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Technical Paper

ABS and ASR for Passenger Cars -Coals and Limits

1989-02-01
890834
Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) and Traction Control Systems (ASR) should ensure maximum stability and steerability even under extreme driving conditions. Since high performance systems additionally improve brake distance and traction within the given physical limits, every vehicle equipped with ABS and ASR offers considerably higher active safety. ABS was introduced into the market by the Robert Bosch GmbH more than ten years ago, and more than 3 million systems have been produced by the end of 1988. Volume production of ASR began in 1987. This paper describes several high-, medium-, and low performance concepts and compares them with regard to safety and performance. Although it seems to be nearly impossible to define a cost/benefit ratio between monetary values and safety, our purpose here is to identify further development strategies through the use of a decision matrix.
Technical Paper

ABS5 and ASR5: The New ABS/ASR Family to Optimize Directional Stability and Traction

1993-03-01
930508
In 1978, Bosch was the first supplier on the market to offer full-function antilock braking systems. In 1993, six years will have passed since Bosch delivered the first traction control system for passenger cars. In the meantime, a considerable amount of experience has been gained through ongoing development and testing. This experience enabled us to define the requirements for directional stability, optimum control strategy, maximum usage of the entire spectrum of drive torque intervention possibilities, and optimized hydraulics for automatic brake intervention. The result is Bosch ABS/ASR5, which in now being introduced to the market. This new ABS/ASR family is designed in modules, which offers high flexibility in function and assembly. Systems are available with traction improvement, or with optimized directional stability and traction. Each version is adapted to the needs of the vehicle drive layout, and adaptable to customer requirements.
Technical Paper

ABS5.3: The New and Compact ABS5 Unit for Passenger Cars

1995-02-01
950756
The transition from the multi-component ABS2 design to the one housing concept of ABS5.0 represented a significant step in improving the ABS unit. ABS5.3 is the successor of ABS5.0 to achieve a highly compact, light weight inexpensive design, for the broad use of ABS in all passenger cars and light trucks. New technologies applied are the staking technique for hydraulic components, the use of microhybrid electronics design and solenoid coils being integrated within the attached electronic control unit. The unit can be manufactured in global alliance achieved by simultaneous engineering, applying CAD, FE-analysis, flow calculation and simulation, noise analysis and quality assurance which includes FMEA, error simulation, durability tests and the dry testing concept. The ABS5.3 design can be easily expanded to Traction Control (ASR).
Technical Paper

ASR - Traction Control - A Logical Extension of ABS

1987-02-01
870337
Control of a car is lost, or considerably reduced, whenever one or more of the wheels exceed the stability limit during braking or accelerating due to excessive brake or drive slip. The problem of ensuring optimum stability, steerability and brake distance of a car during hard braking is solved by means of the well-known Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). The task to guarantee stability, steerability and optimum traction during acceleration, particularly on asymmetrical road surfaces and during cornering maneuvers, is being performed by the traction control system (ASR). Several means to provide an optimum traction control are described, e. g the control of engine torque by influencing the throttle plate and/or the ignition and/or the fuel injection.
Technical Paper

ASR-Traction Control, State of the Art and Some Prospects

1990-02-01
900204
Closed loop vehicle control comprising of the driver, the vehicle and the environment is now achieved by the automatic wheel slip control combination of ABS and ASR. To improve directional control during acceleration, the Robert Bosch Corporation has introduced five ASR-Systems into series production. In one system, the electronic control unit works exclusively with the engine management system to assure directional control. In two other systems, brake intervention works in concert with throttle intervention. For this task, it was necessary to develop different highly sophisticated hydraulic units. The other systems improve traction by controlling limited slip differentials. The safety concept for all five systems includes two redundant micro controllers which crosscheck and compare input and output signals. A Traction Control System can be achieved through a number of torque intervention methods.
Technical Paper

Anti-Lock Braking System for Commercial Vehicles

1988-10-01
881821
Commercial vehicles must convey people and goods safely and reliable, irrespective of the weather and road conditions. The ABS safety braking systems are an essential prerequisite for fulfillment of this primary task. ABS has been used in European commercial vehicles since 1981. Today there are already fittet as standard in buses to some extend. The contribution to increasing road safety is causing the European lawmakers to make ABS statutory for commercial vehicles and to make it part of their compulsory equipment. Suitable anti-lock braking systems and closed loop configurations for commercial vehicles are demonstrated by theoretical observations and technical driving trials, their axlespecific and closed-loop control characteristics are highlighted.
Technical Paper

Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) for Commercial Vehicles - Status 1990 and Future Prospects

1990-10-01
901203
The paper begins with an overview of the history of ABS for commercial vehicles followed by a brief description of the technology of the BOSCH ABS at the time it went into mass production in 1981. Subsequently it describes the field experiences with ABS including the experiences of drivers and operators. These experiences are reflected in the equipment which BOSCH offers today. Additional functions such as ASR (traction control) have been integrated. The paper provides an overview of the functions available today and their implementation. The paper concludes with a discussion on potential continued developments and an attempt to describe the systems which will be required by the mid 9os.
Technical Paper

Brake by Wire for Commercial Vehicles

1992-11-01
922488
This address presents the ongoing development of the commercial-vehicle braking system, over and beyond ABS/ASR, towards a brake by wire system (electronically controlled braking system ELB) with pressure-regulating circuit and additional functions. Following the discussion and selection of various concepts, we will present different versions with individual and combined components for the towing vehicle and for the trailer. The safety concept of a pneumatic back-up circuit will be dealt with, as well as the communication through data bus (CAN) both within the braking system itself and with other vehicle systems. The improvement possibilities inherent in ELB will be detailed, with the emphasis on increasing road and traffic safety, on reducing operating costs, and on future vehicle-guidance functions.
Technical Paper

Hitch System Comparison — Mechanical, Hydraulic, Electronic

1984-09-01
841130
Modern agricultural tractors are equipped with a hitch control system. These may be mechanical-hydraulic, hydraulic-hydraulic, or electronic-hydraulic. With the variety of design options open to the tractor manufacturer, it is important to select the system which best fits the manufacturer and end user. This paper presents a comprehensive comparison of each system. Robert Bosch has had many years experience in the design and manufacture of components for hitch systems, and hopes to help designers choose the approach best suited for them.
Technical Paper

Increased Safety and Improved Comfort Thanks to Electronic Systems for Bus and Truck Applications

1989-11-01
892508
Electronic systems have been used in commercial vehicles for quite a few years now. At the start, this primarily related to consumer electronics equipment (car radio and CB radio), but, since the late 70s, electronic control systems have also been used for a wide variety of applications in commercial vehicles. This development went hand in hand with the development of digital microcontrollers. It was only when such powerful electronic circuits were developed that it was possible to implement complex control tasks at feasible cost with adequately compact design. Nowadays, an extremely wide variety of systems is offered for the engine, suspension, brakes, comfort and entertainment.
Journal Article

Motorcycle Stability Control - The Next Generation of Motorcycle Safety and Riding Dynamics

2015-11-17
2015-32-0834
Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) for motorcycles have already contributed significantly to the safety of powered two-wheelers (PTW) on public roads by improving bike stability and controllability in emergency braking situations. In order to address further riding situations, another step forward has been achieved with Motorcycle Stability Control (MSC) system. By combining ABS, electronically combined braking system (eCBS), traction control and inertial sensors even in situations like braking and accelerating in corners the riders' safety can be improved. The MSC system controls the distribution of braking and traction forces using an algorithm that takes into account all available vehicle information from wheels, power train and vehicle attitude. With its ability to control fundamental vehicle dynamics, the MSC system will be a basis for further development and integration of comprehensive safety systems.
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Electronic Throttle Control

1991-02-01
910085
An electronic control of throttle angle is required for safety systems like traction control (ASR) and for advanced engine management systems with regard to further improvements of driving comfort and fuel economy. For applications, in which only ASR is required, two versions of a new traction control actuator (TCA) have been developed. Their function is based on controlling the effective length of the bowden cable between the accelerator pedal and the throttle. Besides retaining the mechanical linkage to the throttle, the concept has no need for a pedal position sensor, which is necessary for a drive-by-wire system. Design and performance of both actuators are described and their individual advantages are compared. Moreover, the communication of the system with ASR and its behaviour with regard to vehicle dynamics are illustrated.
Technical Paper

New Electronic Systems Worldwide - The Supplier's View

1986-11-01
861971
Despite the tough environmental conditions facing electronic systems in commercial vehicles, electronics is gaining ground also in these applications. In the drive sector it improves the operation of the main and auxiliary drives, upgrades fuel efficiency and reduces emission pollutant levels. It enhances safety by preventing wheel spinning in braking and acceleration. Electronic displays reduce the number of single indications otherwise needed, thus making for more clarity in information for the driver and facilitating the driver's task. Self-diagnosing and integrated emergency operation (“limp home”) capabilities are to ensure availability, a factor of special importance in commercial vehicles. A data interface standardized as widely as possible would allow add-on systems to be coupled easily and flexibly.
Technical Paper

Overview of Truck Accidents in India and Its Economic Loss Estimation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0007
India contributed to 11% of the global road accidents and was ranked 1st among road deaths according to the latest World Health Organization (WHO) report 2018. Indian National Highways (NH) is a meagre 5% of the country’s road network but accounts for 55% of the road accidents and 61% of the road deaths. Majority of the freight traffic is ferried by Commercial Vehicles (CV) or trucks along these highways and this in turn increases the probability of them being involved in a road accident. The country’s economy is forecasted to thrive in the coming years and hence the requirement of CVs is aligned to international categorisation in the supply chain and shall play a pivotal role. In the year 2019, 13,532 road deaths were associated with CV occupants. The trucking industry is an unorganized sector wherein the illegal overloading of vehicles and over-the-limit driving hours pose a serious threat to road users.
Technical Paper

Standardization and Cost Optimization of ABS Ecus

1998-10-19
98C004
ABS has proven to be a contribution to active safety. The introduction of traction control (TC) in 1986 and even more significantly, the introduction of vehicle dynamics control (VDC) in 1995 have been further milestones in this field. The functionality of these systems (ABS, TC, VDC) is mainly determined by the electronic control unit (ECU). A system supplier who is to provide an ECU-platform concept including a large functionality, while meeting customer specific requirements at an optimized price, needs standardization strategies. This paper describes a standardization concept for an ABS ECU, beginning with the basic ABS HW and SW design and the extension to TC and VDC. It also shows the degree of flexibility, the benefits for the vehicle manufacturer and the possible cost optimization for the system supplier.
Technical Paper

The ABS 6S/4K - A Modular System for Simplified Installation in Tractors, Semi-trailers and Trailers

1990-10-01
902213
Today's ABS sytems for commercial vehicles and trailers reflect specific solutions for individual vehicle model wiring and control features. In addition, the chassis mounting requirements for trailer applications uses a separate sealed housing for the relay and other sensitive components. A logical progression of design development resulted in the new ABS 6S/4K open system with the ability of being adaptable to specific vehicle control requirements. A variety of different component arrangements can be accommodated. Accordingly, it does not require a standard wiring harness. Wiring is left optional for the specific vehicle configuration. The housing may be frame mounted without any special protection and therefore can cover both trailer and tractor applications. The housing is designed to provide necessary protection from water and dirt. The electronic senses the peripheral component configuration via a simple “learning” procedure.
Technical Paper

The Challenge of Precise Characterizing the Specific Large-Span Flows in Urea Dosing Systems for NOx Reduction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1029
The reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines using a urea water solution is gaining more and more importance. While maintaining the future exhaust gas emission regulations, like the Euro 6 for passenger cars and the Euro 5 for commercial vehicles, urea dosing allows the engine management to be modified to improve fuel economy as well. The system manufacturer Robert Bosch has started early to develop the necessary dosing systems for the urea water solution. More than 300.000 Units have been delivered in 2007 for heavy duty applications. Typical dosing quantities for those systems are in the range of 0.01 l/h for passenger car systems and up to 10 l/h for commercial vehicles. During the first years of development and application of urea dosing systems, instantaneous flow measuring devices were used, which were not operating fully satisfactory.
Technical Paper

Traction Control (ASR) Using Fuel-Injection Suppression - A Cost Effective Method of Engine-Torque Control

1992-02-01
920641
Traction control (ASR) is the logical ongoing development of the antilock braking system (ABS). Due to the high costs involved though, the widespread practice of reducing the engine power by electronic throttle control (or electronic enginepower control) has up to now prevented ASR from becoming as widely proliferated as ABS. A promising method has now been developed in which fuel-injection suppression at individual cylinders is used as a low-price actuator for a budget-priced ASR. First of all, an overview of the possibilities for influencing wheel-torque by means of intervention at the engine and/or brake as a means of reducing driven wheel slip is presented. Then, the system, the control strategy, and the demands on the electronic engine-management system with sequential fuel injection are discussed. The system's possibilities and its limitations are indicated, and fears of damaging effects on the catalytic converter are eliminated.
Technical Paper

Traction Control (ASR) for Commercial Vehicles. A Further Step Towards Safety on our Roads

1987-11-01
872272
Alongside steering, accelerating and braking are the basic operations in the automobile which are nowadays still left to the driver to perform in their entirety. In performing these basic functions, it may come about that excessive demands are made upon a driver, these arising due to poor road conditions - rain, snow and ice - or as a result of suddenly changing traffic situations. With the introduction of anti-lock braking systems (ABS), a decisive step has been taken to increase active driving and traffic safety. The ABS prevents the lockup of the wheels during overbraking. The vehicle remains steerable and retains stable directional control. Furthermore, in many cases, a shorter braking distance is gained compared to braking with the wheels locked up. BOSCH has been manufacturing and supplying ABS for passenger cars since 1978 and for commercial vehicles and buses since 1981. ABS has proved to be an overwhelming success in practical usage.
Technical Paper

VDC, The Vehicle Dynamics Control System of Bosch

1995-02-01
950758
VDC is a new active safety system for road vehicles which controls the dynamic vehicle motion in emergency situations. From the steering angle, the accelerator pedal position and the brake pressure the desired motion is derived while the actual vehicle motion is derived from the yaw rate and the lateral acceleration. The system regulates the engine torque and the wheel brake pressures using traction control components to minimize the difference between the actual and the desired motion. Included is also a safety concept which supervises the proper operation of the components and the software.
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