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Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of 30% Biodiesel Fuel on Soot Loading and Regeneration of a Catalytic DPF

Biofuels are a renewable energy source. When used as extenders for transportation fuels, biofuels contribute to the global reduction of Green House Gas and CO2 emissions from the transport sector and to security and independence of energy supply. On a “Well to Wheel” basis they are much more CO2 efficient than conventional fossil fuels. All vehicles currently in circulation in Europe are capable of using 5 % biodiesel. The introduction of higher percentages biodiesel needs new specific standards and vehicle tests validation. The development of vehicles compatible with 30% biodiesel blends in diesel fuel includes the validation of each part of both engine and fuel vehicle systems to guarantee normal operation for the entire life of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Validated Numerical Simulation of Diesel Injector Flow Using a VOF Method

Progress in Diesel spray modelling highly depends on a better knowledge of the instantaneous injection velocity and of the hydraulic section at the exit of each injection hole. Additionally a better identification of the mechanisms which cause fragmentation is needed. This necessitates to begin with a precise computation of the two-phase flow which arises due to the presence of cavitation within the injectors. For that aim, a VOF type interface tracking method has been developed and improved (Segment Lagrangian VOF method) which allows to describe numerically the onset and development of cavitation within Diesel injectors. Furthermore, experiments have been performed for validation purpose, on transparent one-hole injectors for high pressure injection conditions. Two different entrance geometries (straight and rounded) and various upstream and downstream pressure levels have been considered.
Technical Paper

Advanced Onboard Fuel Processor for PEM Fuel Cell Vehicles

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as CO2, automakers are actively pursuing alternative propulsion systems. Improvements to current engine technology are being investigated along with new power plant technologies. Fuel Cell Vehicles offer an exciting option by producing electric power through a reaction that combines hydrogen and oxygen to make water. However, hydrogen storage onboard vehicles and construction of an expensive hydrogen distribution and fueling infrastructure remain as challenges today. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions from the production of hydrogen must be considered since most hydrogen is currently produced from non-renewable sources. While these issues are being worked on, Renault has chosen to pursue a fuel cell vehicle with a fuel processor that converts gasoline and other liquid fuels to hydrogen onboard the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Air Quality and Odors Evaluation for Passengers Compartment

The paper presents the VALEO and RENAULT approach to study odor problems for passengers compartment. The first part describes the method chosen to form a panel, and the second part presents a vehicle application.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Influence of LPG (Autogas) Composition on the Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption of 3 Bi-Fuelled Renault Vehicles

Studies using a bi-fuelled (autogas/gasoline) Renault Laguna vehicle meeting °the 1996 European exhaust emission legislation has demonstrated that over the European test cycle at 25°C the LPG operated vehicle provides substantial benefits of reduced emissions compared to unleaded reference gasoline. At lower test temperatures (i.e. 5°C) even larger reduction in emissions have been observed. Lower CO (up to 95% at -5°C and 65% at 25°C), HC (90% at -5°C and 40% at 25°C) emissions and lower ozone HC reactivity have been observed and could all offer significant environmental air-quality benefits for LPG. Various autogas mixtures have been tested including 70/30, 30/70 and 49/30/21 (% mass propane / butane / propene). Results show that NOx emissions for this vehicle appear dependent on autogas composition. The two gas mixtures containing only 30% butane gave about 50% more NOx at +25°C than the 70% butane autogas mixture.
Technical Paper

Comparison between the exhaust particles mass determined by the European regulatory gravimetric method and the mass estimated by ELPI

Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) is often employed to measure the particle number and size distribution of internal combustion engines exhaust gas. If appropriate values of particle density are available, the particle mass can be estimated by this method. Exhaust particles of three Euro3 passenger cars (one gasoline operating under stoichiometric conditions, one Diesel and one Diesel equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter) are measured using the current European regulations (gravimetric method on the are New European Driving Cycle) and estimated by ELPI particle number and size distribution. Different values for particle density are used to estimate the particle mass using all ELPI stages or only some of them. The results show that the particle mass estimated by ELPI is well correlated with the mass determined by filters for PM emissions higher than 0.025 g/km. This correlation is not very good at lower emissions.
Journal Article

Computational Fluid Dynamics Calculations of Turbocharger's Bearing Losses

Fuel consumption in internal combustion engines and their associated CO2 emissions have become one of the major issues facing car manufacturers everyday for various reasons: the Kyoto protocol, the upcoming European regulation concerning CO2 emissions requiring emissions of less than 130g CO2/km before 2012, and customer demand. One of the most efficient solutions to reduce fuel consumption is to downsize the engine and increase its specific power and torque by using turbochargers. The engine and the turbocharger have to be chosen carefully and be finely tuned. It is essential to understand and characterise the turbocharger's behaviour precisely and on its whole operating range, especially at low engine speeds. The characteristics at low speed are not provided by manufacturers of turbochargers because compressor maps cannot be achieve on usual test bench.
Journal Article

Control-Oriented Modeling of a LNT-SCR Diesel After-Treatment Architecture

Lean NOx trap (LNT) and Selective Catalytic Reduction catalysts (SCR) are two leading candidates for diesel NOx after-treatment. Each technology exhibits good properties to reduce efficiently diesel NOx emissions in order to match the forthcoming EURO 6 standards. NOx reduction in LNT is made through a two-step process. In normal (lean) mode, diesel engine exhausts NOx is stored into the NOx trap; then when necessary the engine runs rich during limited time to treat the stored NOx. This operating mode has the benefit of using onboard fuel as NOx reducer. But NOx trap solution is restrained by limited active temperature windows. On the other hand, NH₃-SCR catalysts operate in a wider range of temperature and do not contain precious metals. However, NH₃-SCR systems traditionally use urea-water solution as reducing agent, requiring thus additional infrastructure to supply the vehicles with enough reducer. These pros and cons are quite restrictive in classical LNT or NH₃-SCR architecture.
Technical Paper

Corporate Responsibility: Example of Local Environment Public-Private Partnership Project

This paper presents the Clean Air Project for Rio de Janeiro jointly managed by Renault and the City of Rio de Janeiro. This project is one of the results of a regional initiative of the World Bank which aimed to develop local public-private actions in order to improve air quality in major metropolitan regions of Latin America. In that case, the partnership will result in the installation of a model, adapted to the local needs and the use of this model to test scenarios, quantifying the impact in terms of emissions. This partnership represents a new kind of long-lasting relationship between the private sector, aware of its social responsibility and local authorities which tend to foster the development of technical capacity to strengthen their role and awareness in that field and open new possibilities for environment investments. This paper presents this case study from the management and technical standpoint underlining the principal benefits of such a partnership.
Journal Article

Development and Validation of a New Zero-Dimensional Semi-Physical NOx Emission Model for a D.I. Diesel Engine Using Simulated Combustion Process

Reducing NOx tailpipe emissions is one of the major challenges when developing automotive Diesel engines which must simultaneously face stricter emission norms and reduce their fuel consumption/CO2 emission. In fact, the engine control system has to manage at the same time the multiple advanced combustion technologies such as high EGR rates, new injection strategies, complex after-treatment devices and sophisticated turbocharging systems implemented in recent diesel engines. In order to limit both the cost and duration of engine control system development, a virtual engine simulator has been developed in the last few years. The platform of this simulator is based on a 0D/1D approach, chosen for its low computational time. The existing simulation tools lead to satisfactory results concerning the combustion phase as well as the air supply system. In this context, the current paper describes the development of a new NOx emission model which is coupled with the combustion model.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Gravimetric Method for the Mass Measurement of Diesel Exhaust Gas Particles

The Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP) works on the identification of a method to replace or complete the existing particle mass (PM) measurement method. The French PMP subgroup, composed by IFP, PSA Peugeot-Citroën, Renault and UTAC, proposes an improved gravimetric method for the measurement of emitted particles, and conducted an inter-laboratory test to evaluate its performances. The technical programme is based on tests carried out on a Euro3 Diesel passenger car (PC), tested on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). To achieve low particulate matter (PM) emissions, the EGR is disconnected and a paraffinic fuel is used. The regulated pollutants are also measured. It is shown that the multiple filter weighing and a 0.1 μg balance instead of a 1 μg one are not necessary, as the first weighing and the 1 μg balance performances are satisfactory for type-approval purposes.
Technical Paper

Development of an Onboard Fuel Processor for PEM Fuel Cell Vehicles

Reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main objectives of car manufacturers and innovative solutions have to be considered to achieve this goal. Electric vehicles, and in particular Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, appear to be a promising alternative. Renault is therefore investigating the technical and economic viability of a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV). A basic question of this study is the choice of the fuel that will be used for this kind of vehicle. Liquid fuels such as gasoline, diesel, naphtha, and gas-to-liquid can be a bridge for the introduction of fuel cell technologies while hydrogen infrastructure and storage are investigated. Therefore, multi-fuel Fuel Processor Systems that can convert liquid fuels to hydrogen while meeting automotive constraints are desired. Renault and Nuvera have joined forces to tackle this issue in a 3-year program where the objective is to develop and to integrate a Fuel Processor System (FPS) on a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flow Distribution on Emissions Performance of Catalytic Converters

The emissions performance of catalytic converters under different conditions of flow distribution was investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics methods were utilised to model the maldistribution effects of different inlet cones. The effects of maldistribution on ageing, light-off and conversion were investigated using steady state tests on an engine bench. Emission testing was also conducted on a vehicle throughout ECE and EUDC test cycles. Maldistribution was found to have a significant effect on the efficiency of the catalyst during the early stages of the ECE cycle for both fresh and aged catalysts. The effects were less significant over later stages of the ECE cycle and throughout the EUDC except NOx where maldistribution did have an effect on the conversion at higher flow rates during the later stages of the test.
Journal Article

Effects of Methane/Hydrogen Blends On Engine Operation: Experimental And Numerical Investigation of Different Combustion Modes

The introduction of alternative fuels is crucial to limit greenhouse gases. CNG is regarded as one of the most promising clean fuels given its worldwide availability, its low price and its intrinsic properties (high knocking resistance, low carbon content...). One way to optimize dedicated natural gas engines is to improve the CNG slow burning velocity compared to gasoline fuel and allow lean burn combustion mode. Besides optimization of the combustion chamber design, hydrogen addition to CNG is a promising solution to boost the combustion thanks to its fast burning rate, its wide flammability limits and its low quenching gap. This paper presents an investigation of different methane/hydrogen blends between 0% and 40 vol. % hydrogen ratio for three different combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean-burn and stoichiometric with EGR.
Journal Article

Electromagnetic and Structural Coupled Simulation to Investigate NVH Behavior of an Electrical Automotive Powertrain

RENAULT aims to become the first full-line manufacturer putting to market zero-emission affordable electrical vehicles and is therefore developing 100 % electric powertrains. NVH problems related to electric machine design have nothing in common with those of gasoline or diesel engines: electric whistling is a high frequency harmonic phenomenon, easily detectable due to the low background noise of a non-thermal vehicle and mainly perceived as very unpleasant by the customer. Therefore we have developed a coupled numerical simulation between electromagnetic and structural models, making it possible to understand the influence of magnetic parts design on noise and vibration level. Impact of the spatial and time coherence between magnetic pressures and vibration modes of the motor will be explained. The novelty of our approach is to already take into account the whole powertrain structure radiation, including reducer and power supply boxes.
Technical Paper

Energy Management of a High Efficiency Hybrid Electric Automatic Transmission

The energy management of a hybrid vehicle defines the vehicle power flow that minimizes fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. In a combined hybrid the complex architecture requires a multi-input control from the energy management. A classic optimal control obtained with dynamic programming shows that thanks to the high efficiency hybrid electric variable transmission, energy losses come mainly from the internal combustion engine. This paper therefore proposes a sub-optimal control based on the maximization of the engine efficiency that avoids multi-input control. This strategy achieves two aims: enhanced performances in terms of fuel economy and a reduction of computational time.
Technical Paper

Erosion Mechanisms and Performance of Cellular Ceramic Substrates

High emission performance standards and precious metals costs have pushed the catalytic substrate toward high cell density and thin wall, such as the 600/4, 600/3 and 900/2 products. Due to the inherently lower mechanical strength of these products, coupled with a shift from underbody to close-coupled placement, a concern was expressed that the severe thermal and mechanical conditions may cause structural damage to the substrate, which in turn could impact the catalyst performance. One source of reduced performance during use is the loss of catalyst due to erosion. A previous study1 indicated that the existence of particulate in an air-stream could cause substrate erosion. However, it was not clear if other factors could contribute to or accelerate the erosion process. In order to address this question, experiments were performed to examine the influence of high velocity flow, temperature, impingement angle, particulate characteristics, and coating effect on erosion.
Technical Paper

Euroncap~Views and suggestions for improvements

Since its creation in 1996, Euroncap evaluated more than 80 cars, ranging from small and city cars, to larger vehicles such as executive cars and people carriers (MPVs). The testing protocol comprises 3 types of tests: a frontal offset test against a deformable barrier, a 90° lateral impact with a moving deformable barrier, and - since March 2000 - a pole side impact. In addition a set of subsystem tests with impactors on the bonnet and the front face of the car are conducted to assess the pedestrian protection. The aim of this paper is to review the testing and assessment protocols and to compare them with those used in other NCAP systems in the USA, Australia, Japan and Europe. In particular, important Euroncap issues such as the stiffness of heavier vehicles that could be increased in the future, and the nature and weight of the modifiers are discussed. Ways to improve the system are suggested in relation with real-world accident data.
Technical Paper

European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies - Objectives and Design

The quality of the environment is a continuing concern of the public in Europe and has been the driving force for much research, development and expenditure by the European Vehicle and Oil Industries. Legislation that has already been implemented and planned provides substantial improvements in air quality. Further improvements however are harder to achieve. Consequently, it has been accepted that a variety of measures, including vehicle/fuel changes need to be investigated together to make further air quality improvements. This paper describes the principles and organisational structure of a co-operative programme carried out by the European automobile industry (represented by ACEA), and the European oil industry (represented by EUROPIA). This programme, building on US AQIRP, is an important input into the process for developing environmental Legislation for the European Union (the European Auto/Oil process).
Technical Paper

Fleet Management of the Future

This paper deals with fleet management systems and the means to integrate new communication and computer technologies to improve transportation companies efficiency. It focuses on the integration of embedded electronic systems for communication and data management through the use of on-board computers, taking the point of view of the truck manufacturer. It introduces the idea of making the vehicle a nod of a complete communication network. After briefly presenting fleet management problematic and some of the major existing solutions, it analyzes how new technologies can be integrated and what major advantages they would bring.