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Journal Article

Assessment of a New Quasi-Dimensional Multizone Combustion Model for the Spray and Soot Formation Analysis in an Optical Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

An innovative quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model for the spray formation, combustion and emission formation analysis in DI diesel engines was assessed and applied to an optical single cylinder engine. The model, which has been recently presented by the authors, integrates a predictive non stationary 1D spray model developed by the Sandia National Laboratory, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model. The 1D spray model is capable of predicting the equivalence ratio of the fuel during the mixing process, as well as the spray penetration. The multizone approach is based on the application of the mass and energy conservation laws to several homogeneous zones identified in the combustion chamber. A specific submodel is also implemented to simulate the dilution of the burned gases. Soot formation is modeled by an expression which derives from Kitamura et al.'s results, in which an explicit dependence on the local equivalence ratio is considered.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a Passive Pre-Chamber Jet Ignition Single-Cylinder Engine

In the framework of an increasing demand for a more sustainable mobility, where the fuel consumption reduction is a key driver for the development of innovative internal combustion engines, Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) represents one of the most promising solutions to improve the thermal efficiency. However, details concerning turbulent jet assisted combustion are still to be fully captured, and therefore the design and the calibration of efficient TJI systems require the support of reliable simulation tools that can provide additional information not accessible through experiments. To this aim, an experimental investigation combined with a 3D-CFD study was performed to analyze the TJI combustion characteristics in a single-cylinder spark-ignition (SI) engine. Firstly, the model was validated against experiments considering stoichiometric mixture at 3000 rpm, wide open throttle operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Mixture Formation and Performance in a Direct Injection CNG Engine

This paper presents the results of part of the research activity carried out by the Politecnico di Torino and AVL List GmbH as part of the European Community InGAS Collaborative Project. The work was aimed at developing a combustion system for a mono-fuel turbocharged CNG engine, with specific focus on performance, fuel economy and emissions. A numerical and experimental analysis of the jet development and mixture formation in an optically accessible, single cylinder engine is presented in the paper. The experimental investigations were performed at the AVL laboratories by means of the planar laser-induced fluorescence technique, and revealed a cycle-to-cycle jet shape variability that depended, amongst others, on the injector characteristics and in-cylinder backpressure. Moreover, the mixing mechanism had to be optimized over a wide range of operating conditions, under both stratified lean and homogeneous stoichiometric modes.
Journal Article

Spray and Soot Formation Analysis by Means of a Quasi-Dimensional Multizone Model in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine under Euro 4 Operating Conditions

An investigation has been carried out on the spray penetration and soot formation processes in a research diesel engine by means of a quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model. The model integrates a predictive non stationary 1D spray model developed by the Sandia National Laboratory, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model, and is capable of predicting the spray formation, combustion and soot formation processes in the combustion chamber. The multizone model was used to analyze three operating conditions, i.e., a zero load point (BMEP = 0 bar at 1000 rpm), a medium load point (BMEP = 5 bar at 2000 rpm) and a medium-high load point (BMEP = 10 bar at 2000 rpm). These conditions were experimentally tested in an optical single cylinder engine with the combustion system configuration of a 2.0L Euro4 GM diesel engine for passenger car applications.
Technical Paper

Water Injection Contribution to Enabling Stoichiometric Air-to-Fuel Ratio Operation at Rated Power Conditions of a High-Performance DISI Single Cylinder Engine

The next generation of gasoline turbo-charged engines will have to deal with the continuous tightening of emissions regulations. In fact, to better represent real-world emission figures, WLTP and RDE cycles focus on stricter criteria; spanning higher speeds and loads potentially covering the whole engine operating map. It is common practice at present to use overfueling to avoid catastrophic failure of turbine and aftertreatment systems at very high engine speeds and loads due to excessive temperatures. A past technology, which is presently enjoying a resurgence of interest, is water injection. In particular, for high-specific-power applications, this could be used as replacement strategy for overfueling, potentially enabling full operating range stoichiometric operation with no compromise in terms of maximum performance with respect to today.