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Technical Paper

A Comment on the Statistical Energy Approach

1969-02-01
690611
This paper presents the Statistical Energy Approach (SEA) method for estimating the gross response in complex interconnected structural systems. The method is intended to compensate for the difficulties present in evaluating parameters and excitation needed when attempting to use traditional methods of linear vibration analysis. The amount of information needed to apply the method is modest and the formulas are easy to use. Some limitation on application is demonstrated by a detailed example.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Near-Field Acoustical Holography Methods Applied to Noise Source Identification

2019-06-05
2019-01-1533
Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an inverse process in which sound pressure measurements made in the near-field of an unknown sound source are used to reconstruct the sound field so that source distributions can be clearly identified. NAH was originally based on performing spatial transforms of arrays of measured pressures and then processing the data in the wavenumber domain, a procedure that entailed the use of very large microphone arrays to avoid spatial truncation effects. Over the last twenty years, a number of different NAH methods have been proposed that can reduce or avoid spatial truncation issues: for example, Statistically Optimized Near-Field Acoustical Holography (SONAH), various Equivalent Source Methods (ESM), etc.
Journal Article

A Computational Multiaxial Model for Stress-Strain Analysis of Ground Vehicle Notched Components

2017-03-28
2017-01-0329
Driveline and suspension notched components of off-road ground vehicles often experience multiaxial fatigue failures along notch locations. Large nominal load histories may induce local elasto-plastic stress and strain responses at the critical notch locations. Fatigue life prediction of such notched components requires detailed knowledge of local stresses and strains at notch regions. The notched components that are often subject to multiaxial loadings in services, experience complex stress and strain responses. Fatigue life assessment of the components utilizing non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) require unfeasibly inefficient computation times and large data. The lack of more efficient and effective methods of elasto-plastic stress-strain calculation may lead to the overdesign or earlier failures of the components or costly experiments and inefficient non-linear FEA.
Technical Paper

A Photostress Study of Spur Gear Teeth

1967-05-15
670503
An experimental-analytic method of determining the stress distribution in narrow faced spur gear teeth is presented. The successful application of photostress to this contact problem is reported. It utilizes a digital computer routine developed for separating stresses in any general two-dimensional region. Results for two pairs of gears are presented. Comparison is made with values predicted by the modified Lewis formula, the Kelley and Pedersen equation, and by the Belajef solution of the Hertz contact problem for two cylinders.
Technical Paper

A Review of Lattice Boltzmann Methods for Multiphase Flows Relevant to Engine Sprays

2005-04-11
2005-01-0996
This paper reviews some applications of lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM) to compute multiphase flows. The method is based on the solution of a kinetic equation which describes the evolution of the distribution of the population of particles whose collective behavior reproduces fluid behavior. The distribution is modified by particle streaming and collisions on a lattice. Modeling of physics at a mesoscopic level enables LBM to naturally incorporate physical properties needed to compute complex flows. In multiphase flows, the surface tension and phase segregation are incorporated by considering intermolecular attraction forces. Furthermore, the solution of the kinetic equations representing linear advection and collision, in which non-linearity is lumped locally, makes it parallelizable with relative ease. In this paper, a brief review of the lattice Boltzmann method relevant to engine sprays will be presented.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for a Tandem External Gear Pump for Automotive Transmission

2018-04-03
2018-01-0403
This paper describes a simulation approach for the modeling of tandem external gear pumps. A tandem gear pump is the combination of two pumps with a common drive shaft. Such design architecture finds application in certain automotive transmission systems. The model presented in this work is applicable for pumps with both helical and spur gears. The simulation model is built on the HYGESim (HYdraulic GEars machines Simulator) previously developed by the authors for external spur gear units. In this work, the model formulation is properly extended to the capabilities of simulating helical gears. Starting directly from the CAD drawings of the unit, the fluid-dynamic model solves the internal instantaneous tooth space volume pressures and the internal flows following a lumped parameter approach. The simulation tool considers also the radial micro-motion of the gears, which influences the internal leakages and the features of the meshing process.
Technical Paper

Adoption Patterns for Precision Agriculture

1998-09-14
982041
Early experience with precision farming technology suggests that some hardware and software may follow a rapid S curve adoption path, but that the use of integrated precision farming systems may take longer to develop and be subject to false starts and periods of stagnation. Yield monitors appear to be following a classic S curve adoption path. Precision farming adoption is like that of hybrid corn because changes in organizations will be required to use it effectively. It is like motorized mechanization because it is coming on the market in an immature form and lends itself to farmer tinkering.
Technical Paper

Aggregate System Level Material Analysis for Advanced Life Support Systems

2003-07-07
2003-01-2362
In this paper, an aggregate system level modeling and analysis framework is proposed to facilitate the integration and design of advanced life support systems (ALSS). As in process design, the goal is to choose values for the degrees of freedom that achieve the best overall ALSS behavior without violating any system constraints. At the most fundamental level, this effort will identify the constraints and degrees of freedom associated with each subsystem and provide estimates of the system behavior and interactions involved in ALSS. This work is intended to be a starting point for developing insights into ALSS from a systems engineering point of view. At this level, simple aggregate static input/output mapping subsystem models from existing data and the NASA ALS BVAD document are used to debug the model and demonstrate feasibility.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Procedure for Visualizing the Sound Field Radiated by Vehicles During Standardized Passby Tests

1999-05-17
1999-01-1741
Spherical beamforming was used to visualize sound radiation during a vehicle passby test. Forward and backward propagation procedures are compared in terms of computational expense. A spherical spreading correction factor is described, along with a maximum liklihood procedure for obtaining an optimal array weighting dependent on the relative distance between the microphones and the focus point. The de-Dopplerized microphone outputs are multiplied by the weighting factors and summed to yield the source strengths over a reconstruction plane “attached” to the vehicle. Results obtained using a 16 element sparse array during an actual passby are used to demonstrate the present approach.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Widespread Fatigue Damage in Lap Joints

1999-04-20
1999-01-1586
This paper describes research to analyze widespread fatigue damage in lap joints. The particular objective is to determine when large numbers of small cracks could degrade the joint strength to an unacceptable level. A deterministic model is described to compute fatigue crack growth and residual strength of riveted panels that contain multiple cracks. Fatigue crack growth tests conducted to evaluate the predictive model are summarized, and indicate good agreement between experimental and numerical results. Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to determine the influence of statistical variability on various analysis parameters.
Journal Article

Assessment of Large-Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Round Jets Using Low-Order Numerical Schemes

2017-03-28
2017-01-0575
The basic idea behind large-eddy simulation (LES) is to accurately resolve the large energy-containing scales and to use subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the smaller scales. The accuracy of LES can be significantly impacted by the numerical discretization schemes and the choice of the SGS model. This work investigates the accuracy of low-order LES codes in the simulation of a turbulent round jet which is representative of fuel jets in engines. The turbulent jet studied is isothermal with a Reynolds number of 6800. It is simulated using Converge, which is second-order accurate in space and first-order in time, and FLEDS, developed at Purdue University, which is sixth-order accurate in space and fourth-order in time. The high-order code requires the resolution of acoustic time-scales and hence is approximately 10 times more expensive than the low-order code.
Technical Paper

Balloon Launched UAV with Nested Wing for Near Space Applications

2007-09-17
2007-01-3910
There has always been, from the very first UAV, a need for providing cost-effective methods of deploying unmanned aircraft systems at high altitudes. Missions for UAVs at high altitudes are used to conduct atmospheric research, perform global mapping missions, collect remote sensing data, and establish long range communications networks. The team of Gevers Aircraft, Technology Management Group, and Purdue University have designed an innovative balloon launched UAV for these near space applications. A UAV (Payload Return Vehicle) with a nested morphing wing was designed in order to meet the challenges of high altitude flight, and long range and endurance without the need for descent rate control with rockets or a feathering mode.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Crop-Waste Loads for Solid-Waste Processing

2007-07-09
2007-01-3187
In long-duration, closed human habitats in space that include crop growth, one challenge that is faced while designing a candidate waste processor is the composition of solid-waste loads, which include human waste, packaging and food-processing materials, crop spoilage, and plant residues. In this work, a new modeling tool is developed to characterize crop residues and food wastes based on diet in order to support the design of solid-waste technologies for closed systems. The model predicts amounts of crop residues and food wastes due to food processing, crop harvests, and edible spoilage. To support the design of solid-waste technologies, the generation of crop residues and food wastes was characterized for a 600-day mission to Mars using integrated menu, crop, and waste models. The three sources of plant residues and food waste are identified to be food processors, crop harvests, and edible spoilage.
Technical Paper

Communication Skills Development: Practical Implications for a Culture of Safety in Aviation Maintenance

1998-11-09
983113
The negative consequences of unsafe behaviors on the job heavily contribute to the rising costs of doing business in terms of both organization dollars and diminished human quality of life. Developing a safety culture provides a positive proactive approach toward creating a working environment where safety is a top priority. An integral part of accomplishing this task is directly related to training individuals on how the interactions that occur among organizational members and the messages their behaviors send influence others' behaviors. This can be best addressed through communication skill development initiatives including mutual responsibility, trust, avoiding punitive strategies and facilitating assertiveness.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Computed and Measured Results of Combustion in a Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980786
Results of computations of flows, sprays and combustion performed in an optically- accessible Diesel engine are presented. These computed results are compared with measured values of chamber pressure, liquid penetration, and soot distribution, deduced from flame luminosity photographs obtained in the engine at Sandia National Laboratories and reported in the literature. The computations were performed for two operating conditions representing low load and high load conditions as reported in the experimental work. The computed and measured peak pressures agree within 5% for both the low load and the high load conditions. The heat release rates derived from the computations are consistent with expectations for Diesel combustion with a premixed phase of heat release and then a diffusion phase. The computed soot distribution shows noticeable differences from the measured one.
Technical Paper

Complementary Disinfection (UV Irradiation and Iodination) for Long-term Space Missions: Preliminary System Design

2004-07-19
2004-01-2516
As part of the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training for Advanced Life Support (NSCORT-ALS) at Purdue University, a complementary disinfection process, which uses ultraviolet (UV) radiation as the primary disinfectant and iodine as the secondary, residual disinfectant, is being developed. UV radiation was selected as the primary disinfectant because it is effective at inactivating a broad spectrum of microorganisms and has minimal potential for the formation of disinfection byproducts. Iodine, which is effective at inactivating many microorganisms and is less likely to react and form disinfection byproducts than other halogens, was selected as the residual disinfectant because it has the potential for dual use as an on-line UV monitor, as well as a disinfectant.
Technical Paper

Critical Management Skills for Maintenance Managers

1999-08-10
1999-01-2976
Recognizing that technicians and managers need additional skills in order to compete for and successfully fill management positions, a major air carrier requested that Purdue University perform a study with employees in order to identify specific skills that are required to perform successfully in leadership positions. The study identified three core competencies (leadership, communication, and management processes) needed to be a successful leader in a major air carrier environment and outlined several related knowledge and skills within each area. Currently, many individuals in front line and mid-level management are lacking in several of these knowledge bases and skill sets. Consequently, the value of addressing current deficiencies through educational and experiential learning opportunities was proposed.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hybrid Honeycomb Unit Cell with Enhanced In-Plane Mechanical Properties

2019-04-02
2019-01-0710
Sandwich structures with honeycomb core are widely used in the lightweight design and impact energy absorption applications in automotive, sporting, and aerospace industries. Recently, the auxetic honeycombs with negative Poisson's ratio attract substantial attention for different engineering products. In this study, we implement Additive Manufacturing technology, experimental testing, and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to design and investigate the mechanical behavior of a novel unit cell for sandwich structure core. The new core model contains the conventional and auxetic honeycomb cells beside each other to create a Hybrid Honeycomb (HHC) for the sandwich structure. The different designs of unit cells with the same volume fraction of 15% are 3D-printed using Fused Deposition Modeling technique, and the comparative study on the mechanical behavior of conventional honeycomb, auxetic honeycomb, and HHC structures is conducted.
Technical Paper

Designing a Parallel-Through-the-Road Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2012-09-10
2012-01-1763
The Purdue University EcoMakers team has completed its first year of the EcoCAR 2 Competition, in which the team has designed a Parallel-Through-the-Road Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle that meets the performance requirements of a mid-size sedan for the US market, maintaining capability, utility and consumer satisfaction while minimizing emissions, energy consumption and petroleum use. The team is utilizing a 1.7L 14 CI engine utilizing B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel), a 16.2 kW-hr A123 battery pack, and a Magna E-Drive motor to power the front and rear wheels. This will allow the vehicle to have a charge-depleting range of 75 miles. The first year was focused on the simulation of the vehicle, in which the team completed the controls, packaging and integration, and electrical plans for the vehicle to be used and implemented in years two and three of the competition.
Technical Paper

Developing Education and Outreach Initiatives at the Indiana Space Grant Consortium

2009-07-12
2009-01-2546
The Indiana Space Grant Consortium is one of 52 members of the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (“Space Grant”), which was initiated by NASA in 1988. Space Grant is designed to be a source of NASA-related information, awards, and programs to enhance education, outreach, and workforce development for the United States. Based on the land grant model of public university education, Space Grant seeks to spread the vision of NASA to increase science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) awareness; NASA-related education; workforce development; outreach and research activities. This paper describes the evolution of these activities in Indiana.
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