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Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0196
This paper presents an overview of the evolution & revolution of automotive E/E architectures and how we at Bosch, envision the technology in the future. It provides information on the bottlenecks for current E/E architectures and drivers for their evolution. Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases. Implementation of these functionalities in mainstream vehicles will demand a paradigm shift in E/E architectures with respect to in-vehicle communication networks, power networks, connectivity, safety and security. This paper expounds on these points at a system level.
Technical Paper

A Backbone in Automotive Software Development Based on XML and ASAM/MSR

2004-03-08
2004-01-0304
The development of future automotive electronic systems requires new concepts in the software architecture, development methodology and information exchange. At Bosch an XML and MSR based technology is applied to achieve a consistent information handling throughout the entire software development process. This approach enables the tool independent exchange of information and documentation between the involved development partners. This paper presents the software architecture, the specification of software components in XML, the process steps, an example and an exchange scenario with an external development partner.
Technical Paper

A Review of the Requirements for Injection Systems and the Effects of Fuel Quality on Particulate Emissions from GDI Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1710
Particulate emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been an important topic of recent research interest due to their known environmental effects. This review paper will characterise the influence of different gasoline direct injection fuel systems on particle number (PN) emissions. The findings will be reviewed for engine and vehicle measurements with appropriate driving cycles (especially real driving cycles) to evaluate effects of the fuel injection systems on PN emissions. Recent technological developments alongside the trends of the influence of system pressure and nozzle design on injector tip wetting and deposits will be considered. Besides the engine and fuel system it is known that fuel composition will have an important effect on GDI engine PN emissions. The evaporation qualities of fuels have a substantial influence on mixture preparation, as does the composition of the fuel itself.
Technical Paper

ABS and ASR for Passenger Cars -Coals and Limits

1989-02-01
890834
Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) and Traction Control Systems (ASR) should ensure maximum stability and steerability even under extreme driving conditions. Since high performance systems additionally improve brake distance and traction within the given physical limits, every vehicle equipped with ABS and ASR offers considerably higher active safety. ABS was introduced into the market by the Robert Bosch GmbH more than ten years ago, and more than 3 million systems have been produced by the end of 1988. Volume production of ASR began in 1987. This paper describes several high-, medium-, and low performance concepts and compares them with regard to safety and performance. Although it seems to be nearly impossible to define a cost/benefit ratio between monetary values and safety, our purpose here is to identify further development strategies through the use of a decision matrix.
Technical Paper

ABS5 and ASR5: The New ABS/ASR Family to Optimize Directional Stability and Traction

1993-03-01
930508
In 1978, Bosch was the first supplier on the market to offer full-function antilock braking systems. In 1993, six years will have passed since Bosch delivered the first traction control system for passenger cars. In the meantime, a considerable amount of experience has been gained through ongoing development and testing. This experience enabled us to define the requirements for directional stability, optimum control strategy, maximum usage of the entire spectrum of drive torque intervention possibilities, and optimized hydraulics for automatic brake intervention. The result is Bosch ABS/ASR5, which in now being introduced to the market. This new ABS/ASR family is designed in modules, which offers high flexibility in function and assembly. Systems are available with traction improvement, or with optimized directional stability and traction. Each version is adapted to the needs of the vehicle drive layout, and adaptable to customer requirements.
Technical Paper

ASR - Traction Control - A Logical Extension of ABS

1987-02-01
870337
Control of a car is lost, or considerably reduced, whenever one or more of the wheels exceed the stability limit during braking or accelerating due to excessive brake or drive slip. The problem of ensuring optimum stability, steerability and brake distance of a car during hard braking is solved by means of the well-known Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). The task to guarantee stability, steerability and optimum traction during acceleration, particularly on asymmetrical road surfaces and during cornering maneuvers, is being performed by the traction control system (ASR). Several means to provide an optimum traction control are described, e. g the control of engine torque by influencing the throttle plate and/or the ignition and/or the fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Active Pedestrian Protection - System Development

2004-03-08
2004-01-1604
Pedestrian protection is an upcoming field for research and development. Active pedestrian protection is described from a system perspective. In this view, the development of an active pedestrian protection system is shown. First an overview on statistics and legal requirements is given and the system requirements are discussed. Sensor concepts and realizations are shown, also different test methods and results are explained. FE-simulations to complete and later replace additional tests are developed, after cross check with the experimental results. In combination with the shown actuator concept this leads to a full functioning active pedestrian protection system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Non-Police Reported Accidents on Indian Highways

2017-01-10
2017-26-0005
The official Indian accident statistics show that the number of road accidents and fatalities are one of the highest worldwide. These official statistics provide important facts about the current accident situation. It is suspected that for various reasons not all accidents are reported to the official statistic. This study estimates the degree of underreporting of traffic accidents with casualties in India. In order to get a national overview of the traffic accident situation it is necessary to improve the knowledge about underreported accidents. Therefore, the in-depth accident database of “Road Accident Sampling System India” (RASSI) was analyzed [1]. This project is organized by a consortium that has collected traffic accidents scientifically in four different regions since 2011 on the spot which have been reported either by police or by local hospitals and own patrol by RASSI engineers.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow Field / Spray Injection Interaction within a DISI IC Engine Using High-Speed PIV

2011-04-12
2011-01-1287
This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Analyze This! Sound Static Analysis for Integration Verification of Large-Scale Automotive Software

2019-04-02
2019-01-1246
Safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements. One such requirement, imposed by all contemporary safety standards, is that no critical run-time errors must occur. Runtime errors can be caused by undefined or unspecified behavior of the programming language; examples are buffer overflows or data races. They may cause erroneous or erratic behavior, induce system failures, and constitute security vulnerabilities. A sound static analyzer reports all such defects in the code, or proves their absence. Sound static program analysis is a verification technique recommended by ISO/FDIS 26262 for software unit verification and for the verification of software integration. In this article we propose an analysis methodology that has been implemented with the static analyzer Astrée. It supports quick turn-around times and gives highly precise whole-program results.
Technical Paper

Anti-Lock Braking System for Commercial Vehicles

1988-10-01
881821
Commercial vehicles must convey people and goods safely and reliable, irrespective of the weather and road conditions. The ABS safety braking systems are an essential prerequisite for fulfillment of this primary task. ABS has been used in European commercial vehicles since 1981. Today there are already fittet as standard in buses to some extend. The contribution to increasing road safety is causing the European lawmakers to make ABS statutory for commercial vehicles and to make it part of their compulsory equipment. Suitable anti-lock braking systems and closed loop configurations for commercial vehicles are demonstrated by theoretical observations and technical driving trials, their axlespecific and closed-loop control characteristics are highlighted.
Technical Paper

Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) for Commercial Vehicles - Status 1990 and Future Prospects

1990-10-01
901203
The paper begins with an overview of the history of ABS for commercial vehicles followed by a brief description of the technology of the BOSCH ABS at the time it went into mass production in 1981. Subsequently it describes the field experiences with ABS including the experiences of drivers and operators. These experiences are reflected in the equipment which BOSCH offers today. Additional functions such as ASR (traction control) have been integrated. The paper provides an overview of the functions available today and their implementation. The paper concludes with a discussion on potential continued developments and an attempt to describe the systems which will be required by the mid 9os.
Technical Paper

Application Possibilities and Future Chances of “Smart” Sensors in the Motor Vehicle

1989-02-01
890304
Current vehicle concepts necessitate the multiple measurement of several variables required by separate electronic systems in the motor vehicle. There is the need to make sensors bus capable by the incorporation of electronic components in new definition concepts, in other words to make them multiply usable. Such bus concepts are at the present time taking concrete shape. The step of introducing electronics - especially digital - to the measuring point may simultaneously be used to considerably improve utilization of the information content of sensor structures using means of indivdual, digital correction to a greater level than has until now been technically possible. There remains the demand for high stability and reproducibility of the sensor properties over time. These signal preprocessing and information condensation processes on the spot also satisfy the need to relieve the central control units.
Technical Paper

BOSCH-ABS - Designed for the User

1986-11-01
861977
Bosch's antilock braking system (ABS) is available for any type of vehicle design. It has been developed in cooperation with vehicle manufacturers and users. Safety and reliability were the eminent targets of this development. A new feature is a self-diagnostic system.
Technical Paper

Behaviour of Car Drivers in Accidents used to Estimate the Benefit of Car Antilock Brake System on Indian Highways

2015-01-14
2015-26-0172
In the year of 2012 in India the total number of accidents with injuries is registered by Ministry of Road Transport and Highway with 490,383 out of which injured people are 509,667 and fatalities are 138,258 [1]. Nearly 17% of the fatalities are occupants of passenger cars which constitute the second highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. In order to understand the root causes for car accidents in India, Bosch accident research carried out a study based on in-depth accidents collected in India. Apart from other accident contributing factors e.g. infrastructure the driver behaviour and his actions few milliseconds just prior to the crash is an extremely important and a key valuable data for the understanding of accident causation. Further on it supports also the development of modern automotive safety functions. Hence this research was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of the state-of-the art vehicle safety systems known as Antilock Braking System (ABS).
Technical Paper

Benefit Estimation of Anti-Lock Braking System for Powered Two Wheeler On Indian Highways

2015-01-14
2015-26-0166
Motorized two wheelers, also known as powered two wheelers (PTW) are the most common mode of transportation in India. Around one in four deaths that occurred on the roads in India in 2012 involved a motorcyclist, according to Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. This constitutes the highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. The European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) analysis shows the risk of a motorcyclist having a fatal accident is 20 times greater than for a car driver travelling the same route [2]. An investigation conducted by Bosch looked at the accident database of Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI). This investigation revealed interesting facts about the Indian motorcycle accident situation, such as root causes of powered two wheeler collisions and riders behaviour including their braking patterns during the pre-crash phase of the accident.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy for NOx - Emission Reduction with SCR

2003-11-10
2003-01-3362
Future emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles like Euro 4, Euro 5, US '07 require advanced engine functionality. One contribution to achieve this target is the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by injection of urea water solution to the exhaust gas. An overview on a urea dosing system, also called DENOXTRONIC, is given and a dosing strategy is described.
Technical Paper

FMI for Physics-Based Models on AUTOSAR Platforms

2017-01-10
2017-26-0358
As automobiles become increasingly smarter, the need to understand within the automotive software the physical behavior of its parts is growing as well. The laws of physics governing such behavior are mostly formulated as differential equations, which today are usually created or obtained from various modeling tools. For solving them, the tools offer several solvers to satisfy the requirements of different problems. E.g. simple and fast explicit low order solvers for non-stiff problems and more complex implicit solvers for stiff problems. Though the modeling and code generation features as available in such tools are desirable for embedded automotive software, they cannot be used directly due to special restrictions with respect to hard realtime constraints. One such restriction is the organization of automotive software in components complying with the AUTOSAR standard which is not widely supported by the modeling tools.
Technical Paper

Integration Strategy of Safety Systems - Status and Outlook

2016-04-05
2016-01-1498
On the way to automated driving, the installation rate of surround sensing systems will rapidly increase in the upcoming years. The respective technical progress in the areas of driver assistance and active safety leads to a numerous and valuable information and signals to be used prior to, during and even after an accident. Car makers and suppliers can make use of this new situation and develop integrated safety functions to further reduce the number of injured and even deaths in car accidents. Nevertheless, the base occupant safety remains the core of this integrated safety system in order to ensure at least a state-of-the-art protection even in vehicles including partial, high or full automation. Current networked safety systems comprehend a point-to-point connection between single components of active and safety systems. The optimal integration requires a much deeper and holistic approach.
Technical Paper

Interaction of Nonlinear Dynamics and Unsteady Flow in Fuel Injectors

1992-02-01
920621
Rapid opening, closing and rebounds of needle from seat and stopper plate give rise to fluid transients in fuel injectors, which are strongly coupled to the dynamics of needle and body motions. A mathematical model, based on unsteady compressible flow in the injector and steady incompressible flow in inlet and outlet section in conjunction with the equation of motion for needle and body, allows the quantitative description of the injector operation cycle. Agreement between prediction and experiment in terms of needle motion, needle velocity and pressure history is good. The mathematical model is used to show the effects, which various contributions to the hydrodynamic interaction force have on the needle motion, on pressure history and on injected mass.
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