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Technical Paper

A Database of Ingress / Egress Motions of Elderly People

HANDIMAN project aims at collection data and developing a computer aided design tool that helps the designers to adapt car design to the needs of elderly and impaired people when getting in and out of a car. Healthy young people, elderly people and people with hip or/and knee prostheses participated in the experiments. For elderly subjects and those with prostheses, several clinical tests were carried out for characterizing their joint mobilities and physical capacities. Ingress / egress motions were captured for four different types of car. According to individual characteristics and motion control strategies, a motion database will be developed. With help of recently developed case based motion simulation approach, this motion database can be used to simulate new car configurations within the scope covered by the database. The aim of this paper is to present the collected data and how we are going to structure them to simulate ingress / egress motions.
Technical Paper

A Physical 0D Combustion Model Using Tabulated Chemistry with Presumed Probability Density Function Approach for Multi-Injection Diesel Engines

This paper presents a new 0D phenomenological approach to predict the combustion process in diesel engines operated under various running conditions. The aim of this work is to develop a physical approach in order to improve the prediction of in-cylinder pressure and heat release. The main contribution of this study is the modeling of the premixed part of the diesel combustion with a further extension of the model for multi-injection strategies. In phenomenological diesel combustion models, the premixed combustion phase is usually modeled by the propagation of a turbulent flame front. However, experimental studies have shown that this phase of diesel combustion is actually a rapid combustion of part of the fuel injected and mixed with the surrounding gas. This mixture burns quasi instantaneously when favorable thermodynamic conditions are locally reached. A chemical process then controls this combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of 30% Biodiesel Fuel on Soot Loading and Regeneration of a Catalytic DPF

Biofuels are a renewable energy source. When used as extenders for transportation fuels, biofuels contribute to the global reduction of Green House Gas and CO2 emissions from the transport sector and to security and independence of energy supply. On a “Well to Wheel” basis they are much more CO2 efficient than conventional fossil fuels. All vehicles currently in circulation in Europe are capable of using 5 % biodiesel. The introduction of higher percentages biodiesel needs new specific standards and vehicle tests validation. The development of vehicles compatible with 30% biodiesel blends in diesel fuel includes the validation of each part of both engine and fuel vehicle systems to guarantee normal operation for the entire life of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Validated Numerical Simulation of Diesel Injector Flow Using a VOF Method

Progress in Diesel spray modelling highly depends on a better knowledge of the instantaneous injection velocity and of the hydraulic section at the exit of each injection hole. Additionally a better identification of the mechanisms which cause fragmentation is needed. This necessitates to begin with a precise computation of the two-phase flow which arises due to the presence of cavitation within the injectors. For that aim, a VOF type interface tracking method has been developed and improved (Segment Lagrangian VOF method) which allows to describe numerically the onset and development of cavitation within Diesel injectors. Furthermore, experiments have been performed for validation purpose, on transparent one-hole injectors for high pressure injection conditions. Two different entrance geometries (straight and rounded) and various upstream and downstream pressure levels have been considered.
Technical Paper

Advanced Onboard Fuel Processor for PEM Fuel Cell Vehicles

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as CO2, automakers are actively pursuing alternative propulsion systems. Improvements to current engine technology are being investigated along with new power plant technologies. Fuel Cell Vehicles offer an exciting option by producing electric power through a reaction that combines hydrogen and oxygen to make water. However, hydrogen storage onboard vehicles and construction of an expensive hydrogen distribution and fueling infrastructure remain as challenges today. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions from the production of hydrogen must be considered since most hydrogen is currently produced from non-renewable sources. While these issues are being worked on, Renault has chosen to pursue a fuel cell vehicle with a fuel processor that converts gasoline and other liquid fuels to hydrogen onboard the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Air Quality and Odors Evaluation for Passengers Compartment

The paper presents the VALEO and RENAULT approach to study odor problems for passengers compartment. The first part describes the method chosen to form a panel, and the second part presents a vehicle application.
Technical Paper

Air System Conception for a Downsized Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

This paper introduces a research work on the air loop system for a downsized two-stroke two-cylinder diesel engine conducted in framework of the European project dealing with the POWERtrain for Future Light-duty vehicles - POWERFUL. The main objective was to determine requirements on the air management including the engine intake and exhaust system, boosting devices and the EGR system and to select the best possible technical solution. With respect to the power target of 45 kW and scavenging demands of the two-cylinder two-stroke engine with a displacement of 0.73 l, a two-stage boosting architecture was required. Further, to allow engine scavenging at any operation, supercharger had to be integrated in the air loop. Various air loop system layouts and concepts were assessed based on the 1-D steady state simulation at full and part load with respect to the fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Approach to Sheet Metal Forming Simulation

This paper presents the application of the different approaches available for the analysis of the sheet metal forming process on an industrial part (RENAULT KANGOO front fender). It is nowadays accepted in the engineering community that inverse, simplified direct and incremental direct approach are complementary and should be used in the development of a stamped part. The paper shows the formability analysis of the TWINGO door and hatchback at different stages of the part and process design, identifies the optimal approach at different stages and gives indication as to the relative speed, accuracy and quality of the different simulation solutions.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Influence of LPG (Autogas) Composition on the Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption of 3 Bi-Fuelled Renault Vehicles

Studies using a bi-fuelled (autogas/gasoline) Renault Laguna vehicle meeting °the 1996 European exhaust emission legislation has demonstrated that over the European test cycle at 25°C the LPG operated vehicle provides substantial benefits of reduced emissions compared to unleaded reference gasoline. At lower test temperatures (i.e. 5°C) even larger reduction in emissions have been observed. Lower CO (up to 95% at -5°C and 65% at 25°C), HC (90% at -5°C and 40% at 25°C) emissions and lower ozone HC reactivity have been observed and could all offer significant environmental air-quality benefits for LPG. Various autogas mixtures have been tested including 70/30, 30/70 and 49/30/21 (% mass propane / butane / propene). Results show that NOx emissions for this vehicle appear dependent on autogas composition. The two gas mixtures containing only 30% butane gave about 50% more NOx at +25°C than the 70% butane autogas mixture.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Systematic Calibration of Heat Transfer Models on a Turbocharged GDI Engine Operating Map

In order to simulate the working process, an accurate description of heat transfer occurring between in-cylinder gases and combustion chamber walls is required, especially regarding thermal efficiency, combustion and emissions, or cooling strategies. Combustion chamber wall heat transfer models are dominated by zero-dimensional semi-empirical models due to their good compromise between accuracy, complexity and computational efficiency. Classic models such as those from Woschni, Annand or Hohenberg are still widely used, despite having been developed on rather ancient engines. While numerous authors have worked on this topic in the past decades, little information can be found concerning the systematic calibration process of heat transfer models. In this paper, a systematic calibration method based on experimental data processing is tested on the complete operating map of a turbocharged GDI engine.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Dynamics of a Hydraulic Control Circuit of an Automatic Gearbox

The description of the supply pressure hydraulic circuit and the couplings between its components are presented. A comparison between simulations and experiments is carried out. Using some linear facilities, it is possible to conclude that the low frequency modes mainly correspond to the wave effects of hydraulic lines which connect valves to each other. In order to maintain a pressure in the supply circuit, an electronic pressure control is necessary. The design of a control law needs to build different linear models for different levels of pressure since the system is very non linear. Three transfer functions are found for three pressure levels. These transfer functions are very similar to the ones used by the automatic control department and obtained by experiments. Using these transfer functions it is possible to design the control law.
Technical Paper

Applicability of Large Eddy Simulation to the Fluid Mechanics in a Real Engine Configuration by Means of an Industrial Code

3D simulations of internal combustion engines are usually based on statistical approaches (RANS) that may not allow predicting cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) or transient speeds because part of this information is lost by the averaging procedure. To simulate such phenomena, it requires time resolved approaches. Therefore, large eddy simulation (LES), which only involves a spatial averaging, appears to be a very promising tool. An LES approach is applied to simulate the flow field inside one cylinder taken from a real four-valve diesel engine mounted on an experimental particle image velocimetry (PIV) bench. Preliminary tests are carried out to evaluate the industrial code capabilities. A multi-cycle calculation is computed in cold flow, in order to evaluate its ability to simulate cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV).
Technical Paper

Application and Evaluation of the Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray Atomization (ELSA) Model on CFD Diesel Spray Simulations

During the last fifteen years, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become one of the most important tools to both understand and improve the diesel spray development in Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Most of the approaches and models used pure Eulerian or Lagrangian descriptions to simulate the spray behavior. However, each one of them has both advantages and disadvantages in different regions of the spray, it can be the dense zone or the downstream dilute zone. One of the most promising techniques, which has been in development since ten years ago, is the Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray Atomization (ELSA) model. This is an integrated model for capturing the whole spray evolution, including primary break-up and secondary atomization. In this paper, the ELSA numerical modeling of diesel sprays implementation in Star-CD (2010) is studied, and simulated in comparison with the diesel spray which has been experimentally studied in our institute, CMT-Motores Térmicos.
Technical Paper

Applying Quasi-Multiphase Model to Simulate Atomization Processes in Diesel Engines: Modeling of the Slip Velocity

Atomizing systems must be able to form sprays with predetermined characteristics. There are affected by the shape of the injector as well as external conditions. Thus, in order to avoid numerous experiments, this is necessary to develop predictive atomization models able to deal with the complete atomization process. This can be done using a Eulerian model for primary break-up. This approach describes the flow continuously from inside the injector to the dispersed spray region. In this paper the Eulerian multiphase approach and the Eulerian single-phase approach are compared and the results lead to an intermediate quasi-multiphase approach for describing the spray core. Finally a transition zone permits to represent the diluted spray region by using the classical Lagrangian approach to benefit of the experience accumulated on this method, in particular for the vaporization and the combustion.
Technical Paper

Behavior of a Vehicle During Turning

Renault believes that the behavior of the vehicle must always be consistent with the instantaneous orders given by the driver, whether braking, accelerating or lifting the foot off the accelerator. The vehicle must also inform its driver when it is near a point of limit. The first part of this paper details the vehicle with respect to its trajectory at stabilized speeds. The rigidity of the overall drift of the axle assemblies and tires, the steering angles induced by vehicle roll attitude, under- and over-steering behavior and vehicle roll attitude, under- and over-steering behavior and behavior of the tire under load are covered. A vehicle trajectory model is used to confirm test results.
Technical Paper

Calculation Process with Lattice Boltzmann and Finite Element Methods to Choose the Best Exterior Design for Wind Noise

Wind noise in automobile is becoming more and more important as the customer expectations increase. On the other hand, great progress has been made on engine and road noises, especially for electric and hybrid vehicles. Thus, the wind noise is now by far the major acoustic source during road and motorway driving. As for other noises, automobile manufacturers must be able, for a new car project, to specify, calculate and measure each step of the acoustic cascading: Source Transfers, both solid and air borne In the case of the automotive wind noise, the excitation source is the dynamic pressure on the vehicle’s panels. This part of the cascading is the one influenced by the exterior design. Even if many others components (panels, seals, cabin trims) have a big influence, the exterior design is a major issue for the wind noise. The wind noise level in the cabin may change significantly with only a small modification of the exterior design.
Technical Paper

Comparison Tests Between Major European and North American Automotive Wind Tunnels

The results of comparative aerodynamic force measurements on a full-scale notchback-type vehicle, performed between 6 European companies operating full-scale automotive wind tunnels, were published in the SAE Paper 800140. Correlation tests with the same vehicle have been extended to 2 further European and 3 North American wind tunnels. First the geometry, the design and the flow data of the different wind tunnels is compared. The facilities compared include wind tunnels with open-test-sections, closed-test-sections and one tunnel with slotted side walls. The comparison of results, especially for drag coefficients, show that the correlation between the differently designed wind tunnels is reasonable. Problems of blockage correction are briefly discussed. The comparison tests furthermore revealed that careful design of the wheel pads and blockage corrections for lift seem to be very influential in achieving reasonable lift correlations. Six-component measurements show similar problems.
Technical Paper

Comparison between the exhaust particles mass determined by the European regulatory gravimetric method and the mass estimated by ELPI

Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) is often employed to measure the particle number and size distribution of internal combustion engines exhaust gas. If appropriate values of particle density are available, the particle mass can be estimated by this method. Exhaust particles of three Euro3 passenger cars (one gasoline operating under stoichiometric conditions, one Diesel and one Diesel equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter) are measured using the current European regulations (gravimetric method on the are New European Driving Cycle) and estimated by ELPI particle number and size distribution. Different values for particle density are used to estimate the particle mass using all ELPI stages or only some of them. The results show that the particle mass estimated by ELPI is well correlated with the mass determined by filters for PM emissions higher than 0.025 g/km. This correlation is not very good at lower emissions.
Technical Paper

Compressor Efficiency Extrapolation for 0D-1D Engine Simulations

0D-1D codes allow researchers to obtain a prediction of the behavior of internal combustion engines with little computational effort. One of the submodels of such codes is devoted to the centrifugal compressor. This model is often based on the compressor performance maps, therefore requiring the extrapolation of the maps so that all possible operating conditions are covered. Particularly, a suitable extrapolation of isentropic efficiency map is sought. This work first examines different available methods for compressor efficiency extrapolation into off-design conditions. No method is found to provide satisfactory results at all extrapolated regions: low and high compressor speeds and low compression ratio at measured speeds. Hence, a new method is proposed and its accuracy is assessed with the aid of compressor off-design measurements.
Journal Article

Computational Fluid Dynamics Calculations of Turbocharger's Bearing Losses

Fuel consumption in internal combustion engines and their associated CO2 emissions have become one of the major issues facing car manufacturers everyday for various reasons: the Kyoto protocol, the upcoming European regulation concerning CO2 emissions requiring emissions of less than 130g CO2/km before 2012, and customer demand. One of the most efficient solutions to reduce fuel consumption is to downsize the engine and increase its specific power and torque by using turbochargers. The engine and the turbocharger have to be chosen carefully and be finely tuned. It is essential to understand and characterise the turbocharger's behaviour precisely and on its whole operating range, especially at low engine speeds. The characteristics at low speed are not provided by manufacturers of turbochargers because compressor maps cannot be achieve on usual test bench.