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Technical Paper

2,000,000 Miles of Fluid Evaluation in City Bus Automatic Transmissions

In certain types of city bus service some automatic transmission fluids can fail in less than 10,000 miles. In order to provide satisfactory transmission performance for longer mileage, improved fluids are required. An investigation was undertaken to obtain improved fluids. Fifteen different fluid formulations were evaluated in 30 city buses operated in normal service for more than 2,000,000 miles. It was determined that fluids fail because of frictional deterioration and oxidation. Based on these evaluations, only two fluids were found to be satisfactory for more than 40,000 miles; one additional fluid was satisfactory for more than 30,000 miles. The remaining 12 fluids failed in less than 20,000 miles.
Technical Paper

A Case Study of the Economic Feasibility of a Demand-Responsive Transportation System

This paper presents an analysis of the economic feasibility of a demand-responsive transportation system employing driver-operated vehicles on existing street networks. The system is designed to meet the general public transportation needs of a suburban community. The analysis follows traditional economic theory in developing demand and supply curves for the transportation service as a consumer good, followed by an investigation of the equilibrium between demand and supply under various market conditions. Cost models specifically applicable to a transportation service with demand-responsive attributes are formulated to calculate the system supply functions, and an attitudinal survey is employed to generate estimates of demand in the case study community. The demand and supply equilibrium situations are investigated with respect to funding alternatives and sensitivity to changes in supply and demand variables.
Technical Paper

A Rotary Engine Test to Evaluate Lubricants for Control of Rotor Deposits

During development of the General Motors rotary engine, the lubricant was recognized as important to its success because certain lubricants produced deposits which tended to stick both side and apex seals. Consequently, it was decided to develop a rotary engine-dynamometer test, using a Mazda engine, which could be used for lubricant evaluation. In an investigation using an SE engine oil with which there was rotary engine experience, engine operating variables and engine modifications were studied until the greatest amount of deposits were obtained in 100 h of testing. The most significant engine modifications were: omission of inner side seals, plugging of half the rotor bearing holes, pinning of oil seals, grinding of end and intermediate housings, and using a separate oil reservoir for the metering pump. Using this 100 h test procedure, three engine oils and five automatic transmission fluids were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Physical Properties with Performance of Polyacrylate Radial Lip Seals at -30F

This paper evaluates the tendency of lip seals to fracture in a test apparatus in which dynamic runout is 0.010 in and the temperature is cycled between -30 and 0 F. Seals made of eight different polyacrylate polymers were soap-sulfur cured with various types and amounts of carbon black. Physical tests included room-temperature flexibility defined by Young's modulus at small strains, standard tensile tests at room temperature, flexibility at sub-zero temperatures determined by a Gehman test, and sub-zero starting torques of the seals. Primary determinant of successful fracture resistance is a low starting torque resulting from good low-temperature flexibility. The effect of adding graphite to some of these formulations is described and some current commercially available seals are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Resistance of Trim Materials

As the design of automobiles changed over the past seventy years, manufacturers have increased the usage of decorative trim to further enhance the beauty of styling concepts. As new trim materials were introduced and parts became more complicated in design, producers have continued their efforts to produce decorative trim parts which remain attractive during the service life of the automobile. The service performance of trim materials in several geographic locations, the use of accelerated tests to predict service performance, recent developments in improving the durability of plated parts, and requirements for producing quality exterior decorative trim are reviewed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Designing to Resist Fatigue - Examples of Component Design

This paper illustrates by way of two practical examples, namely, transmission gears and crankshafts, how the automotive industry applies basic approaches and methods for achieving fatigue resistant design. Analytic, laboratory, and field studies necessary in the development of these components are briefly outlined.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil MS Test Sequences IIA and IIIA

Engine oil test Sequences IIA and IIIA have been developed to replace Sequences I, II, and III. These new sequences are designed to evaluate lubricants for use in current passenger car engines under severe (MS) service conditions. Lubricant performance is evaluated with respect to scuffing wear, rust, corrosion, deposits, and rumble. The Sequence IIA and IIIA test procedure involves major changes which affect the evaluation of engine rusting and provides improved correlation between test results and short-trip service. Average engine rust ratings correlate with service data within ±0.5 numbers. The new test also provides better repeatability and reproducibility in a significantly shorter schedule. The rust repeatability and reproducibility is less than ±0.2 and ±0.6 numbers, respectively. Test time has been reduced 52%.
Technical Paper

GMR Stirling Thermal Engine part of the Stirling engine story-1960 chapter

THIS PAPER discusses the Stirling thermal enging from four points of view: 1. The ideal, thermodynamic point of view, showing the inherent potentialities of the ideal Stirling cycle in comparison to the basic cycles of other engines. 2. The physical engine and its method of operation with respect to the ideal cycle and the limitations of practical mechanics. 3. Performance data from the first modern Stirling engines ever operated in the United States, evaluating the relationship between the new engine and other more familiar engines of similar sizes. This comparative discussion serves to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Stirling engine and to indicate its proper place in the 1960 family of prime movers. 4. A look backward into the century of history behind the modern engine pointing out significant milestones in the engine's development.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamic Sealing with Radial Lip Seals

Conventional radial lip oil seals can be made more effective by utilizing helical grooving beneath the contact lip surface. Miniature hydrodynamic pumps so formed aid the radial lip seal in containing the oil by generating fluid forces opposite in direction to the leakage flow forces. This seal-shaft combination has been termed the Hydroseal. Four factorial experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of helix angle, groove depth, groove width, and number of grooves on sealing performance. The criterion used as a basis for selecting the optimum design were leakage, wear, hardening of the sealing surface, and pumping capacity. These data indicated that the best hydroseal design was one with three grooves, 0.0003 in. deep, 0.014 in. wide, having a helix angle of 45 deg.
Technical Paper

Numerically Controlled Milling for Making Experimental Turbomachinery

Utilization of numerically controlled milling has been found particularly attractive in producing, in limited quantities, the three-dimensional curved surfaces characteristic of turbomachinery. In experimental and developmental programs its use can result in decreased fabrication cost, reduced lead time, and improved dimensional accuracy. Following a review of the general classifications of numerically controlled milling machines available for manufacture of such parts, illustrations are given of some of the procedures and techniques employed in their use. A variety of parts made using numerical control serve as examples.
Technical Paper

Projected Lubricant Requirements of Engines Operating with Lead-Free Gasoline

Future low emissions engines will burn unleaded gasoline. Compared with engines of 1970, future engines will have lower concentrations of NOx in the blowby gases, and lower blowby flow-rates; however, oil temperatures will probably be unchanged. The consequences of these conditions for engines using high quality (SE) oils at current drain intervals are: virtual elimination of rust, reduction of sludge, no effect on wear and oil thickening, and possible worsening of varnish. Therefore, extension of the drain interval with SE engine oils in the future may be possible, but final decisions will depend on the findings of research in the areas of engine wear and varnish, and oil thickening.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Measurement of Camshaft Wear in an Automotive Engine - a Radiometric Method

A radiometric method has been developed for the determination of camshaft wear during engine operation. After a radioactive tracer is induced at the tips of one or more cam lobes by the technique of surface layer activation, calibration procedure are performed to determine the amount of radioactive material remaining versus the depth worn. The decrease in γ-ray intensity measured external to the engine is then directly related to cam lobe wear. By incorporating a high-resolution detector and an internal radioactive standard,measurement accuracy better than ±0.2 μm at 95% confidence has been achieved. Without the requirement of engine disassembly, this method has provided unique measurements of break-in wear and wear as a function of operating conditions. Because this approach requires only low levels of radiation, it has significant potential applications in wear control.
Technical Paper

The Highway Safety Research Institute Dummy Compared with General Motors Biofidelity Recommendations and the Hybrid II Dummy

Two Highway Safety Research Institute (HSRI) dummies were tested and evaluated. Based on the analysis given, the HSI dummy should not be used for vehicle qualification testing. However, many of its components offer viable alternatives for future dummy development. The dummy was found to have inadequate biomechanical fidelity in the head, neck, and chest, although its characteristics were very promising and, as a whole, biomechanically superior to the Hybrid II. Its repeatability and reproducibility in dynamic component tests were better than the Hybrid II dummy. In particular, the HSRI friction joints were outstanding in repeatability and had a significant advantage in usability in that they do not require resetting between tests. In three-point harness and ACRS systems tests, the values of injury criteria produced by the HSRI dummy were generally lower than those obtained with the Hybrid II, especially the femur loads in the ACRS tests.
Technical Paper

Using Interactive Graphics for the Preparation and Management of Finite Element Data

Interactive graphics is an aid which eliminates the data management problems that arise when manually preparing finite element models. Line and surface data representations of sheet metal automotive stampings are displayed on a cathode ray tube (CRT), and these data are then used for building finite element models. Elements are built by creating node points with the light pen or by using automatic mesh generating techniques. By using the interactive capability, the user immediately sees the results of his modeling decisions and can make changes in his model as a result of viewing his work. The interactive graphics system allows the user to define his elements, load cases, boundary conditions, and freedom sets without worrying about the grid point or element numbers. All information is communicated through the use of either the light pen or the keyboard. As information is supplied about the model, it is stored in a data base for review and possible change.
Technical Paper

V. I. Improvers and Engine Performance

The use of multigrade (V.I. improved) oils in automotive engines has increased significantly in recent years. However, the performance of these oils in terms of factors such as oil economy, wear, and noise, is not always equal to that of single grade oils. Although the initial viscosity of multigrade oils is related to both the base oil and the V.I. improver, the viscosity decreases with use, with the primary factors determining the magnitude of the change being the degree of shear and the characteristics and concentration of the V.I. improver used. This decrease in viscosity has been assumed to be the cause of the decreases in oil economy that may occur with oil use. However, viscosity changes are not believed to be the primary factor responsible since similar oil economy changes have also been observed for single grade oils. Nevertheless, the characteristics and concentration of the V.I. improver used can be a significant factor influencing oil economy.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Evaluation of Synthetic and Conventional Engine Oils

A five-vehicle, 64 000-km test with 7.45 litre V-8 engines was conducted to determine if synthetic engine oils provided performance sufficiently superior to that of conventional engine oils to permit longer oil change intervals. The results show better performance in two areas of deposit control; inferior performance with respect to wear protection; and essentially equivalent performance in the areas of fuel and oil economies. Based on these data, it was concluded that synthetic engine oils do not provide the necessary performance required to safely recommend their use for extended oil change intervals. In addition, a cost analysis shows that the use of synthetic engine oils, even at a change interval of 32 000 km, will essentially double the customers' cost compared with conventional engine oils at GM's current 12 000-km change interval.