a specific MFB50 target for diesel engines. The models have been assessed on a GMPT-E Euro 5 diesel engine, installed at the dynamic test bench at ICEAL-PT (Internal Combustion Engine Advanced Laboratory at the Politecnico di Torino) and applied to both steady state and transient engine operating conditions. MFB50 indicates the crank angle at which 50% of the fuel mass fraction has burned, and is currently used extensively in control algorithms to optimize combustion phasing in diesel engines in real-time. MFB50 is generally used in closed-loop combustion control applications, where it is calculated by the engine control unit, cycle-by-cycle and cylinder by-cylinder, on the basis of the measured in-cylinder pressure trace, and is adjusted in order to reduce the fuel consumption, combustion noise and engine-out emissions.
Journal Article

A Fuel Cell Based Propulsion System for General Aviation Aircraft: The ENFICA-FC Experience

2011-10-18
2011-01-2522
The hydrogen and fuel cell power based technologies that are rapidly emerging can be exploited to start a new generation of propulsion systems for light aircraft and small commuter aircraft. Different studies were undertaken in recent years on fuel cells in aeronautics. Boeing Research & Technology Centre (Madrid) successfully flew its converted Super Dimona in 2008 relying on a fuel cell based system. DLR flew in July 2009 with the motor-glider Antares powered by fuel cells. The goal of the ENFICA-FC project (ENvironmentally Friendly Inter City Aircraft powered by Fuel Cells - European Commission funded project coordinated by Prof. Giulio Romeo) was to develop and validate new concepts of fuel cell based power systems for more/all electric aircrafts belonging to a “inter-city” segment of the market.
Technical Paper

A Fully Physical Correlation for Low Pressure EGR Control Linearization

2017-09-04
2017-24-0011
Nowadays stringent emission regulations are pushing towards new air management strategies like LP-EGR and HP/LP mix both for passenger car and heavy duty applications, increasing the engine control complexity. Within a project in collaboration between Kohler Engines EMEA, Politecnico di Torino, Ricardo and Denso to exploit the potential of EGR-Only technologies, a 3.4 liters KDI 3404 was equipped with a two stage turbocharging system, an extremely high pressure FIS and a low pressure EGR system. The LP-EGR system works in a closed loop control with an intake oxygen sensor actuating two valves: an EGR valve placed downstream of the EGR cooler that regulates the flow area of the bypass between the exhaust line and the intake line, and an exhaust flap to generate enough backpressure to recirculate the needed EGR rate to cut the NOx emission without a specific aftertreatment device.
Technical Paper

A Linear Thermal Model for an Automotive Clutch

2000-03-06
2000-01-0834
The paper presents a diaphragm spring clutch linear thermal model. The main model aim was to estimate the temperature on the clutch disc slipping surfaces. That objective was pursued through a linear model to overcome the memory and computing time problems required by models with a more complex structure. The model parameters were experimentally identified. The model was validated employing a test bench, considering shift transient different as far as energy dissipated, clutch disc wear, frequency of shifting, gearbox temperature. The model structure, the methodology adopted to identify the model parameters, the experimental results obtained are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

A McPherson Lightweight Suspension Arm

2020-04-14
2020-01-0772
The paper deals with the design and manufacturing of a McPherson suspension arm made from short glass fiber reinforced polyamide (PA66). The design of the arm and the design of the molds have been made jointly. According to Industry 4.0 paradigms, a full digitalization of both the product and process has been performed. Since the mechanical behavior of the suspension arm strongly depends on constraints which are difficult to be modelled, a simpler structure with well-defined mechanical constraints has been developed. By means of such simple structure, the model for the behavior of the material has been validated. Since the suspension arm is a hybrid structure, the associated simple structure is hybrid as well, featuring a metal sheet with over-molded polymer. The issues referring to material flow, material to material contact, weld lines, fatigue strength, high and low temperature behavior, creep, dynamic strength have been investigated on the simple structure.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Automotive Steel Wheel Life Assessment

2020-04-14
2020-01-1240
A methodology for an efficient failure prediction of automotive steel wheels during fatigue experimental tests is proposed. The strategy joins the CDTire simulative package effectiveness to a specific wheel finite element model in order to deeply monitor the stress distribution among the component to predict damage. The numerical model acts as a Software-in-the-loop and it is calibrated with experimental data. The developed tool, called VirtualWheel, can be applied for the optimisation of design reducing prototyping and experimental test costs in the development phase. In the first section, the failure criterion is selected. In the second one, the conversion of hardware test-rig into virtual model is described in detail by focusing on critical aspects of finite element modelling. In conclusion, failure prediction is compared with experimental test results.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Modeling the Cat-Heating Transient Phase in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0010
This paper presents the modeling of the transient phase of catalyst heating on a high-performance turbocharged spark ignition engine with the aim to accurately predict the exhaust thermal energy available at the catalyst inlet and to provide a “virtual test rig” to assess different design and calibration options. The entire transient phase, starting from the engine cranking until the catalyst warm-up is completed, was taken into account in the simulation, and the model was validated using a wide data-set of experimental tests. The first step of the modeling activity was the combustion analysis during the transient phase: the burn rate was evaluated on the basis of experimental in-cylinder pressure data, considering both cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder variations.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Parameter Estimation of Nonlinear Single Track Models from Multibody Full Vehicle Simulation

2021-04-06
2021-01-0336
In vehicle dynamics, simple and fast vehicle models are required, especially in the framework of real-time simulations and autonomous driving software. Therefore, a trade-off between accuracy and simulation speed must be pursued by selecting the appropriate level of detail and the corresponding simplifying assumptions based on the specific purpose of the simulation. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology for map and parameter estimation from multibody simulation results, to be used for simplified vehicle modelling focused on handling performance. In this paper, maneuvers, algorithms and results of the parameter estimation are reported, together with their integration in single track models with increasing complexity and fidelity. The agreement between the multibody model, used as reference, and four single track models is analyzed and discussed through the evaluation of the correlation index.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Investigate the Dynamic Characteristics of ESP and EHB Hydraulic Units

2006-04-03
2006-01-1281
The paper deals with the Hardware-In-the-Loop based methodology which was adopted to evaluate the dynamic characteristics of Electronic Stability Program (ESP) and Electro-Hydraulic Brake (EHB) components. Firstly, it permits the identification of the time delays due to the hardware of the actuation system. Secondly, the link between the hardware of the hydraulic unit and a vehicle model running in real time permits the objective evaluation of the performance induced by the single components of different hydraulic units in terms of vehicle dynamics. The paper suggests the main parameters and tests which can help the car manufacturer in evaluating ESP hydraulic units, without expensive road tests.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Mimic Cycle to Cycle Variations and to Predict Knock Occurrence through Numerical Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1070
In this paper a novel approach to mimic through numerical simulation Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV) of the combustion process of Spark Ignition (SI) engines is described. The proposed methodology allows to reproduce the variability in combustion which is responsible for knock occurrence and thus to replicate the stochastic behavior of this abnormal combustion phenomenon. On the basis of the analysis of a comprehensive database of experimental data collected on a typical European downsized and turbocharged SI engine, the proposed approach was demonstrated to be capable to replicate in the simulation process the same percentage of knocking cycles experimentally measured in light-knock conditions, after a proper calibration of the Kinetics-Fit (KF), a new phenomenological knock model which was recently developed by Gamma Technologies.
Technical Paper

A Modal-Geometrical Selection Criterion for Master Nodes Applied to Engine Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0498
Usually, both an experimental modal analysis or a numerical modal analysis performed on reduced model present the problem of master nodes selection. A methodology based on the experience is normally used or computationally heavy criterion can be applied. In that paper, the Modal-Geometrical Selection Criterion (MoGeSeC) is applied to a crankshaft, both for an EMA (experimental modal analysis) and for a reduction procedure. Then the results are compared with other literature criteria. As far as the EMA is concerned, the nodes suggested by MoGeSeC and other criteria are used for identification of the component. The connection conditions between components are origin of uncertainty but in that case the comparison is done for each methodology in the same conditions. In that way MoGeSeC proves to be a very quick and accurate method because the nodes it selects depicts very well the dynamic behavior of the components.
Journal Article

A New Approach for the Estimation of the Aerodynamic Damping Characteristics of the ETF Demonstrator

2011-10-18
2011-01-2649
Nautilus S.p.A. and the Polytechnic of Turin, in cooperation with Blue Engineering, have developed a very versatile product, the ELETTRA Twin Flyers [6] (ETF), which consists in a very innovative remotely-piloted airship equipped with high precision sensors and communication devices. This multipurpose platform is particularly suitable for border and maritime surveillance missions and for telecommunication, both in military and civil area. To assess the actual maneuver capabilities of the airship [14], a prototype of reduced size and complexity has been assembled [16]. Before the flight tests a further assessment on the flight simulator is needed, because the first version of the software is tuned on the full scale prototype. Steady state performance and static stability of the demonstrator have been evaluated with CFD analysis.
Technical Paper

A New Test Bench for HWA Fluid-Dynamic Characterization of a Two-Valved In-Piston-Bowl Production Engine

1995-10-01
952467
A new test bench has been set up and equipped in order to analyze the air mean motion and turbulence quantities in the combustion system of an automotive diesel engine with one helicoidal intake duct and a conical type in-piston bowl. A sophisticated HWA technique employing single- and dual-sensor probes was applied to the in-cylinder flow investigation under motored conditions. The anemometric probe was also operated as a thermometric sensor. An analytical-numerical procedure, based on the heat balance equations for both anemometric and thermometric wires, was refined and applied to compute the gas velocity from the anemometer output signal. The gas property influence, the thermometric sensor lag and the prong temperature effects were taken into account with this procedure. The in-cylinder velocity data were reduced using both a cycle-resolved approach and the conventional ensemble-averaging procedure, in order to separate the mean flow from the fluctuating motion.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Contribution to the Improvement of Individual Cylinder AFR Control in a 4 Cylinder S.I. Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1009
Numerical simulation can be effectively used to reduce the experimental tests which are nowadays required for the analysis and calibration of engine control systems. In particular in this paper the use of a one-dimensional engine model to analyze the response of an UEGO sensor in the exhaust manifold of a 4 cylinder s.i. engine (with multipoint fuel injection) is described: numerical simulation has been used to simulate a misfunction of the fuelling system, which caused one of the four cylinders to be fuelled with an air/fuel ratio that was 10% richer than the others. The simulated UEGO response was then compared with experimental measurements, and after this validation process, the sensor model can be used to study a proper fuel injection control strategy thus reducing the required experimental tests, as outlined in a test case presented at the end of the paper.
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