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Technical Paper

A New Lab for Testing Biofiltration for Advanced Life Support

Bioregenerative systems for removal of gaseous contaminants are desired for long-term space missions to reduce the equivalent system mass of the air cleaning system. This paper describes an innovative design of a new biofiltration test lab for investigating the capability of biofiltration process for removal of ersatz multi-component gaseous streams representative of spacecraft contaminants released during long-term space travel. The lab setup allows a total of 24 bioreactors to receive identical inlet waste streams at stable contaminant concentrations via use of permeations ovens, needle valves, precision orifices, etc. A unique set of hardware including a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, and a data acquisition and control system using LabVIEW™ software allows automatic, continuous, and real-time gas monitoring and data collection for the 24 bioreactors. This lab setup allows powerful factorial experimental design.
Journal Article

A Novel Pressure-Feedback Based Adaptive Control Method to Damp Instabilities in Hydraulic Machines

Excessive vibration and poor controllability occur in many mobile fluid power applications, with negative consequences as concerns operators' health and comfort as well as machine safety and productivity. This paper addresses the problem of reducing oscillations in fluid power machines presenting a novel control technique of general applicability. Strong nonlinearities of hydraulic systems and the unpredictable operating conditions of the specific application (e.g. uneven ground, varying loads, etc.) are the main challenges to the development of satisfactory general vibration damping methods. The state of the art methods are typically designed as a function of the specific application, and in many cases they introduce energy dissipation and/or system slowdown. This paper contributes to this research by introducing an energy efficient active damping method based on feedback signals from pressure sensors mounted on the flow control valve block.
Technical Paper

A Review of Lattice Boltzmann Methods for Multiphase Flows Relevant to Engine Sprays

This paper reviews some applications of lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM) to compute multiphase flows. The method is based on the solution of a kinetic equation which describes the evolution of the distribution of the population of particles whose collective behavior reproduces fluid behavior. The distribution is modified by particle streaming and collisions on a lattice. Modeling of physics at a mesoscopic level enables LBM to naturally incorporate physical properties needed to compute complex flows. In multiphase flows, the surface tension and phase segregation are incorporated by considering intermolecular attraction forces. Furthermore, the solution of the kinetic equations representing linear advection and collision, in which non-linearity is lumped locally, makes it parallelizable with relative ease. In this paper, a brief review of the lattice Boltzmann method relevant to engine sprays will be presented.
Journal Article

Adaptive Robust Motion Control of an Excavator Hydraulic Hybrid Swing Drive

Over the last decade, a number of hybrid architectures have been proposed with the main goal of minimizing energy consumption of off-highway vehicles. One of the architecture subsets which has progressively gained attention is hydraulic hybrids for earth-moving equipment. Among these architectures, hydraulic hybrids with secondary-controlled drives have proven to be a reliable, implementable, and highly efficient alternative with the potential for up to 50% engine downsizing when applied to excavator truck-loading cycles. Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) robust linear control strategies have been developed by the authors' group with notable improvements on the control of the state of charge of the high pressure accumulator. Nonetheless, the challenge remains to improve the actuator position and velocity tracking.
Technical Paper

Adoption Patterns for Precision Agriculture

Early experience with precision farming technology suggests that some hardware and software may follow a rapid S curve adoption path, but that the use of integrated precision farming systems may take longer to develop and be subject to false starts and periods of stagnation. Yield monitors appear to be following a classic S curve adoption path. Precision farming adoption is like that of hybrid corn because changes in organizations will be required to use it effectively. It is like motorized mechanization because it is coming on the market in an immature form and lends itself to farmer tinkering.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Switched Capacitive Machines for Aerospace Applications

Electric machinery is typically based upon the interaction of magnetic fields and current to produce electromagnetic force or torque. However, force and torque can also be produced through the use of electric fields. The purpose of this investigation is to briefly analyze the use of a switched capacitance electric field based machine to see if it may have aerospace applications for use as either propulsion motor for unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV) or lightweight flywheel applications for aerospace applications. It is shown that although its use as a hub propulsion motor is not feasible, it may be a candidate for use in a power flywheel energy storage system.
Technical Paper

Balloon Launched UAV with Nested Wing for Near Space Applications

There has always been, from the very first UAV, a need for providing cost-effective methods of deploying unmanned aircraft systems at high altitudes. Missions for UAVs at high altitudes are used to conduct atmospheric research, perform global mapping missions, collect remote sensing data, and establish long range communications networks. The team of Gevers Aircraft, Technology Management Group, and Purdue University have designed an innovative balloon launched UAV for these near space applications. A UAV (Payload Return Vehicle) with a nested morphing wing was designed in order to meet the challenges of high altitude flight, and long range and endurance without the need for descent rate control with rockets or a feathering mode.
Technical Paper

Case Study of an Electric-Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion System for a Heavy Duty Electric Vehicle

In order to improve efficiency and increase the operation of electric vehicles, assistive energy regeneration systems can be used. A hydraulic energy recovery system is modeled to be used as a regenerative system for supplementing energy storage for a pure electric articulated passenger bus. In this study a pump/motor machine is modeled to transform kinetic energy into hydraulic energy during braking, to move the hydraulic fluid from the low pressure reservoir to the hydraulic accumulator. The simulation of the proposed system was used to estimate battery savings. It was found that on average, approximately 39% of the battery charge can be saved when using a real bus driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Design of a High-Bandwidth, Low-Cost Hydrostatic Absorption Dynamometer with Electronic Load Control

A low-cost hydrostatic absorption dynamometer has been developed for small to medium sized engines. The dynamometer was designed and built by students to support student projects and educational activities. The availability of such a dynamometer permits engine break-in cycles, performance testing, and laboratory instruction in the areas of engines, fuels, sensors, and data acquisition. The dynamometer, capable of loading engines up to 60kW at 155Nm and 3600rpm, incorporates a two-section gear pump and an electronically operated proportional pressure control valve to develop and control the load. A bypass valve permits the use of only one pump section, allowing increased fidelity of load control at lower torque levels. Torque is measured directly on the drive shaft with a strain gage. Torque and speed signals are transmitted by an inductively-powered collar mounted to the dynamometer drive shaft. Pressure transducers at the pump inlet and pump outlet allow secondary load measurement.
Technical Paper

Designing a High Voltage Energy Storage System for a Parallel-Through-The-Road Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

A parallel-through-the-road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is being created by modifying a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu. This is being accomplished by replacing the stock 2.4L gasoline engine which powers the front wheels of the vehicle with a 1.7L diesel engine and by placing a high voltage electric motor in the rear of the vehicle to power the rear wheels. In order to meet the high voltage needs of the vehicle created by the PTTR hybrid architecture, an energy storage system (ESS) will need to be created. This paper explains considerations, such as location, structure integrity, and cooling, which are needed in order to properly design an ESS.
Technical Paper

Designing a Parallel-Through-the-Road Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The Purdue University EcoMakers team has completed its first year of the EcoCAR 2 Competition, in which the team has designed a Parallel-Through-the-Road Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle that meets the performance requirements of a mid-size sedan for the US market, maintaining capability, utility and consumer satisfaction while minimizing emissions, energy consumption and petroleum use. The team is utilizing a 1.7L 14 CI engine utilizing B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel), a 16.2 kW-hr A123 battery pack, and a Magna E-Drive motor to power the front and rear wheels. This will allow the vehicle to have a charge-depleting range of 75 miles. The first year was focused on the simulation of the vehicle, in which the team completed the controls, packaging and integration, and electrical plans for the vehicle to be used and implemented in years two and three of the competition.
Technical Paper

Developing Education and Outreach Initiatives at the Indiana Space Grant Consortium

The Indiana Space Grant Consortium is one of 52 members of the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (“Space Grant”), which was initiated by NASA in 1988. Space Grant is designed to be a source of NASA-related information, awards, and programs to enhance education, outreach, and workforce development for the United States. Based on the land grant model of public university education, Space Grant seeks to spread the vision of NASA to increase science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) awareness; NASA-related education; workforce development; outreach and research activities. This paper describes the evolution of these activities in Indiana.
Technical Paper

Development of a Torque-Based Control Strategy for a Mode-Switching Hydraulic Hybrid Passenger Vehicle

An increase in the number of vehicles per capita coupled with stricter emission regulations have made the development of newer and better hybrid vehicle architectures indispensable. Although electric hybrids have more visibility and are now commercially available, hydraulic hybrids, with their higher power densities and cheaper components, have been rigorously explored as the alternative. Several architectures have been proposed and implemented for both on and off highway applications. The most commonly used architecture is the series hybrid, which requires an energy conversion from the primary source (engine) to the secondary domain. From he re, the power flows either into the secondary source (high-pressure accumulator) or to the wheels depending upon the state of charge of the accumulator. A mode-switching hydraulic hybrid, which is a combination of a hydrostatic transmission and a series hybrid, was recently developed in the author’s research group.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Noise Source Visualization with Wideband Acoustical Holography

Wideband Acoustical Holography (WBH), which is a monopole-based, equivalent source procedure (J. Hald, “Wideband Acoustical Holography,” INTER-NOISE 2014), has proven to offer accurate noise source visualization results in experiments with a simple noise source: e.g., a loudspeaker (T. Shi, Y. Liu, J.S. Bolton, “The Use of Wideband Holography for Noise Source Visualization”, NOISE-CON 2016). From a previous study, it was found that the advantage of this procedure is the ability to optimize the solution in the case of an under-determined system: i.e., when the number of measurements is much smaller than the number of parameters that must be estimated in the model. In the present work, a diesel engine noise source was measured by using one set of measurements from a thirty-five channel combo-array placed in front of the engine.
Technical Paper

Digital Electrohydraulic Control for Constant-Deceleration Emergency Braking

A digital electrohydraulic control system for emergency braking is designed, simulated, built, and tested. First, a dynamic model of the system was developed with Matlab Simulink. The parameters are obtained experimentally. Feedback gains are obtained by tuning the model. Then, the digital controller is implemented on an industrial personal computer programmed in Turbo C++. The control strategy is an improved digital version of the PID control. The key element in the control of the brake was an electro-hydraulic proportional pressure valve. Experiments show that the control system successfully realizes constant-deceleration emergency brake within mine safety rules. The same hardware can be reprogrammed for various hoists, different load conditions, and different control objectives. Although the test was conducted on a mine hoist brake, the control system can be applied to most vehicles.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation Techniques for Steering of Tracked Agricultural and Forestry Vehicles

A procedure for simulating the dynamics of agricultural and forestry machines using mechanical system simulation software is presented. A soil/track interface model including rubber-track and steel-track was introduced as well as equations that can be used to model mechanical and hydraulic power trains commonly found in tracked vehicles. Two rubber-tracked vehicles (agricultural tractors) and two steel-tracked machines (forestry vehicles) were simulated to illustrate the technique, and some analysis results are presented. The examples given in this paper are based on the author’s research over the past several years.
Technical Paper

Externally Electro-Pneumatically Shifting System (E.P.S) to Install on Manual Transmissions

In this study, an Electro-pneumatic shifting system (E.P.S) has been designed to install on manual transmissions to make the selecting and shifting process faster and more reliable compared to manual systems. Shifting mechanism of a six speed gear box has been improved by using two tandem pneumatic cylinders, position sensors, pneumatic valves, and a controlling board based on AVR microcontroller. The central processing unit uses an electronic control system to provide the optimized operation of shift mechanism. This system can be easily adjusted in order to install externally on manual transmission systems without any changes on housing and transmission shift links.
Technical Paper

Frequency Conversion Controlled Vapor Recovery System by Temperature and Flow Signals: Model Design and Parameters Optimization

Current gasoline-gas vapor recovery system is incomplete, for it cannot adjust the vapor-liquid ratio automatically due to the change of working temperature. To solve this problem, this paper intends to design a new system and optimize its parameters. In this research, variables control method is used for tests while linear regression is used for data processing. This new system moves proportion valve away and adds a DSP control module, a frequency conversion device, and a temperature sensor. With this research, it is clearly reviewed that the vapor-liquid ratio should remains 1.0 from 0 °C to 20 °C as its working temperature, be changed into 1.1 from 20 °C to 25 °C, be changed into 1.2 from 25 °C to 30 °C, and be changed into 1.3 when the working temperature is above 30 °C.
Technical Paper

Health Monitoring for Condition-Based Maintenance of a HMMWV using an Instrumented Diagnostic Cleat

Operation & support costs for military weapon systems accounted for approximately 3/5th of the $500B Department of Defense budget in 2006. In an effort to ensure readiness and decrease these costs for ground vehicle fleets, health monitoring technologies are being developed for Condition-Based Maintenance of individual vehicles within a fleet. Dynamics-based health monitoring is used in this work because vibrations are a passive source of response data, which are global functions of the mechanical loading and properties of the vehicle. A common way of detecting faults in mechanical equipment, such as the suspension and chassis of a ground vehicle, is to compare measured operational vibrations to a reference (or healthy) signature to detect anomalies.
Technical Paper

Key Outcomes of Year One of EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future

EcoCAR 2: Plugging In to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 28 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.