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Technical Paper

A Non Contact Strain Gage Torque Sensor for Automotive Servo Driven Steering Systems

1994-03-01
940629
Tapping of one or more torques (ranges 10 Nm and 60 Nm) on the steering column for the purpose of servo control must satisfy high accuracy requirements on the one hand and high safety requirements on the other hand. A suggestion for developing a low-cost solution to this problem is described below: Strain gages optimally satisfy both these requirements: However, for cost reasons, these are not applied directly to the steering column but to a prefabricated, flat steel rod which is laser welded to the torque rod of the steering column. The measuring direction of the strain gages is under 45° to the steering column axis. The strain gages are either vacuum metallized onto the support rod as a thin film or laminated in a particularly low-cost way by means of a foil-type intermediate carrier.
Technical Paper

ABS and ASR for Passenger Cars -Coals and Limits

1989-02-01
890834
Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) and Traction Control Systems (ASR) should ensure maximum stability and steerability even under extreme driving conditions. Since high performance systems additionally improve brake distance and traction within the given physical limits, every vehicle equipped with ABS and ASR offers considerably higher active safety. ABS was introduced into the market by the Robert Bosch GmbH more than ten years ago, and more than 3 million systems have been produced by the end of 1988. Volume production of ASR began in 1987. This paper describes several high-, medium-, and low performance concepts and compares them with regard to safety and performance. Although it seems to be nearly impossible to define a cost/benefit ratio between monetary values and safety, our purpose here is to identify further development strategies through the use of a decision matrix.
Technical Paper

ABS5 and ASR5: The New ABS/ASR Family to Optimize Directional Stability and Traction

1993-03-01
930505
In 1978, Bosch was the first supplier on the market to offer full-function antilock braking systems. In 1993, six years will have passed since Bosch delivered the first traction control system for passenger cars. In the meantime, a considerable amount of experience has been gained through ongoing development and testing. This experience enabled us to define the requirements for directional stability, optimum control strategy, maximum usage of the entire spectrum of drive torque intervention possibilities, and optimized hydraulics for automatic brake intervention. The result is Bosch ABS/ASR5, which in now being introduced to the market. This new ABS/ASR family is designed in modules, which offers high flexibility in function and assembly. Systems are available with traction improvement, or with optimized directional stability and traction. Each version is adapted to the needs of the vehicle drive layout, and adaptable to customer requirements.
Technical Paper

ABS5.3: The New and Compact ABS5 Unit for Passenger Cars

1995-02-01
950757
The transition from the multi-component ABS2 design to the one housing concept of ABS5.0 represented a significant step in improving the ABS unit. ABS5.3 is the successor of ABS5.0 to achieve a highly compact, light weight inexpensive design, for the broad use of ABS in all passenger cars and light trucks. New technologies applied are the staking technique for hydraulic components, the use of microhybrid electronics design and solenoid coils being integrated within the attached electronic control unit. The unit can be manufactured in global alliance achieved by simultaneous engineering, applying CAD, FE-analysis, flow calculation and simulation, noise analysis and quality assurance which includes FMEA, error simulation, durability tests and the dry testing concept. The ABS5.3 design can be easily expanded to Traction Control (ASR).
Technical Paper

ASR - Traction Control - A Logical Extension of ABS

1987-02-01
870337
Control of a car is lost, or considerably reduced, whenever one or more of the wheels exceed the stability limit during braking or accelerating due to excessive brake or drive slip. The problem of ensuring optimum stability, steerability and brake distance of a car during hard braking is solved by means of the well-known Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). The task to guarantee stability, steerability and optimum traction during acceleration, particularly on asymmetrical road surfaces and during cornering maneuvers, is being performed by the traction control system (ASR). Several means to provide an optimum traction control are described, e. g the control of engine torque by influencing the throttle plate and/or the ignition and/or the fuel injection.
Technical Paper

ASR-Traction Control, State of the Art and Some Prospects

1990-02-01
900204
Closed loop vehicle control comprising of the driver, the vehicle and the environment is now achieved by the automatic wheel slip control combination of ABS and ASR. To improve directional control during acceleration, the Robert Bosch Corporation has introduced five ASR-Systems into series production. In one system, the electronic control unit works exclusively with the engine management system to assure directional control. In two other systems, brake intervention works in concert with throttle intervention. For this task, it was necessary to develop different highly sophisticated hydraulic units. The other systems improve traction by controlling limited slip differentials. The safety concept for all five systems includes two redundant micro controllers which crosscheck and compare input and output signals. A Traction Control System can be achieved through a number of torque intervention methods.
Technical Paper

Anti-Lock Braking System for Commercial Vehicles

1988-10-01
881821
Commercial vehicles must convey people and goods safely and reliable, irrespective of the weather and road conditions. The ABS safety braking systems are an essential prerequisite for fulfillment of this primary task. ABS has been used in European commercial vehicles since 1981. Today there are already fittet as standard in buses to some extend. The contribution to increasing road safety is causing the European lawmakers to make ABS statutory for commercial vehicles and to make it part of their compulsory equipment. Suitable anti-lock braking systems and closed loop configurations for commercial vehicles are demonstrated by theoretical observations and technical driving trials, their axlespecific and closed-loop control characteristics are highlighted.
Technical Paper

Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) for Commercial Vehicles - Status 1990 and Future Prospects

1990-10-01
901177
The paper begins with an overview of the history of ABS for commercial vehicles followed by a brief description of the technology of the BOSCH ABS at the time it went into mass production in 1981. Subsequently it describes the field experiences with ABS including the experiences of drivers and operators. These experiences are reflected in the equipment which BOSCH offers today. Additional functions such as ASR (traction control) have been integrated. The paper provides an overview of the functions available today and their implementation. The paper concludes with a discussion on potential continued developments and an attempt to describe the systems which will be required by the mid 9os.
Technical Paper

BOSCH-ABS - Designed for the User

1986-11-01
861977
Bosch's antilock braking system (ABS) is available for any type of vehicle design. It has been developed in cooperation with vehicle manufacturers and users. Safety and reliability were the eminent targets of this development. A new feature is a self-diagnostic system.
Technical Paper

Behaviour of Car Drivers in Accidents used to Estimate the Benefit of Car Antilock Brake System on Indian Highways

2015-01-14
2015-26-0172
In the year of 2012 in India the total number of accidents with injuries is registered by Ministry of Road Transport and Highway with 490,383 out of which injured people are 509,667 and fatalities are 138,258 [1]. Nearly 17% of the fatalities are occupants of passenger cars which constitute the second highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. In order to understand the root causes for car accidents in India, Bosch accident research carried out a study based on in-depth accidents collected in India. Apart from other accident contributing factors e.g. infrastructure the driver behaviour and his actions few milliseconds just prior to the crash is an extremely important and a key valuable data for the understanding of accident causation. Further on it supports also the development of modern automotive safety functions. Hence this research was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of the state-of-the art vehicle safety systems known as Antilock Braking System (ABS).
Technical Paper

Benefit Estimation of Anti-Lock Braking System for Powered Two Wheeler On Indian Highways

2015-01-14
2015-26-0167
Motorized two wheelers, also known as powered two wheelers (PTW) are the most common mode of transportation in India. Around one in four deaths that occurred on the roads in India in 2012 involved a motorcyclist, according to Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. This constitutes the highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. The European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) analysis shows the risk of a motorcyclist having a fatal accident is 20 times greater than for a car driver travelling the same route [2]. An investigation conducted by Bosch looked at the accident database of Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI). This investigation revealed interesting facts about the Indian motorcycle accident situation, such as root causes of powered two wheeler collisions and riders behaviour including their braking patterns during the pre-crash phase of the accident.
Technical Paper

Brake by Wire for Commercial Vehicles

1992-11-01
922489
This address presents the ongoing development of the commercial-vehicle braking system, over and beyond ABS/ASR, towards a brake by wire system (electronically controlled braking system ELB) with pressure-regulating circuit and additional functions. Following the discussion and selection of various concepts, we will present different versions with individual and combined components for the towing vehicle and for the trailer. The safety concept of a pneumatic back-up circuit will be dealt with, as well as the communication through data bus (CAN) both within the braking system itself and with other vehicle systems. The improvement possibilities inherent in ELB will be detailed, with the emphasis on increasing road and traffic safety, on reducing operating costs, and on future vehicle-guidance functions.
Technical Paper

Comparison of a State of the Art Hydraulic Brake System with a Decentralized Hydraulic Brake System Concept for Electric Vehicles

2017-09-17
2017-01-2515
The ongoing changes in the development of new power trains and the requirements due to driver assistance systems and autonomous driving could be the enabler for completely new brake system configurations. The shift in the brake load collective has to be included in the systems requirements for electric vehicles. Many alternative concepts for hydraulic brake systems, even for decentralized configurations, can be found in the literature. For a decentralized system with all state of the art safety functionalities included, four actuators are necessary. Therefore, the single brake module should be as cost-effective as possible. Previous papers introduced systems which are for example based on plunger-like concepts, which are very expensive and heavy due to the needed gearing and design. In this paper a comparison between a state of the art hydraulic brake system using an electromechanical brake booster, and a completely new decentralized hydraulic brake concept is presented.
Technical Paper

Electronic Braking System EBS - Status and Advanced Functions

1998-11-16
982781
Since 1996 a 2nd Generation EBS has been available in Europe as an advanced brake system offering a variety of advantages to the OEM as well as to the truck and fleet owner. EBS enhances vehicle safety and improves the braking performance to a “passenger car like” braking feel, allowing less experienced drivers better vehicle handling. The brake lining wear control and retarder integration allow the reduction of operational costs. The safety enhancements achieved by EBS in conjunction with disc brakes, are rewarded by European truck insurance companies by lower insurance fees. The importance of EBS will still gain significantly through the developments in process. EBS is the platform for ESP and ACC, which will be a major contributer to better integration of trucks in dense traffic flow.
Journal Article

Evaluation of a State of the Art Hydraulic Brake System with Regard to Future Requirements

2016-09-18
2016-01-1927
New technologies like alternative power trains and driver assistance systems have a big impact on brake system development. Most of the development work aims at the improvement of the actuation and modulation components of the brake system. The basic hydraulic network remained nearly the same over decades and still has to meet these new requirements. Previous papers have focused mainly on studying the behavior of single components, like for example the brake hose fluid consumption in detail. Other papers studied the complete system but simplified it extremely, so that some relevant effects are neglected. In this work, one focus is to study the influence of single relevant components, like the hydraulic unit and the hoses on the overall system performance. For this measurements with a complete hydraulic brake system, including a state of the art electromechanical brake booster and single component measurements for identification, are conducted.
Technical Paper

Future Electrical Steering Systems: Realizations with Safety Requirements

2000-03-06
2000-01-0822
Additional future requirements for automobiles such as improved vehicle dynamics control, enhanced comfort, increased safety and compact packaging are met by modern electrical steering systems. Based on these requirements the new functionality is realized by various additional electrical components for measuring, signal processing and actuator control. However, the reliability of these new systems has to meet the standard of today's automotive steering products. To achieve the demands of the respective components (e.g. sensors, bus systems, electronic control units, power units, actuators) the systems have to be fault-tolerant and/or fail-silent. The realization of the derived safety structures requires both expertise and experience in design and mass production of safety relevant electrical systems. Beside system safety and system availability the redundant electrical systems also have to meet economic and market requirements.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Hall Effect-Based Magnetosensors in Modern Vehicle Stability Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C058
After comparing magnetosensor technologies for automotive use the system aspects of wheelspeed sensors for vehicle stability systems are discussed. A new generation of intelligent differential Hall Effect-based sensors is described focussing on technology, operating principle and circuitry of the Hall IC. The final realization of the wheel speed sensor is presented concluding with a summary of the main advantages of this concept.
Technical Paper

Loss of Control Car Accidents on Indian Roads - Benefit Estimation of ESC

2019-01-09
2019-26-0009
India has one of the highest growth rates of individual mobility in the world, as well as one of the largest numbers of road casualties. Modern active safety systems are slowly becoming established in the Indian passenger car market. The intension of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the car safety feature Electronic Stability Control (ESC) for India. The Indian accidents has to be analysed to identify the reliable root cause. For this purpose, passenger car Loss of Control accidents were investigated in more detail with the aim of estimating the safety potential of ESC for India. A methodology is developed to extrapolate the in-depth accident database of Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI) to the entire accident situation in India. Loss of Control accidents are analysed with regard to their root causes, crash consequences and contributing factors.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Simulation of Transient Tire Forces

1989-02-01
890640
High performance Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) are well known to allow for very rapid pressure changes in the wheel brake cylinders. Recordings of the wheel speed during ABS control show oscillations just after the rapid pressure changes. The oscillations can not be explained by simulation if the usual stationary brake force versus slip curves are used. Thus the investigation of the oscillations requires a different approach to the modelling of the tire. As a first step in the alternative modelling of the tire the forces and moments on the running tire were measured using an experimental car. During the measurement the pressure in the wheel brake cylinder was modulated stepwise. A new Rotating Wheel Dynamometer was used to take those measurements. The results showed that the oscillations which were observed in the wheel speed could also be found in the braking force on the tire. Contrarily, the corresponding oscillations could not be found in the braking torque.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Simulation of Transients in Longitudinal and Lateral Tire Forces

1990-02-01
900210
The design of ABS- or vehicle control systems by means of computer simulation needs adequate tire models. Recordings of the wheel speed during ABS control show oscillations caused by the rapid pressure changes in the wheel brake cylinder. Investigations in lateral tire dynamics show a phase shift between the slip angle and the lateral tire force. These transients can not be explained by simulation if the usual stationary tire input-output behaviour is supposed. Thus the investigation of the oscillations requires a different approach to the modelling of the tire. In a first step measurements with an experimental car equipped with a computer for data acquisition and control and with various sensors - e.g. a Rotating Wheel Dynamometer - were carried out. The measurement results showed a correlation between the oscillations in the wheel speed and the braking force caused by the pressure pulses as well as high frequency oscillations in the lateral tire forces.
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