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Technical Paper

2D Residual Gas Visualization in an Optical Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine with IR Laser Absorption

The spatial distribution of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is evaluated in an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine using near infrared laser absorption to visualize the distribution of the H2O molecule. The obtained overall internal exhaust gas recirculation compares well to gas-exchange cycle calculations and the spatial distributions are consistent with those measured with inverse LIF. The experimental procedures described in this report are designed to be simple and rapidly implemented without the need to resort to unusual optical components. The necessary spectral data of the selected absorption line is obtained from the HITEMP database and is validated with prior experiments carried out in a reference cell. Laser speckle in the images is effectively reduced using a ballistic diffuser.
Technical Paper

A Novel CFD Approach for an Improved Prediction of Particulate Emissions in GDI Engines by Considering the Spray-Cooling on the Piston

The emission of particulate matter from future GDI engines has to be optimized, to comply with more stringent emission standards such as EU6. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the formation of particles have to be analyzed in detail. The understanding of the in-cylinder processes, necessary for this purpose, can only be achieved by a complementary use of optically accessible single-cylinder engines as well as the numerical simulation. This however leads to great demands on the 3D flow simulation. In this paper the complete CFD approach, incorporating a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain is shown. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction and thus also the particulate emissions. Nevertheless, in conventional CFD models, the spray cooling cannot be captured because of an assumed constant wall temperature.
Technical Paper

A Review of the Requirements for Injection Systems and the Effects of Fuel Quality on Particulate Emissions from GDI Engines

Particulate emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been an important topic of recent research interest due to their known environmental effects. This review paper will characterise the influence of different gasoline direct injection fuel systems on particle number (PN) emissions. The findings will be reviewed for engine and vehicle measurements with appropriate driving cycles (especially real driving cycles) to evaluate effects of the fuel injection systems on PN emissions. Recent technological developments alongside the trends of the influence of system pressure and nozzle design on injector tip wetting and deposits will be considered. Besides the engine and fuel system it is known that fuel composition will have an important effect on GDI engine PN emissions. The evaporation qualities of fuels have a substantial influence on mixture preparation, as does the composition of the fuel itself.
Journal Article

Advanced Combustion System Analyses on a 125cc Motorcycle Engine

Environmental consciousness and tightening emissions legislation push the market share of electronic fuel injection within a dynamically growing world wide small engines market. Similar to automotive engines during late 1980's, this opens up opportunities for original equipment manufacturers (OEM) and suppliers to jointly advance small engines performance in terms of fuel economy, emissions, and drivability. In this context, advanced combustion system analyses from automotive engine testing have been applied to a typical production motorcycle small engine. The 125cc 4-stroke, 2-valve, air-cooled, single-cylinder engine with closed-loop lambda-controlled electronic port fuel injection was investigated in original series configuration on an engine dynamometer. The test cycle fuel consumption simulation provides reasonable best case fuel economy estimates based on stationary map fuel consumption measurements.
Technical Paper

Advanced Planar Oxygen Sensors for Future Emission Control Strategies

This paper presents advanced planar ZrO2 oxygen sensors being developed at Robert Bosch using a modified tetragonal partially stabilized zirconia (TZP) with high ionic conductivity, high phase stability and high thermo-mechanical strength. Green tape technology combined with highly automated thickfilm techniques allows robust and cost effective manufacturing of those novel sensing elements. Standardization of assembling parts reduces the complexity of the assembly line even in the case of different sensing principles. The sensor family meets the new requirements of modern ULEV strategies like fast light off below 10 s and linear control capability as well as high quality assurance standards. High volume production will start in 1997 for European customers.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Flow Patterns inside an Autothermal Gasoline Reformer

The present paper concentrates on the option of catalytic autothermal reforming of gasoline for fuel cell applications. Major parameters of this process are the “Steam to Carbon Ratio” S/C and the air to fuel ratio λ. Computations assuming thermodynamic equilibrium in the autothermal reactor outlet (ATR) were carried out to attain information about their proper choice, as failure in adjusting the parameters within narrow limits has severe consequences on the reforming process. In order to quantify velocity distribution just ahead the catalyst and to evaluate mixing uniformity we designed an ATR featuring an optical access: Thus flow visualization using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) technique is possible. Preliminary PIV-results are presented and compared with CFD computations (Computational Fluid D ynamics).
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Combustion Mode Switch Between SI and Gasoline HCCI

The worldwide stricter emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, challenging approach, especially regarding the combustion mode switch between spark-ignited (SI) and gasoline HCCI mode and vice-versa. Naturally aspirated (n.a.) HCCI shows considerable potential, but the operation range is air breathing limited due to hot residuals required for auto-ignition and to slow down reaction kinetics. Therefore it is limited to part-load operation. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized gasoline engines, it is imperative to investigate the synergies and challenges of boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow Field / Spray Injection Interaction within a DISI IC Engine Using High-Speed PIV

This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Injection of Urea-Water-Solution for Automotive SCR DeNOx-Systems: Modeling of Two-Phase Flow and Spray/Wall-Interaction

The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) based on urea-water-solution is an effective technique to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from diesel engines. A 3D numerical computer model of the injection of urea-water-solution and their interaction with the exhaust gas flow and exhaust tubing is developed to evaluate different configurations during the development process of such a DeNOx-system. The model accounts for all relevant processes appearing from the injection point to the entrance of the SCR-catalyst: momentum interaction between gas phase and droplets evaporation and thermolysis of droplets hydrolysis of isocyanic acid in gas phase heat transfer between wall and droplets spray/wall-interaction two-component wall film including interaction with gas phase and exhaust tube The single modeling steps are verified with visualizations, patternator measurements, phase-doppler-anemometer results and temperature measurements.
Technical Paper

Application Specific Microcontroller for Multiplex Wiring

The new aerial communication protocol “Controller Area Network” (CAN) efficiently supports distributed realtime control in automotive applications. In order to unload CPUs from high-speed message transfer, dedicated CAN hardware handles messages up to the communication object level. In multiplex wiring message rates are one to two orders of magnitude lower, allowing to implement the upper communication level more cost-effectively in software. This reduces CAN interface hardware to bitwise protocol handling only. It may be incorporated even into low-end microcontrollers without significantly increasing chip size. Thus the same CAN protocol supports the entire range of serial automotive communication, matching implementation costs to requirements at each performance level.
Technical Paper

Application of ISO 26262 in Distributed Development ISO 26262 in Reality

With its origin in the process industry, the IEC 61508 „Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems” is not fully applicable in the automotive industry, forcing the automotive industry to work on an automotive specific adaptation (ISO 26262 “Functional Safety – Road Vehicles”). This ISO 26262 describes an ideal development process that starts from scratch. In reality development activities are often split locally and in time. This can only be handled with a world wide standard as a basis of a common approach, wide enough to give enough freedom to adapt to diverse boundary conditions, but tight enough to hinder local interpretations to be that far, that a complete safety case becomes impossible. Therefore a strict world-wide standard which allows compatible interpretations is mandatory.
Technical Paper

Automotive Application of Biometric Systems and Fingerprint

Until now, the use of biometric systems has not been in the public eye. The high cost of sensors and processing has meant that biometrics was previously restricted to high security access, financial transaction and law enforcement applications. However, as a result of improvements in technology, biometric sensor price and reliability have achieved levels where biometrics is being seriously considered for automotive systems. This paper introduces the field of biometrics, the key terms and processes. Fingerprint Technology and Identification by Fingerprint are discussed, as are the use and applicability of biometrics in automotive applications, including Personal Profiling, Keyless Engine Start and vehicle access authorization. The key findings of investigations over the last years are discussed.
Journal Article

Avoiding Electrical Overstress for Automotive Semiconductors by New Connecting Concepts

Bosch Automotive Semiconductor Unit investigated destroyed semiconductor devices (ASIC) from electronic control unit complaints, which failed due to electrical overstress. It turned out that failure fingerprints could only be reproduced by semiconductor operation far beyond spec limits. One main failure mechanism is caused by hot plugging and bad or late ground connection. In today’s cars some applications are still active for minutes after ignition switch off. So, currents of several amps are delivered and in a typical production or garage environment, hot plugging cannot be avoided completely. Bosch suggests introducing extended ground pins to get an enforced switch on/off sequence during plugging. This poka yoke protection principle is successfully used in other industries for a long time and should now come into cars.
Technical Paper

Bus System for Wiring Actuators of Restraint Systems

The continuing increase in the performance of restraint systems has led to a drastic increase in the number of actuator devices. The individual wiring of the igniters becomes more and more problematic through the accompanied large number of plug connections and cables. Along with demands for weight and volume reduction, there are requirements for EMI and short circuit protection to eliminate erroneous deployment and misuse. As a solution, a new multi-protocol dual wire bus system is described that has the capability to supply energy and address multiple peripheral output stages to simultaneously fire any combination of actuators.
Technical Paper

Chemical Sensors for CO/NOx-Detection in Automotive Climate Control Systems

A new air quality sensor for climate control in automobiles has been developed. The sensor is designed for use in air conditioning systems with an air intake flap and a charcoal filter. The main indicators for the detection of air pollution are CO and NOx. The sensor elements consist of a SnO2 layer made in thick film technology resulting in small sensor size and high sensitivity at reasonable cost. The sensor elements are packaged together with an evaluation circuit in a water resistant sensor housing for underhood installation. By means of specific dopants the sensor elements have been optimized in order to detect CO and NOx with very low cross-sensitivity. This paper describes the design and production of the sensor. The performance of the complete unit under typical field conditions is presented. The sensor is in serial production.
Technical Paper

Common Rail - An Attractive Fuel Injection System for Passenger Car DI Diesel Engines

Passenger car DI Diesel engines need a flexible fuel injection system. Bosch develops a common rail system for this purpose. Besides variation of fuel quantity and start of injection, it permits to choosing freely injection pressure inthe rangeof 150 to 1400 barand injecting fuel in several portions. These new means will contribute to further improvements of DI engines concerning noise, exhaust emissions and engine torque.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy for NOx - Emission Reduction with SCR

Future emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles like Euro 4, Euro 5, US '07 require advanced engine functionality. One contribution to achieve this target is the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by injection of urea water solution to the exhaust gas. An overview on a urea dosing system, also called DENOXTRONIC, is given and a dosing strategy is described.
Journal Article

Data Based Cylinder Pressure Modeling for Direct-injection Diesel Engines

In this article a new zero-dimensional model is presented for simulating the cylinder pressure in direct injection diesel engines. The model enables the representation of current combustion processes considering multiple injections, high exhaust gas recirculation rates, and turbocharging. In these methods solely cycle-resolved, scalar input variables from the electronic control unit in combination with empirical parameters are required for modeling. The latter are adapted automatically to different engines or modified applications using measured cylinder pressure traces. The verification based on measurements within the entire operating range from engines of different size and type proves the universal applicability and high accuracy of the proposed method.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Management Strategy and a Cost Effective Catalyst System to Meet SULEV Emission Requirements Demonstrated on a V-6 Engine

The study presented in this paper focuses on measures to minimize exhaust gas emissions to meet SULEV targets on a V6 engine by using a cost efficient system configuration. The study consists of three parts. A) In the first stage, the influence of engine management both on raw emissions and catalyst light off performance was optimized. B) Afterwards, the predefined high cell density catalyst system was tested on an engine test bench. In this stage, thermal data and engine out emissions were used for modeling and prediction of light-off performance for further optimized catalyst concepts. C) In the final stage of the program, the emission performance of the test matrix, including high cell density as well as multifunctional single substrate systems, are studied during the FTP cycle. The presented results show the approach to achieve SULEV emission compliance with innovative engine control strategies in combination with a cost effective metallic catalyst design.
Technical Paper

Domain Control Units - the Solution for Future E/E Architectures?

In order to master the increasing complexity of electrical/electronic (E/E) systems in vehicles, E/E architecture design has become an established discipline. The task of the E/E architecture design is to come up with solutions to challenging and often contradictory requirements such as reduced cost and increased flexibility / scalability. One way to optimize the E/E architecture in terms of cost (electronics & wiring harness) is to integrate functions. This can be done by either combining functions from multiple ECUs into a single ECU or by introducing Domain Control Units. Domain Control Units provide the main software functionality for a vehicle domain, while relegating the basic functions of actuator control to connected intelligent actuators. Depending on the different market segments (low price, volume and premium) and the different vehicle domains, the actual usage of Domain Control Units can be quite different and sometimes questionable.