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Technical Paper

2D Residual Gas Visualization in an Optical Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine with IR Laser Absorption

2015-04-14
2015-01-1648
The spatial distribution of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is evaluated in an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine using near infrared laser absorption to visualize the distribution of the H2O molecule. The obtained overall internal exhaust gas recirculation compares well to gas-exchange cycle calculations and the spatial distributions are consistent with those measured with inverse LIF. The experimental procedures described in this report are designed to be simple and rapidly implemented without the need to resort to unusual optical components. The necessary spectral data of the selected absorption line is obtained from the HITEMP database and is validated with prior experiments carried out in a reference cell. Laser speckle in the images is effectively reduced using a ballistic diffuser.
Technical Paper

A Thermodynamic Study on Boosted HCCI: Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0905
Stricter emissions legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with boosted air systems on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising, yet challenging, approach. Naturally aspirated (NA) HCCI has already shown considerable potential in combustion efficiency gains. Nevertheless, since the volumetric efficiency is limited in the NA HCCI operation range due to the hot residuals required to ignite the mixture and slow down reaction kinetics, only part-load operation is feasible in this combustion mode. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified in downsized gasoline engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of controlled, boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

ABS and ASR for Passenger Cars -Coals and Limits

1989-02-01
890834
Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) and Traction Control Systems (ASR) should ensure maximum stability and steerability even under extreme driving conditions. Since high performance systems additionally improve brake distance and traction within the given physical limits, every vehicle equipped with ABS and ASR offers considerably higher active safety. ABS was introduced into the market by the Robert Bosch GmbH more than ten years ago, and more than 3 million systems have been produced by the end of 1988. Volume production of ASR began in 1987. This paper describes several high-, medium-, and low performance concepts and compares them with regard to safety and performance. Although it seems to be nearly impossible to define a cost/benefit ratio between monetary values and safety, our purpose here is to identify further development strategies through the use of a decision matrix.
Technical Paper

ABS5 and ASR5: The New ABS/ASR Family to Optimize Directional Stability and Traction

1993-03-01
930505
In 1978, Bosch was the first supplier on the market to offer full-function antilock braking systems. In 1993, six years will have passed since Bosch delivered the first traction control system for passenger cars. In the meantime, a considerable amount of experience has been gained through ongoing development and testing. This experience enabled us to define the requirements for directional stability, optimum control strategy, maximum usage of the entire spectrum of drive torque intervention possibilities, and optimized hydraulics for automatic brake intervention. The result is Bosch ABS/ASR5, which in now being introduced to the market. This new ABS/ASR family is designed in modules, which offers high flexibility in function and assembly. Systems are available with traction improvement, or with optimized directional stability and traction. Each version is adapted to the needs of the vehicle drive layout, and adaptable to customer requirements.
Technical Paper

ASR - Traction Control - A Logical Extension of ABS

1987-02-01
870337
Control of a car is lost, or considerably reduced, whenever one or more of the wheels exceed the stability limit during braking or accelerating due to excessive brake or drive slip. The problem of ensuring optimum stability, steerability and brake distance of a car during hard braking is solved by means of the well-known Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). The task to guarantee stability, steerability and optimum traction during acceleration, particularly on asymmetrical road surfaces and during cornering maneuvers, is being performed by the traction control system (ASR). Several means to provide an optimum traction control are described, e. g the control of engine torque by influencing the throttle plate and/or the ignition and/or the fuel injection.
Technical Paper

ASR-Traction Control, State of the Art and Some Prospects

1990-02-01
900204
Closed loop vehicle control comprising of the driver, the vehicle and the environment is now achieved by the automatic wheel slip control combination of ABS and ASR. To improve directional control during acceleration, the Robert Bosch Corporation has introduced five ASR-Systems into series production. In one system, the electronic control unit works exclusively with the engine management system to assure directional control. In two other systems, brake intervention works in concert with throttle intervention. For this task, it was necessary to develop different highly sophisticated hydraulic units. The other systems improve traction by controlling limited slip differentials. The safety concept for all five systems includes two redundant micro controllers which crosscheck and compare input and output signals. A Traction Control System can be achieved through a number of torque intervention methods.
Technical Paper

AUTOSAR Gets on the Road - More and More

2012-04-16
2012-01-0014
AUTOSAR (AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture) is a worldwide standard for automotive basic software in line with an architecture that eases exchange and transfer of application software components between platforms or companies. AUTOSAR provides the standardized architecture together with the specifications of the basics software along with the methodology for developing embedded control units for automotive applications. AUTOSAR matured over the last several years through intensive development, implementation and maintenance. Two main releases (R3.2 and R4.0) represent its current degree of maturity. AUTOSAR is driven by so called core partners: leading car manufacturers (BMW, Daimler, Ford, GM, PSA, Toyota, Volkswagen) together with the tier 1 suppliers Continental and Bosch. AUTOSAR in total has more than 150 companies (OEM, Tier X suppliers, SW and tool suppliers, and silicon suppliers) as members from all over the world.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Cruise Control System Aspects and Development Trends

1996-02-01
961010
This paper is based on the experiences with Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems at BOSCH. Necessary components (especially range sensor, curve sensors, actuators and display) are described, roughly specified, and their respective strength and weaknesses are addressed. The system overview contains the basic structure, the main control strategy and the concept for driver-ACC interaction. Afterwards the principal as well as the current technical limits of ACC systems are discussed. The consequences on traffic flow, safety and driver behavior are emphasized. As an outlook, development trends for extended functionality are given for the next generation of driver assistance systems.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Combustion Mode Switch Between SI and Gasoline HCCI

2012-04-16
2012-01-1105
The worldwide stricter emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, challenging approach, especially regarding the combustion mode switch between spark-ignited (SI) and gasoline HCCI mode and vice-versa. Naturally aspirated (n.a.) HCCI shows considerable potential, but the operation range is air breathing limited due to hot residuals required for auto-ignition and to slow down reaction kinetics. Therefore it is limited to part-load operation. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized gasoline engines, it is imperative to investigate the synergies and challenges of boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow Field / Spray Injection Interaction within a DISI IC Engine Using High-Speed PIV

2011-04-12
2011-01-1288
This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Injection of Urea-Water-Solution for Automotive SCR DeNOx-Systems: Modeling of Two-Phase Flow and Spray/Wall-Interaction

2006-04-03
2006-01-0643
The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) based on urea-water-solution is an effective technique to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from diesel engines. A 3D numerical computer model of the injection of urea-water-solution and their interaction with the exhaust gas flow and exhaust tubing is developed to evaluate different configurations during the development process of such a DeNOx-system. The model accounts for all relevant processes appearing from the injection point to the entrance of the SCR-catalyst: momentum interaction between gas phase and droplets evaporation and thermolysis of droplets hydrolysis of isocyanic acid in gas phase heat transfer between wall and droplets spray/wall-interaction two-component wall film including interaction with gas phase and exhaust tube The single modeling steps are verified with visualizations, patternator measurements, phase-doppler-anemometer results and temperature measurements.
Technical Paper

Application of the Object-Oriented Modeling Concept OMOS for Signal Conditioning of Vehicle Control Units

2000-03-06
2000-01-0717
In recent times, the software portion and the complexity of software within automotive electronic control units have grown noticeably and continue to grow. In order to get a grip on the software complexity and the amount of customer-specific software variants, a modeling concept for a structured and easily extensible software architecture is needed. This concept should efficiently support the formation of variants and code reuse without increasing runtime and memory space overhead. In this paper, we present our approach to such a modeling concept: The object-oriented modeling concept OMOS and its application to signal conditioning of vehicle control systems.
Technical Paper

CARTRONIC - An Open Architecture for Networking the Control Systems of an Automobile

1998-02-23
980200
The car industry has reached a point where electronic systems, which were so far essentially autonomous, begin to grow together to a Car-Wide Web. The main driving force is the demand for more safety, security, and comfort implemented economically. Already various parties are working on control networks. In the long run, vehicle motion and dynamic systems, safety, security, comfort as well as mobile multimedia systems will integrate and reach out for the vision of accident-free, comfortable, and well-informed driving. As a foundation for a Car-Wide Web, Bosch is developing an open architecture called CARTRONIC. The essence of CARTRONIC is to define structuring rules, modeling rules and patterns for total, integrated control of vehicles. The rules and patterns allow the mapping of high-level functions onto several physical implementations, for instance one logical description of functional connections could be created for cars with different equipment packages.
Technical Paper

Challenge Determining a Combustion System Concept for Downsized SI-engines - Comparison and Evaluation of Several Options for a Boosted 2-cylinder SI-engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1730
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance in the SI engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so new challenges arise concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor GmbH and Robert Bosch GmbH. The design process was described in detail in last year's paper SAE 2012-01-0832. Since the engine design is very modular it allows for several different engine layouts which can be examined and evaluated.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Control at Engine Management System MOTRONIC

1988-02-01
880135
Engine management control systems basically consist of injection and ignition control. Additionally, closed loop control systems incorporating air fuel ratio control, automatic idle speed control and cylinder selective knock control have proven to be essential. To keep the performance stable during the car's lifetime, extensive use is made of self-adaptive strategies. As a new feature of engine management control, the self-adaptive canister purge control improves driveability and prevents the leakage of fuel vapors. To simplify the closed loop control algorithms primarily during transient operation conditions a sophisticated sequential fuel injection is added. The paper presents the aforementioned self-adaptive closed loop control strategies and the MOTRONIC MI. 3 ECU. Future development trends in engine management and drive train control demand powerful communication links like the Controller Area Network (CAN). This requirement and its planned realisation is discussed.
Technical Paper

Crank Angle Resolved Determination of Fuel Concentration and Air/Fuel Ratio in a SI-Internal Combustion Engine Using a Modified Optical Spark Plug

2007-04-16
2007-01-0644
A fiber optical sensor system was used to detect the local fuel concentration in the vicinity of the spark position in a cylinder of a four-stroke SI production engine. The fuel concentration was determined by the infrared absorption method, which allows crank angle resolved fuel concentration measurements during multiple successive engine cycles. The sensor detects the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 3.4 μm wavelength region due to the infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of hydrocarbons (HC). The absorption path was integrated in a modified spark plug and a tungsten halide lamp was used as an infrared light source. All investigations were carried out on a four-stroke spark ignition engine with fuel injection into the intake manifold. The measurements were made under starting conditions of the engine, which means a low engine speed. The engine operated with common gasoline (Euro Super) at different air/fuel-ratios.
Technical Paper

Design of a Boosted 2-Cylinder SI-Engine with Gasoline Direct Injection to Define the Needs of Future Powertrains

2012-04-16
2012-01-0832
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance to the SI-engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so leads to new challenges concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine with gasoline direct injection was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor and Bosch. This paper wants to offer an insight in the design process. The mechanical design as well as the combustion system concept process will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Desktop Simulation and Calibration of Diesel Engine ECU Software using Software-in-the-Loop Methodology

2014-04-01
2014-01-0189
Current exhaust gas emission regulations can only be well adhered to through optimal interplay of combustion engine and exhaust gas after-treatment systems. Combining a modern diesel engine with several exhaust gas after-treatment components (DPF, catalytic converters) leads to extremely complex drive systems, with very complex and technically demanding control systems. Current engine ECUs (Electronic Control Unit) have hundreds of functions with thousands of parameters that can be adapted to keep the exhaust gas emissions within the given limits. Each of these functions has to be calibrated and tested in accordance with the rest of the ECU software. To date this task has been performed mostly on engine test benches or in Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) setups. In this paper, a Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) approach, consisting of an engine model and an exhaust gas treatment (EGT) model, coupled with software from a real diesel engine ECU, will be described in detail.
Technical Paper

Electroformed Multilayer Orifice Plate for Improved Fuel Injection Characteristics

1997-02-24
971070
A new orifice plate (OP) for advanced fuel injection characteristics is presented. The OP is designed to optimize the air-fuel mixture generation and transportation within individually shaped manifold geometries of spark-ignition engines. To generate the suitable spray characteristics, the basic OP design and its flow characteristics have some features originating from the well known turbulence nozzle principle: Turbulence generating flow deflections within the OP are achieved by superimposing layers containing flow cavities, which are displaced from one another. The flow deflections effect atomization and define the spatial spray beam orientation. A great variety and a high volume of precisely structured, low cost OPs can be produced daily by micromachining the layers in electroformed nickel. The flow cavities and outer dimensions of each layer are shaped by photo-resist structures.
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