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Technical Paper

A Comparison of Near-Field Acoustical Holography Methods Applied to Noise Source Identification

Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an inverse process in which sound pressure measurements made in the near-field of an unknown sound source are used to reconstruct the sound field so that source distributions can be clearly identified. NAH was originally based on performing spatial transforms of arrays of measured pressures and then processing the data in the wavenumber domain, a procedure that entailed the use of very large microphone arrays to avoid spatial truncation effects. Over the last twenty years, a number of different NAH methods have been proposed that can reduce or avoid spatial truncation issues: for example, Statistically Optimized Near-Field Acoustical Holography (SONAH), various Equivalent Source Methods (ESM), etc.
Technical Paper

A Detailed Synchronous Machine Model

A synchronous machine model is set forth that simultaneously incorporates magnetizing path saturation, leakage saturation, and transfer function representations of the rotor circuits. A parameter identification procedure consisting of voltage step tests as well as standstill frequency response tests is described. The model's predictions are validated using the Naval Combat Survivability Generation and Propulsion test bed.
Journal Article

A Novel Pressure-Feedback Based Adaptive Control Method to Damp Instabilities in Hydraulic Machines

Excessive vibration and poor controllability occur in many mobile fluid power applications, with negative consequences as concerns operators' health and comfort as well as machine safety and productivity. This paper addresses the problem of reducing oscillations in fluid power machines presenting a novel control technique of general applicability. Strong nonlinearities of hydraulic systems and the unpredictable operating conditions of the specific application (e.g. uneven ground, varying loads, etc.) are the main challenges to the development of satisfactory general vibration damping methods. The state of the art methods are typically designed as a function of the specific application, and in many cases they introduce energy dissipation and/or system slowdown. This paper contributes to this research by introducing an energy efficient active damping method based on feedback signals from pressure sensors mounted on the flow control valve block.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Simulation Model for Analyzing the Performance of a Steel-Tracked Feller Buncher

A parametric simulation model of a steel-tracked feller buncher was developed1. This model can be used to predict the lift capacity, side tipping angles, grade-ability, and joint forces during a cutting cycle. The feller buncher is defined parametrically, allowing the user to quickly analyze different machine configurations simply by changing the value of a variable. Several simulations were performed to illustrate the application of the model.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for a Tandem External Gear Pump for Automotive Transmission

This paper describes a simulation approach for the modeling of tandem external gear pumps. A tandem gear pump is the combination of two pumps with a common drive shaft. Such design architecture finds application in certain automotive transmission systems. The model presented in this work is applicable for pumps with both helical and spur gears. The simulation model is built on the HYGESim (HYdraulic GEars machines Simulator) previously developed by the authors for external spur gear units. In this work, the model formulation is properly extended to the capabilities of simulating helical gears. Starting directly from the CAD drawings of the unit, the fluid-dynamic model solves the internal instantaneous tooth space volume pressures and the internal flows following a lumped parameter approach. The simulation tool considers also the radial micro-motion of the gears, which influences the internal leakages and the features of the meshing process.
Technical Paper

Active Vibration Damping for Construction Machines Based on Frequency Identification

Typically, earthmoving machines do not have wheel suspensions. This lack of components often causes uncomfortable driving, and in some cases reduces machine productivity and safety. Several solutions to this problem have been proposed in the last decades, and particularly successful is the passive solution based on the introduction of accumulators in the hydraulic circuit connecting the machine boom. The extra capacitance effect created by the accumulator causes a magnification of the boom oscillations, in such a way that these oscillations counter-react the machine oscillation caused by the driving on uneven ground. This principle of counter-reacting machine oscillations through the boom motion can be achieved also with electro-hydraulic solutions, properly actuating the flow supply to the boom actuators on the basis of a feedback sensors and a proper control strategy.
Technical Paper

Advanced Hydraulic Systems for Active Vibration Damping and Forklift Function to Improve Operator Comfort and Machine Productivity of Next Generation of Skid Steer Loaders

Mobile Earth Moving Machinery like Skid-steer loaders have tight turning radius in limited spaces due to a short wheelbase which prevents the use of suspensions in these vehicles. The absence of a suspension system exposes the vehicle to ground vibrations of high magnitude and low frequency. Vibrations reduce operator comfort, productivity and life of components. Along with vibrations, the machine productivity is also hampered by material spillage which is caused by the tilting of the bucket due to the extension of the boom. The first part of the paper focuses on vibration damping. The chassis’ vibrations are reduced by the use of an active suspension element which is the hydraulic boom cylinder which is equivalent to a spring-damper. With this objective, a linear model for the skid steer loader is developed and a state feedback control law is implemented.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Widespread Fatigue Damage in Lap Joints

This paper describes research to analyze widespread fatigue damage in lap joints. The particular objective is to determine when large numbers of small cracks could degrade the joint strength to an unacceptable level. A deterministic model is described to compute fatigue crack growth and residual strength of riveted panels that contain multiple cracks. Fatigue crack growth tests conducted to evaluate the predictive model are summarized, and indicate good agreement between experimental and numerical results. Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to determine the influence of statistical variability on various analysis parameters.
Journal Article

Assessment of Large-Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Round Jets Using Low-Order Numerical Schemes

The basic idea behind large-eddy simulation (LES) is to accurately resolve the large energy-containing scales and to use subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the smaller scales. The accuracy of LES can be significantly impacted by the numerical discretization schemes and the choice of the SGS model. This work investigates the accuracy of low-order LES codes in the simulation of a turbulent round jet which is representative of fuel jets in engines. The turbulent jet studied is isothermal with a Reynolds number of 6800. It is simulated using Converge, which is second-order accurate in space and first-order in time, and FLEDS, developed at Purdue University, which is sixth-order accurate in space and fourth-order in time. The high-order code requires the resolution of acoustic time-scales and hence is approximately 10 times more expensive than the low-order code.
Technical Paper

Balloon Launched UAV with Nested Wing for Near Space Applications

There has always been, from the very first UAV, a need for providing cost-effective methods of deploying unmanned aircraft systems at high altitudes. Missions for UAVs at high altitudes are used to conduct atmospheric research, perform global mapping missions, collect remote sensing data, and establish long range communications networks. The team of Gevers Aircraft, Technology Management Group, and Purdue University have designed an innovative balloon launched UAV for these near space applications. A UAV (Payload Return Vehicle) with a nested morphing wing was designed in order to meet the challenges of high altitude flight, and long range and endurance without the need for descent rate control with rockets or a feathering mode.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Crop-Waste Loads for Solid-Waste Processing

In long-duration, closed human habitats in space that include crop growth, one challenge that is faced while designing a candidate waste processor is the composition of solid-waste loads, which include human waste, packaging and food-processing materials, crop spoilage, and plant residues. In this work, a new modeling tool is developed to characterize crop residues and food wastes based on diet in order to support the design of solid-waste technologies for closed systems. The model predicts amounts of crop residues and food wastes due to food processing, crop harvests, and edible spoilage. To support the design of solid-waste technologies, the generation of crop residues and food wastes was characterized for a 600-day mission to Mars using integrated menu, crop, and waste models. The three sources of plant residues and food waste are identified to be food processors, crop harvests, and edible spoilage.
Technical Paper

Combined CFD and CAA Simulations with Impedance Boundary Conditions

In computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and computational aeroacoustics (CAA) simulations, the wall surface is normally treated as a purely reflective wall. However, some surface treatments are usually applied in experiments. Thus, the acoustic simulations cannot be validated by experimental results. One of the major challenges is how to define acoustically boundary conditions in a well-posed way. In aeroacoustics analysis, impedance is a quantity to characterize reflectivity and absorption of an acoustically treated surface, which may be introduced into the numerical models as a frequency-domain boundary condition. However, CFD and CAA simulations are time-domain computations, meaning the frequency-domain impedance boundary condition cannot be adopted directly. Several methods, including the three-parameter model, the z-transform method and the reflection coefficient model, were developed.
Technical Paper

Communication Skills Development: Practical Implications for a Culture of Safety in Aviation Maintenance

The negative consequences of unsafe behaviors on the job heavily contribute to the rising costs of doing business in terms of both organization dollars and diminished human quality of life. Developing a safety culture provides a positive proactive approach toward creating a working environment where safety is a top priority. An integral part of accomplishing this task is directly related to training individuals on how the interactions that occur among organizational members and the messages their behaviors send influence others' behaviors. This can be best addressed through communication skill development initiatives including mutual responsibility, trust, avoiding punitive strategies and facilitating assertiveness.
Technical Paper

Complementary Disinfection (UV Irradiation and Iodination) for Long-term Space Missions: Preliminary System Design

As part of the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training for Advanced Life Support (NSCORT-ALS) at Purdue University, a complementary disinfection process, which uses ultraviolet (UV) radiation as the primary disinfectant and iodine as the secondary, residual disinfectant, is being developed. UV radiation was selected as the primary disinfectant because it is effective at inactivating a broad spectrum of microorganisms and has minimal potential for the formation of disinfection byproducts. Iodine, which is effective at inactivating many microorganisms and is less likely to react and form disinfection byproducts than other halogens, was selected as the residual disinfectant because it has the potential for dual use as an on-line UV monitor, as well as a disinfectant.
Technical Paper

Critical Management Skills for Maintenance Managers

Recognizing that technicians and managers need additional skills in order to compete for and successfully fill management positions, a major air carrier requested that Purdue University perform a study with employees in order to identify specific skills that are required to perform successfully in leadership positions. The study identified three core competencies (leadership, communication, and management processes) needed to be a successful leader in a major air carrier environment and outlined several related knowledge and skills within each area. Currently, many individuals in front line and mid-level management are lacking in several of these knowledge bases and skill sets. Consequently, the value of addressing current deficiencies through educational and experiential learning opportunities was proposed.
Technical Paper

Design for Crashworthiness of Vehicle Structures Using an Extended Hybrid Cellular Automaton Method

This paper introduces a design methodology to tailor the acceleration and displacement responses of a vehicle structure subjected to a dynamic crushing load. The proposed approach is an extension of the hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method, through which the internal energy density is uniformly distributed within the structure. The proposed approach, referred here to as an extended HCA (xHCA) method, receives the suitable combinations of volume fraction and a finite element meta-parameter for which the algorithm synthesizes the load paths that allow the desired crash response. Lower meta-parameter values lead designs obtained by traditional optimizers, while larger values lead to designs obtained by the HCA method. Simultaneous implementation of multiple values of meta-parameters is presented here as a further development of xHCA method.
Technical Paper

Design of a High-Bandwidth, Low-Cost Hydrostatic Absorption Dynamometer with Electronic Load Control

A low-cost hydrostatic absorption dynamometer has been developed for small to medium sized engines. The dynamometer was designed and built by students to support student projects and educational activities. The availability of such a dynamometer permits engine break-in cycles, performance testing, and laboratory instruction in the areas of engines, fuels, sensors, and data acquisition. The dynamometer, capable of loading engines up to 60kW at 155Nm and 3600rpm, incorporates a two-section gear pump and an electronically operated proportional pressure control valve to develop and control the load. A bypass valve permits the use of only one pump section, allowing increased fidelity of load control at lower torque levels. Torque is measured directly on the drive shaft with a strain gage. Torque and speed signals are transmitted by an inductively-powered collar mounted to the dynamometer drive shaft. Pressure transducers at the pump inlet and pump outlet allow secondary load measurement.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hybrid Honeycomb Unit Cell with Enhanced In-Plane Mechanical Properties

Sandwich structures with honeycomb core are widely used in the lightweight design and impact energy absorption applications in automotive, sporting, and aerospace industries. Recently, the auxetic honeycombs with negative Poisson's ratio attract substantial attention for different engineering products. In this study, we implement Additive Manufacturing technology, experimental testing, and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to design and investigate the mechanical behavior of a novel unit cell for sandwich structure core. The new core model contains the conventional and auxetic honeycomb cells beside each other to create a Hybrid Honeycomb (HHC) for the sandwich structure. The different designs of unit cells with the same volume fraction of 15% are 3D-printed using Fused Deposition Modeling technique, and the comparative study on the mechanical behavior of conventional honeycomb, auxetic honeycomb, and HHC structures is conducted.
Technical Paper

Designing a Parallel-Through-the-Road Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The Purdue University EcoMakers team has completed its first year of the EcoCAR 2 Competition, in which the team has designed a Parallel-Through-the-Road Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle that meets the performance requirements of a mid-size sedan for the US market, maintaining capability, utility and consumer satisfaction while minimizing emissions, energy consumption and petroleum use. The team is utilizing a 1.7L 14 CI engine utilizing B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel), a 16.2 kW-hr A123 battery pack, and a Magna E-Drive motor to power the front and rear wheels. This will allow the vehicle to have a charge-depleting range of 75 miles. The first year was focused on the simulation of the vehicle, in which the team completed the controls, packaging and integration, and electrical plans for the vehicle to be used and implemented in years two and three of the competition.
Technical Paper

Detection of Pinion Grinding Defects in a Nested Planetary Gear System using a Narrowband Demodulation Approach

Nested planetary gear trains, which consist of two integrated co-axial single-stage planetary gearsets, have recently been widely implemented in automobile transmissions and various other applications. In the current study, a non-destructive vibrational and acoustical monitoring technique is developed to detect a common type of gear grinding defect for a complex nested gear train structure. A nested gear train which has an unground pinion with unpolished teeth profile is used to exemplify the developed methodology. An experimental test stand with an open and vertical mounting configuration has been designed to acquire both vibrational and acoustical data. The measured data are investigated using several signal processing techniques to identify unground pinions in the gear system. A general frequency spectrum analysis is performed initially, which is then followed by a peak finding algorithm to identify the peaks in the spectrum.