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Technical Paper

2D Residual Gas Visualization in an Optical Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine with IR Laser Absorption

The spatial distribution of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is evaluated in an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine using near infrared laser absorption to visualize the distribution of the H2O molecule. The obtained overall internal exhaust gas recirculation compares well to gas-exchange cycle calculations and the spatial distributions are consistent with those measured with inverse LIF. The experimental procedures described in this report are designed to be simple and rapidly implemented without the need to resort to unusual optical components. The necessary spectral data of the selected absorption line is obtained from the HITEMP database and is validated with prior experiments carried out in a reference cell. Laser speckle in the images is effectively reduced using a ballistic diffuser.
Technical Paper

A Novel CFD Approach for an Improved Prediction of Particulate Emissions in GDI Engines by Considering the Spray-Cooling on the Piston

The emission of particulate matter from future GDI engines has to be optimized, to comply with more stringent emission standards such as EU6. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the formation of particles have to be analyzed in detail. The understanding of the in-cylinder processes, necessary for this purpose, can only be achieved by a complementary use of optically accessible single-cylinder engines as well as the numerical simulation. This however leads to great demands on the 3D flow simulation. In this paper the complete CFD approach, incorporating a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain is shown. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction and thus also the particulate emissions. Nevertheless, in conventional CFD models, the spray cooling cannot be captured because of an assumed constant wall temperature.
Technical Paper

A Review of the Requirements for Injection Systems and the Effects of Fuel Quality on Particulate Emissions from GDI Engines

Particulate emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been an important topic of recent research interest due to their known environmental effects. This review paper will characterise the influence of different gasoline direct injection fuel systems on particle number (PN) emissions. The findings will be reviewed for engine and vehicle measurements with appropriate driving cycles (especially real driving cycles) to evaluate effects of the fuel injection systems on PN emissions. Recent technological developments alongside the trends of the influence of system pressure and nozzle design on injector tip wetting and deposits will be considered. Besides the engine and fuel system it is known that fuel composition will have an important effect on GDI engine PN emissions. The evaporation qualities of fuels have a substantial influence on mixture preparation, as does the composition of the fuel itself.
Journal Article

Advanced Combustion System Analyses on a 125cc Motorcycle Engine

Environmental consciousness and tightening emissions legislation push the market share of electronic fuel injection within a dynamically growing world wide small engines market. Similar to automotive engines during late 1980's, this opens up opportunities for original equipment manufacturers (OEM) and suppliers to jointly advance small engines performance in terms of fuel economy, emissions, and drivability. In this context, advanced combustion system analyses from automotive engine testing have been applied to a typical production motorcycle small engine. The 125cc 4-stroke, 2-valve, air-cooled, single-cylinder engine with closed-loop lambda-controlled electronic port fuel injection was investigated in original series configuration on an engine dynamometer. The test cycle fuel consumption simulation provides reasonable best case fuel economy estimates based on stationary map fuel consumption measurements.
Technical Paper

Advanced Planar Oxygen Sensors for Future Emission Control Strategies

This paper presents advanced planar ZrO2 oxygen sensors being developed at Robert Bosch using a modified tetragonal partially stabilized zirconia (TZP) with high ionic conductivity, high phase stability and high thermo-mechanical strength. Green tape technology combined with highly automated thickfilm techniques allows robust and cost effective manufacturing of those novel sensing elements. Standardization of assembling parts reduces the complexity of the assembly line even in the case of different sensing principles. The sensor family meets the new requirements of modern ULEV strategies like fast light off below 10 s and linear control capability as well as high quality assurance standards. High volume production will start in 1997 for European customers.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Flow Patterns inside an Autothermal Gasoline Reformer

The present paper concentrates on the option of catalytic autothermal reforming of gasoline for fuel cell applications. Major parameters of this process are the “Steam to Carbon Ratio” S/C and the air to fuel ratio λ. Computations assuming thermodynamic equilibrium in the autothermal reactor outlet (ATR) were carried out to attain information about their proper choice, as failure in adjusting the parameters within narrow limits has severe consequences on the reforming process. In order to quantify velocity distribution just ahead the catalyst and to evaluate mixing uniformity we designed an ATR featuring an optical access: Thus flow visualization using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) technique is possible. Preliminary PIV-results are presented and compared with CFD computations (Computational Fluid D ynamics).
Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow Field / Spray Injection Interaction within a DISI IC Engine Using High-Speed PIV

This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Injection of Urea-Water-Solution for Automotive SCR DeNOx-Systems: Modeling of Two-Phase Flow and Spray/Wall-Interaction

The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) based on urea-water-solution is an effective technique to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from diesel engines. A 3D numerical computer model of the injection of urea-water-solution and their interaction with the exhaust gas flow and exhaust tubing is developed to evaluate different configurations during the development process of such a DeNOx-system. The model accounts for all relevant processes appearing from the injection point to the entrance of the SCR-catalyst: momentum interaction between gas phase and droplets evaporation and thermolysis of droplets hydrolysis of isocyanic acid in gas phase heat transfer between wall and droplets spray/wall-interaction two-component wall film including interaction with gas phase and exhaust tube The single modeling steps are verified with visualizations, patternator measurements, phase-doppler-anemometer results and temperature measurements.
Technical Paper

Application Possibilities and Future Chances of “Smart” Sensors in the Motor Vehicle

Current vehicle concepts necessitate the multiple measurement of several variables required by separate electronic systems in the motor vehicle. There is the need to make sensors bus capable by the incorporation of electronic components in new definition concepts, in other words to make them multiply usable. Such bus concepts are at the present time taking concrete shape. The step of introducing electronics - especially digital - to the measuring point may simultaneously be used to considerably improve utilization of the information content of sensor structures using means of indivdual, digital correction to a greater level than has until now been technically possible. There remains the demand for high stability and reproducibility of the sensor properties over time. These signal preprocessing and information condensation processes on the spot also satisfy the need to relieve the central control units.
Technical Paper

Automotive Specific Application of Sensor-Systems with Suitable Technologies and Appropriate Housings

If a sensor shall be applied in motor vehicles, all the components of the sensor must fulfil special requirements. Particular attention must be paid to the installation of the sensitive element and to the adaptation to which the sensor is to be put. The objective of this paper is to illustrate these demands more closely using three different types of sensors as examples: a displacement sensor, a pressure sensor and an acceleration sensor.
Technical Paper

Bosch System Solutions for Reduction of CO2 and Emissions

For about 20 years now, legislation for emission standards has become more and more strict. Main current standards are LEVII legislation for US- and EU4 for the European Market. Many emerging markets like e.g. China, India, Russia adopt EU regulations (directly or modified. Mid of 90's discussions began on restrictions and legislation for CO2 emissions. The European commission recently proposed concrete legislation standards for 2012 and 2020. These will have strong influence on the strategies of the Car Manufacturers. Single measures like start stop will be of general interest. But for reaching the fleet average combinations of measures in a single engine configuration will be necessary. Bosch system solutions for engine- and power-train management are available for the whole span of world car segments, ranging from value concepts optimized for emerging markets up to high feature solutions for most stringent requirements world wide.
Technical Paper

Chemical Sensors for CO/NOx-Detection in Automotive Climate Control Systems

A new air quality sensor for climate control in automobiles has been developed. The sensor is designed for use in air conditioning systems with an air intake flap and a charcoal filter. The main indicators for the detection of air pollution are CO and NOx. The sensor elements consist of a SnO2 layer made in thick film technology resulting in small sensor size and high sensitivity at reasonable cost. The sensor elements are packaged together with an evaluation circuit in a water resistant sensor housing for underhood installation. By means of specific dopants the sensor elements have been optimized in order to detect CO and NOx with very low cross-sensitivity. This paper describes the design and production of the sensor. The performance of the complete unit under typical field conditions is presented. The sensor is in serial production.
Technical Paper

Common Rail - An Attractive Fuel Injection System for Passenger Car DI Diesel Engines

Passenger car DI Diesel engines need a flexible fuel injection system. Bosch develops a common rail system for this purpose. Besides variation of fuel quantity and start of injection, it permits to choosing freely injection pressure inthe rangeof 150 to 1400 barand injecting fuel in several portions. These new means will contribute to further improvements of DI engines concerning noise, exhaust emissions and engine torque.
Technical Paper

Common Rail Injection System for Commercial Diesel Vehicles

Common Rail provides additional flexibility for the design and application of a diesel injection system. Contrary to conventional injection systems pressure generation and injection are decoupled in the common rail system. The injection pressure can be selected independent of engine speed and injected fuel quantity within certain limits. The fuel combustion and the corresponding noise can be improved by increasing the fuel pressure up to 1400 bar and introducing pilot injection or multiple injection. Furthermore the common rail system can replace conventional injection systems without requiring major engine modifications. BOSCH will provide this new injection system for the whole range of applications from light duty (30 kW per cylinder) to heavy duty vehicles (50 kW per cylinder).
Technical Paper

Control Strategy for NOx - Emission Reduction with SCR

Future emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles like Euro 4, Euro 5, US '07 require advanced engine functionality. One contribution to achieve this target is the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by injection of urea water solution to the exhaust gas. An overview on a urea dosing system, also called DENOXTRONIC, is given and a dosing strategy is described.
Journal Article

Data Based Cylinder Pressure Modeling for Direct-injection Diesel Engines

In this article a new zero-dimensional model is presented for simulating the cylinder pressure in direct injection diesel engines. The model enables the representation of current combustion processes considering multiple injections, high exhaust gas recirculation rates, and turbocharging. In these methods solely cycle-resolved, scalar input variables from the electronic control unit in combination with empirical parameters are required for modeling. The latter are adapted automatically to different engines or modified applications using measured cylinder pressure traces. The verification based on measurements within the entire operating range from engines of different size and type proves the universal applicability and high accuracy of the proposed method.
Technical Paper

Desktop Simulation and Calibration of Diesel Engine ECU Software using Software-in-the-Loop Methodology

Current exhaust gas emission regulations can only be well adhered to through optimal interplay of combustion engine and exhaust gas after-treatment systems. Combining a modern diesel engine with several exhaust gas after-treatment components (DPF, catalytic converters) leads to extremely complex drive systems, with very complex and technically demanding control systems. Current engine ECUs (Electronic Control Unit) have hundreds of functions with thousands of parameters that can be adapted to keep the exhaust gas emissions within the given limits. Each of these functions has to be calibrated and tested in accordance with the rest of the ECU software. To date this task has been performed mostly on engine test benches or in Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) setups. In this paper, a Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) approach, consisting of an engine model and an exhaust gas treatment (EGT) model, coupled with software from a real diesel engine ECU, will be described in detail.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Management Strategy and a Cost Effective Catalyst System to Meet SULEV Emission Requirements Demonstrated on a V-6 Engine

The study presented in this paper focuses on measures to minimize exhaust gas emissions to meet SULEV targets on a V6 engine by using a cost efficient system configuration. The study consists of three parts. A) In the first stage, the influence of engine management both on raw emissions and catalyst light off performance was optimized. B) Afterwards, the predefined high cell density catalyst system was tested on an engine test bench. In this stage, thermal data and engine out emissions were used for modeling and prediction of light-off performance for further optimized catalyst concepts. C) In the final stage of the program, the emission performance of the test matrix, including high cell density as well as multifunctional single substrate systems, are studied during the FTP cycle. The presented results show the approach to achieve SULEV emission compliance with innovative engine control strategies in combination with a cost effective metallic catalyst design.
Journal Article

Direct Coil Cooling of a High Performance Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM) for EV/HEV Applications

This paper presents the development of a novel direct coil cooling approach which can enable high performance for electric traction motor, and in further significantly reduce motor losses. The proposed approach focuses on bypassing critical thermal resistances in motor by cooling coils directly in stator slots with oil flow. Firstly, the basic configuration and features are shown: sealed stator slots to air gap, pressure reservoirs on both side of the slots and slot channels for oil flow. The key to enhance thermal performance of the motor here is based on introducing fluid guiding structure in the slot channels. Next, heat transfer in the channel with guiding structure is investigated by CFD and compared with bare slot channel without guiding structure. For studying the effectiveness of proposed cooling concept, numerical analysis is conducted to compare it with HEV favored oil impingement cooling.
Technical Paper

Electronic Control Units of Bosch EDC Systems

Todays injection systems for diesel engines work with highly sophisticated mechanical governors. But only by electronic control of diesel injection systems will it be possible to comply with the emission regulations and to achieve better performance. In 1986 BOSCH started volume production of Electronic Diesel Control (EDC). This paper will concentrate on the electronic control unit (ECU) as it was designed for use in passenger cars. The production ECU and the planned next-step ECU are outlined, explaining hardware and software. An outlook of development goals of the future EDC control-units is given.