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Technical Paper

1-D Modeling and Room Temperature Experimental Measurements of the Exhaust System Backpressure: Limits and Advantages in the Prediction of Backpressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0676
It is well known that backpressure is one of the important parameters to be minimised during the exhaust system development. Unfortunately, during the first phases of an engineering process of a new engine, engine prototypes are not available yet. Due to this the exhaust system backpressure is generally evaluated using simulation software, and/or measuring the backpressure by a flow rig test at room temperature. Goal of this paper is to compare exhaust backpressure results obtained respectively: i) at the room temperature flow rig; ii) at the engine dyno bench; iii) by simulation with one of the most common 1D fluidodynamics simulation tool (Gt-Power). A correlation of the three different techniques is presented.
Technical Paper

360° vs. 270° vs. 180°: The Difference of Balancing a 2 Cylinder Inline Engine: Design, Simulation, Comparative Measurements

2012-10-23
2012-32-0106
Beside the automotive industry, where 2-cylinder inline engines are catching attention again, twin-cylinder configurations are quite usual in the small engine world. From stationary engines and range-extender use to small motorcycles up to big cruisers and K-Cars this engine architecture is used in many types of applications. Because of very good overall packaging, performance characteristics and not least the possibility of parts-commonality with 4-cylinder engines nearly every motorcycle manufacturer provides an inline twin in its model range. Especially for motorcycle applications where generally the engine is a rigid member of the frame and vibrations can be transferred directly to the rider an appropriate balancing system is required.
Technical Paper

A 3D Linear Acoustic Network Representation of Mufflers with Perforated Elements and Sound Absorptive Material

2017-06-05
2017-01-1789
The acoustics of automotive intake and exhaust systems is typically modeled using linear acoustics or gas-dynamics simulation. These approaches are preferred during basic sound design in the early development stages due to their computational efficiency compared to complex 3D CFD and FEM solutions. The linear acoustic method reduces the component being modelled to an equivalent acoustic two-port transfer matrix which describes the acoustic characteristic of the muffler. Recently this method was used to create more detailed and more accurate models based on a network of 3D cells. As the typical automotive muffler includes perforated elements and sound absorptive material, this paper demonstrates the extension of the 3D linear acoustic network description of a muffler to include the aforementioned elements. The proposed method was then validated against experimental results from muffler systems with perforated elements and sound absorptive material.
Technical Paper

A Commercial Excavator: Analysis, Modelling and Simulation of the Hydraulic Circuit

2012-09-24
2012-01-2040
The paper addresses some aspects of an ongoing research on a commercial compact excavator. The interest is focused on the analysis and modelling of the whole hydraulic circuit that, beside a load sensing variable displacement pump, features a stack of nine proportional directional control valves modules of which seven are of the load sensing type. Loads being sensed are the boom swing, boom, stick and bucket, right and left track motors and work tools; instead, the blade and the turret swing users do not contribute to the load sensing signal. Of specific interest are the peculiarities that were observed in the stack. In fact, to develop an accurate AMESim modelling, the stack was dismantled and all modules analysed and represented in a CAD environment as 3D parts. The load sensing flow generation unit was replaced on the vehicle by another one whose analysis and modelling have been developed using available design and experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Different Hybrid Powertrain Solutions for an European Mid-Size Passenger Car

2010-04-12
2010-01-0818
Different hybrid powertrains for a European mid-size passenger car were evaluated in this paper through numerical simulation. Different degrees of hybridizations, from micro to mild hybrids, and different architectures and power sources management strategies were taken into account, in order to obtain a preliminary assessment of the potentialities of different hybrid systems for the European passenger car market. Both diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines were considered: a 1.6 dm₃ Common Rail turbocharged diesel, and a 1.4 dm₃ spark ignition turbocharged engine, equipped with an innovative Variable Valve Actuation system. Diesel hybrid powertrains, although being subject to NOx emissions constraints that could jeopardize their benefits, offered substantial advantages in comparison with gasoline hybrid powertrains. Potentialities for fuel consumption reductions up to 25% over the NEDC were highlighted, approaching the 2020 EU 95 g/km CO₂ target.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study on Different System Level Engine Simulation Models

2013-04-08
2013-01-1116
Engine simulation can be performed using model approaches of different depths in capturing physical effects. The present paper presents a comprehensive comparison study on seven different engine models. The models range from transient 1D cycle resolved approaches to steady-state non-dimensional maps. The models are discussed in the light of key features, amount and kind of required input data, model calibration effort and predictability and application areas. The computational performance of the different models and their capabilities to capture different transient effects is investigated together with a vehicle model under real-life driving conditions. In the trade-off field of model predictability and computational performance an innovative approach on crank-angle resolved cylinder modeling turned out to be most beneficial.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on the Impact of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Fluctuations on Fuel Consumption and Knock in Steady-State and Drivecycle Operation

2013-09-08
2013-24-0030
In spark-ignition engines, fluctuations of the in-cylinder pressure trace and the apparent rate of heat release are usually observed from one cycle to another. These Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV) are affected by the early flame development and the subsequent flame front propagation. The CCV are responsible for engine performance (e.g. fuel consumption) and the knock behavior. The occurrence of the phenomena is unpredictable and the stochastic nature offers challenges in the optimization of engine control strategies. In the present work, CCV are analyzed in terms of their impact on the engine knock behavior and the related efficiency. Target is to estimate the possible fuel consumption savings in steady-state operation and in the drivecycle, when CCV are reduced. Since CCV are immanent on real engines, such a study can only be done by means of simulation.
Technical Paper

A Contribution to Engine and Vehicle Performance Prediction

2000-03-06
2000-01-1266
The application of computational methods for the development of the whole engine-vehicle system has been evaluated in this paper, to highlight the potential of computer simulation techniques applied to the analysis of engine-vehicle matching. First, engine performance was simulated using a one-dimensional fluid dynamic code, and predicted data were compared to experimental results, to assess the accuracy of the engine computer model not only as far as gross engine performance parameters are concerned, but also for the prediction of pressure values at several locations inside the engine. The simulation was also extended to the whole engine operating range, including part-load operating conditions. Afterwards, a vehicle simulation code was employed, to predict vehicle performance and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Methodology between AVL Mean Value Engine Model and Measurements with Concept Analysis of Mean Value Representation for Engine Transient Tests

2017-09-04
2017-24-0053
The use of state of the art simulation tools for effective front-loading of the calibration process is essential to support the additional efforts required by the new Real Driving Emission (RDE) legislation. The process needs a critical model validation where the correlation in dynamic conditions is used as a preliminary insight into the bounds of the representation domain of engine mean values. This paper focuses on the methodologies for correlating dynamic simulations with emissions data measured during dynamic vehicle operation (fundamental engine parameters and gaseous emissions) obtained using dedicated instrumentation on a diesel vehicle, with a particular attention for oxides of nitrogen NOx specie. This correlation is performed using simulated tests run within AVL’s mean value engine and engine aftertreatment (EAS) model MoBEO (Model Based Engine Optimization).
Technical Paper

A Cross Domain Co-Simulation Platform for the Efficient Analysis of Mechatronic Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0239
Efficient integration of mechanics and microelectronics components is nowadays a must within the automotive industry in order to minimize integration risks and support optimization of the entire system. We propose in this work a cross domain co-simulation platform for the efficient analysis of mechatronic systems. The interfacing of two state-of-the-art simulation platforms provides a direct link between the two domains at an early development stage, thus enabling the validation and optimization of the system already during modeling phase. The proposed cross-domain co-simulation is used within our TEODACS project for the analysis of the FlexRay technology. We illustrate using a drive-by-wire use case how the different architecture choices may influence the system.
Technical Paper

A Deep Learning based Virtual Sensor for Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation: Experimental Results

2018-04-03
2018-01-1089
Modern vehicles have several active systems on board such as the Electronic Stability Control. Many of these systems require knowledge of vehicle states such as sideslip angle and yaw rate for feedback control. Sideslip angle cannot be measured with the standard sensors present in a vehicle, but it can be measured by very expensive and large optical sensors. As a result, state observers have been used to estimate sideslip angle of vehicles. The current state of the art does not present an algorithm which can robustly estimate the sideslip angle for vehicles with all-wheel drive. A deep learning network based sideslip angle observer is presented in this article for robust estimation of vehicle sideslip angle. The observer takes in the inputs from all the on board sensors present in a vehicle and it gives out an estimate of the sideslip angle. The observer is tested extensively using data which are obtained from proving grounds in high tire-road friction coefficient conditions.
Journal Article

A Feed-Forward Approach for the Real-Time Estimation and Control of MFB50 and SOI In Diesel Engines

2014-05-05
2014-01-9046
Feed-forward low-throughput models have been developed to predict MFB50 and to control SOI in order to achieve a specific MFB50 target for diesel engines. The models have been assessed on a GMPT-E Euro 5 diesel engine, installed at the dynamic test bench at ICEAL-PT (Internal Combustion Engine Advanced Laboratory at the Politecnico di Torino) and applied to both steady state and transient engine operating conditions. MFB50 indicates the crank angle at which 50% of the fuel mass fraction has burned, and is currently used extensively in control algorithms to optimize combustion phasing in diesel engines in real-time. MFB50 is generally used in closed-loop combustion control applications, where it is calculated by the engine control unit, cycle-by-cycle and cylinder by-cylinder, on the basis of the measured in-cylinder pressure trace, and is adjusted in order to reduce the fuel consumption, combustion noise and engine-out emissions.
Journal Article

A Fuel Cell Based Propulsion System for General Aviation Aircraft: The ENFICA-FC Experience

2011-10-18
2011-01-2522
The hydrogen and fuel cell power based technologies that are rapidly emerging can be exploited to start a new generation of propulsion systems for light aircraft and small commuter aircraft. Different studies were undertaken in recent years on fuel cells in aeronautics. Boeing Research & Technology Centre (Madrid) successfully flew its converted Super Dimona in 2008 relying on a fuel cell based system. DLR flew in July 2009 with the motor-glider Antares powered by fuel cells. The goal of the ENFICA-FC project (ENvironmentally Friendly Inter City Aircraft powered by Fuel Cells - European Commission funded project coordinated by Prof. Giulio Romeo) was to develop and validate new concepts of fuel cell based power systems for more/all electric aircrafts belonging to a “inter-city” segment of the market.
Technical Paper

A Fully Physical Correlation for Low Pressure EGR Control Linearization

2017-09-04
2017-24-0011
Nowadays stringent emission regulations are pushing towards new air management strategies like LP-EGR and HP/LP mix both for passenger car and heavy duty applications, increasing the engine control complexity. Within a project in collaboration between Kohler Engines EMEA, Politecnico di Torino, Ricardo and Denso to exploit the potential of EGR-Only technologies, a 3.4 liters KDI 3404 was equipped with a two stage turbocharging system, an extremely high pressure FIS and a low pressure EGR system. The LP-EGR system works in a closed loop control with an intake oxygen sensor actuating two valves: an EGR valve placed downstream of the EGR cooler that regulates the flow area of the bypass between the exhaust line and the intake line, and an exhaust flap to generate enough backpressure to recirculate the needed EGR rate to cut the NOx emission without a specific aftertreatment device.
Journal Article

A Hybrid Development Process for NVH Optimization and Sound Engineering Considering the Future Pass-by Homologation Demands

2016-11-08
2016-32-0043
Beside hard facts as performance, emissions and fuel consumption especially the brand specific attributes such as styling and sound are very emotional, unique selling prepositions. To develop these emotional characters, within the given boundary conditions of the future pass-by regulation, it is necessary to define them at the very beginning of the project and to follow a consequent development process. The following paper shows examples of motorcycle NVH development work on noise cleaning and sound engineering using a hybrid development process combining front loading, simulation and testing. One of the discussed solutions is the investigation of a piston pin offset in combination with a crankshaft offset for the reduction of friction. The optimization of piston slap noise as a result of the piston secondary motion was performed by simulation. As another example a simulation based development was performed for the exhaust system layout.
Technical Paper

A Linear Thermal Model for an Automotive Clutch

2000-03-06
2000-01-0834
The paper presents a diaphragm spring clutch linear thermal model. The main model aim was to estimate the temperature on the clutch disc slipping surfaces. That objective was pursued through a linear model to overcome the memory and computing time problems required by models with a more complex structure. The model parameters were experimentally identified. The model was validated employing a test bench, considering shift transient different as far as energy dissipated, clutch disc wear, frequency of shifting, gearbox temperature. The model structure, the methodology adopted to identify the model parameters, the experimental results obtained are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Modeling the Cat-Heating Transient Phase in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0010
This paper presents the modeling of the transient phase of catalyst heating on a high-performance turbocharged spark ignition engine with the aim to accurately predict the exhaust thermal energy available at the catalyst inlet and to provide a “virtual test rig” to assess different design and calibration options. The entire transient phase, starting from the engine cranking until the catalyst warm-up is completed, was taken into account in the simulation, and the model was validated using a wide data-set of experimental tests. The first step of the modeling activity was the combustion analysis during the transient phase: the burn rate was evaluated on the basis of experimental in-cylinder pressure data, considering both cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder variations.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Investigate the Dynamic Characteristics of ESP and EHB Hydraulic Units

2006-04-03
2006-01-1281
The paper deals with the Hardware-In-the-Loop based methodology which was adopted to evaluate the dynamic characteristics of Electronic Stability Program (ESP) and Electro-Hydraulic Brake (EHB) components. Firstly, it permits the identification of the time delays due to the hardware of the actuation system. Secondly, the link between the hardware of the hydraulic unit and a vehicle model running in real time permits the objective evaluation of the performance induced by the single components of different hydraulic units in terms of vehicle dynamics. The paper suggests the main parameters and tests which can help the car manufacturer in evaluating ESP hydraulic units, without expensive road tests.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Mimic Cycle to Cycle Variations and to Predict Knock Occurrence through Numerical Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1070
In this paper a novel approach to mimic through numerical simulation Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV) of the combustion process of Spark Ignition (SI) engines is described. The proposed methodology allows to reproduce the variability in combustion which is responsible for knock occurrence and thus to replicate the stochastic behavior of this abnormal combustion phenomenon. On the basis of the analysis of a comprehensive database of experimental data collected on a typical European downsized and turbocharged SI engine, the proposed approach was demonstrated to be capable to replicate in the simulation process the same percentage of knocking cycles experimentally measured in light-knock conditions, after a proper calibration of the Kinetics-Fit (KF), a new phenomenological knock model which was recently developed by Gamma Technologies.
Journal Article

A Miniature Catalytic Stripper for Particles Less Than 23 Nanometers

2013-04-08
2013-01-1570
The European Emissions Stage 5b standard for diesel passenger cars regulates particulate matter to 0.0045 g/km and non-volatile part/km greater than 23 nm size to 6.0x10₁₁ as determined by the PMP procedure that uses a heated evaporation tube to remove semi-volatile material. Measurement artifacts associated with the evaporation tube technique prevents reliable extension of the method to a lower size range. Catalytic stripper (CS) technology removes possible sources of these artifacts by effectively removing all hydrocarbons and sulfuric acid in the gas phase in order to avoid any chemical reactions or re-nucleation that may cause measurement complications. The performance of a miniature CS was evaluated and experimental results showed solid particle penetration was 50% at 10.5 nm. The sulfate storage capacity integrated into the CS enabled it to chemically remove sulfuric acid vapor rather than rely on dilution to prevent nucleation.
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