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Technical Paper

A Steer-by-Wire System that Enables Remote and Autonomous Operation

Original equipment manufacturers and their customers are demanding more efficient, lighter, smaller, safer, and smarter systems across the entire product line. In the realm of automotive, agricultural, construction, and earth-moving equipment industries, an additional highly desired feature that has been steadily trending is the capability to offer remote and autonomous operation. With the previous requirements in mind, the authors have proposed and validated a new electrohydraulic steering technology that offers energy efficiency improvement, increased productivity, enhanced safety, and adaptability to operating conditions. In this paper, the authors investigate the new steering technology's capacity to support remote operation and demonstrate it on a compact wheel loader, which can be remotely controlled without an operator present behind the steering wheel. This result establishes the new steer-by-wire technology's capability to enable full autonomous operation as well.
Technical Paper

Active Control of Wind Noise Using Robust Feedback Control

A feedback controller bas been developed using robust control techniques to control the sound radiated from turbulent flow driven plates. The control design methodology uses frequency domain loop shaping techniques. System uncertainty, sound pressure level reductions, and actuator constraints are included in the design process. For the wind noise problem, weighting factors have been included to distinguish between the importance of modes that radiate sound and those that do not radiate. The wind noise controller has been implemented in the quiet wind tunnel facility at the Ray W. Herrick Laboratories at Purdue University. A multiple-input, multiple-output controller using accelerometer feedback and shaker control was able to achieve control up to 1000 Hz. Sound pressure level reductions of as much as 15 dB were achieved at the frequencies of the plates modes. Overall reductions over the 100-1000 Hz band were approximately 5 dB.
Technical Paper

Application of Electric Vehicle System Design to Grand Prix EV Kart

The renewed interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles has been prompted by the drastic rise in oil prices in 2008 and launch of new initiatives by the Federal Government. One of the key issues is to promote the incorporation of electric drivetrain in vehicles at all levels and particularly with emphasis on educational activities to prepare the workforce needed for the near future. Purdue University has been conducting a Grand Prix for over 50 years with Gas-powered Karts. In April 2010, an annual event was initiated to hold an EV Grand Prix where 17 EV Karts participated in the competition. Four of the participating teams comprised of Purdue students in a new graduate course for EV design and fabrication. Using the basic framework of the gas-powered Kart, an electric version was developed as a part of this course. Other participants were also provided with the guidelines and design parameters developed for the course and competition.
Technical Paper

Biomass Productivity and Sustainability of a Bioregenerative Life-Support System

Energy budgets for future Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems (CELSS) must balance not only with respect to primary productivity (i.e., photosynthesis) vs. utilization steps (human maintenance plus preparative and recycling processes), but also with respect to necessary and desired nonlife-support activities of crews (e.g., exploration, research). Present objectives of the NSCORT program at Purdue University include identification of critical paths for biomass conversion to desired forms with energetics and rate-constant properties that are compatible with life-support sustainability within a CELSS. Physico-chemical recycling systems working in conjunction with bioregenerative ones likely will be required to keep time constants of critical processes within reasonable limits.
Technical Paper

Computer Controlled Hydraulics — A Combine Application

The feasibility of controlling the threshing cylinder of a conventional corn combine with electro hydraulic elements controlled by a digital computer was concluded. The laboratory experiments attained the performance index established after consultation with manufacturers and farmers
Technical Paper

Farmers Perspective on Machinery Until 2000

Farmers are a small group, mostly college educated who run multi-million dollar yearly operations. Recent favorable economics has allowed this sector to look at new technology and determine the best way to invest in it. New considerations in the last few years have led to minimum/alternative tillage and planting, site specific farming decisions and small technology groups of farmers. The authors have put together their thoughts and wants which should be evaluated by future suppliers of technology and farm machinery.
Technical Paper

Maintenance Descrepency Reporting: Human Factors Issues

One of the most common barriers to the timely disposition of maintenance discrepancies involves communication difficulties between pilots and technicians. These barriers occur at virtually every operational level of the aviation industry from general aviation to airline. Well intentioned yet incomplete or misdirected communication often results not only in frustration, excessive down time, and recurrence of the problem, but also fosters unhealthy (and inaccurate) stereotypical notions about the overall competence of each group. This paper focuses on a two-phase study designed to identify which human factors impede pilot - mechanic communication and which factors promote pilot - mechanic communication. The project was coordinated by a joint faculty - student research team from the Department of Aviation Technology at Purdue University.
Technical Paper

New Methods to Achieve 100% Placement of Undergraduate Engineers

Purdue undergraduate Agricultural Engineers have high employment rates at graduation, during a period of very low demand for engineers. The reason includes several unique faculty efforts to place students which enhance their current work ethic and topical engineering courses.
Technical Paper

Personal and Charitable Planning Under Tax Relief 2001

“Personal and Charitable Planning Under Tax Relief 2001” addresses the need for taxpayers and estate and financial planners to reconsider their financial, retirement and estate plans in the coming years. Recent extensive changes in the tax code require careful consideration during each of the next several years in order to balance tax savings while maintaining personal, financial and charitable objectives. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief view of some of the various provisions of the Act.
Technical Paper

Promoting More Effective Communication of Maintenance Issues Between Pilots and Maintenance Technicians

The lack of effective and efficient communication between pilots and maintenance technicians has been recognized as a problem in general aviation by both members of the industry and academia. The goal of this paper is to provide an accounting of the impact that communication between maintenance technicians and pilots, or the lack thereof, can have upon both the bottom line and the experience of those who operate within the general aviation arena. The researchers interviewed and observed maintenance technicians and pilots in general aviation operations to identify what members on both sides of the communication process identified as being problematic and troubling. Several of the major barriers to communication, as well as several strategies to overcome those barriers, are discussed.
Technical Paper

Source Identification Using Acoustic Array Techniques

Acoustic array techniques are presented as alternatives to intensity measurements for source identification in automotive and industrial environments. With an understanding of the advantages and limitations described here for each of the available methods, a technique which is best suited to the application at hand may be selected. The basic theory of array procedures for Nearfield Acoustical Holography, temporal array techniques, and an Inverse Frequency Response Function technique is given. Implementation for various applications is discussed. Experimental evaluation is provided for tire noise identification.
Technical Paper

The Inclusion of College Students in the Assessment of Aviation Industry Safety Procedures and Utilization of Current Safety Resources

Purdue University Aviation Technology at West Lafayette and Indianapolis, in concert with a number of industry participants, initiated research at West Lafayette and industry locations on ways and means to address safety concerns affecting a number of air transport carriers as well as general aviation operations. The outcome of the research resulted in a program with airlines and general aviation operators that lead to the development of an interactive instructional technique primarily based on empirical studies at the various facilities. Subsequent to the observation periods were sessions addressing recommendations for resolution of these jointly recognized issues. Part of this effort involved developing innovative methods to report these incidents in a manner that would ensure open, effective communications amongst all the concerned parties. This ongoing research involves the use of students to assess the utilization of current safety resources, or lack thereof, in industry.
Technical Paper

Using Target Performance Indicators as a Training and Evaluation Tool

Most airline maintenance human factors training programs miss the mark when it comes to producing optimal behavioral and procedural changes among participating maintenance professionals. While there are many causes for training outcomes which are less than desired and anticipated, principal among these are the failure of most programs to address the pragmatic learning needs of those technicians as adult learners. Attention to andragogical principles such as clear learning goals, readily apparent relevance and direct applicability of material, immediate feedback, learner directed inquiry and self assessment can contribute greatly to achieving optimal results. A program currently under development at Purdue University utilizes a combination of classroom instruction, group discussion, and learner participation in aviation maintenance scenarios as a method for improving human factors education.
Technical Paper

What Does It Take To Retire?

Financial planners are always anxious to assist engineers and scientists in making retirement decisions. Many engineers, especially Industrial Engineers (IE), have had courses that provide the knowledge to make these retirement financial plans themselves. This paper will provide a method of estimating retirement needs utilizing Excel software and IE college coursework.