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Technical Paper

A New Design of Monolithic Particle Filters with Transverse Isotropic Property for Diesel Motors

The monolithic DPF made of cordierite ceramic has unsatisfactory on his fatigue or long-term strength. A new design of configuration of plugs combined with the hexagonal channels shows a transversally isotropic property, and can remove the anisotropy of monoliths with square channels. This anisotropy is assumed to be one of main reasons for the failure of monoliths with square channels regarding the experimental results. Considering the honeycomb structure as a homogeneous material based on the Boltzmann continuum can't give the correct behaviour of this structure in a FEM simulation. Another homogenization procedure using the Cosserat theory has been discussed. The FEM stress analyses with structural detail-models show that the maximal tensile stresses in the monolith with square channels exist in the diagonal (i.e. 45°-) direction, or on the edges of channels. This feature is identical with what the theory has predicted and the experimental results have shown.
Technical Paper

A Non Contact Strain Gage Torque Sensor for Automotive Servo Driven Steering Systems

Tapping of one or more torques (ranges 10 Nm and 60 Nm) on the steering column for the purpose of servo control must satisfy high accuracy requirements on the one hand and high safety requirements on the other hand. A suggestion for developing a low-cost solution to this problem is described below: Strain gages optimally satisfy both these requirements: However, for cost reasons, these are not applied directly to the steering column but to a prefabricated, flat steel rod which is laser welded to the torque rod of the steering column. The measuring direction of the strain gages is under 45° to the steering column axis. The strain gages are either vacuum metallized onto the support rod as a thin film or laminated in a particularly low-cost way by means of a foil-type intermediate carrier.
Technical Paper

A Universal and Cost-Effective Fuel Gauge Sensor Based on Wave Propagation Effects in Solid Metal Rods

In recognition of safety considerations, modern fuel tanks are frequently extremely irregular in shape. This places limits on the application of conventional potentiometric sensors. Required are more universal sensors without mechanically-moving parts. These sensors should also be characterized by especially good resolution and precision in the residual-quantity range, that is, the zero point precision should be of a high order. One type of metal rod can be bent into any of a variety of shapes to provide an effective means of monitoring the fuel level. In this metal rod, the propagation characteristics of a certain type of sound wave, known as bending waves, display major variations according to the level of the surrounding medium: The waves spread more rapidly through the exposed section of the rod than through the area which remains submerged. Thus the rod's characteristic oscillation frequency varies as a function of immersion depth.
Technical Paper

Advanced Planar Oxygen Sensors for Future Emission Control Strategies

This paper presents advanced planar ZrO2 oxygen sensors being developed at Robert Bosch using a modified tetragonal partially stabilized zirconia (TZP) with high ionic conductivity, high phase stability and high thermo-mechanical strength. Green tape technology combined with highly automated thickfilm techniques allows robust and cost effective manufacturing of those novel sensing elements. Standardization of assembling parts reduces the complexity of the assembly line even in the case of different sensing principles. The sensor family meets the new requirements of modern ULEV strategies like fast light off below 10 s and linear control capability as well as high quality assurance standards. High volume production will start in 1997 for European customers.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Injection of Urea-Water-Solution for Automotive SCR DeNOx-Systems: Modeling of Two-Phase Flow and Spray/Wall-Interaction

The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) based on urea-water-solution is an effective technique to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from diesel engines. A 3D numerical computer model of the injection of urea-water-solution and their interaction with the exhaust gas flow and exhaust tubing is developed to evaluate different configurations during the development process of such a DeNOx-system. The model accounts for all relevant processes appearing from the injection point to the entrance of the SCR-catalyst: momentum interaction between gas phase and droplets evaporation and thermolysis of droplets hydrolysis of isocyanic acid in gas phase heat transfer between wall and droplets spray/wall-interaction two-component wall film including interaction with gas phase and exhaust tube The single modeling steps are verified with visualizations, patternator measurements, phase-doppler-anemometer results and temperature measurements.
Journal Article

Avoiding Electrical Overstress for Automotive Semiconductors by New Connecting Concepts

Bosch Automotive Semiconductor Unit investigated destroyed semiconductor devices (ASIC) from electronic control unit complaints, which failed due to electrical overstress. It turned out that failure fingerprints could only be reproduced by semiconductor operation far beyond spec limits. One main failure mechanism is caused by hot plugging and bad or late ground connection. In today’s cars some applications are still active for minutes after ignition switch off. So, currents of several amps are delivered and in a typical production or garage environment, hot plugging cannot be avoided completely. Bosch suggests introducing extended ground pins to get an enforced switch on/off sequence during plugging. This poka yoke protection principle is successfully used in other industries for a long time and should now come into cars.
Technical Paper

Common Rail - An Attractive Fuel Injection System for Passenger Car DI Diesel Engines

Passenger car DI Diesel engines need a flexible fuel injection system. Bosch develops a common rail system for this purpose. Besides variation of fuel quantity and start of injection, it permits to choosing freely injection pressure inthe rangeof 150 to 1400 barand injecting fuel in several portions. These new means will contribute to further improvements of DI engines concerning noise, exhaust emissions and engine torque.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy for NOx - Emission Reduction with SCR

Future emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles like Euro 4, Euro 5, US '07 require advanced engine functionality. One contribution to achieve this target is the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by injection of urea water solution to the exhaust gas. An overview on a urea dosing system, also called DENOXTRONIC, is given and a dosing strategy is described.
Technical Paper

Design and Mechanics of the Four-Cylinder Engines with 2.0 and 2.2 Litres Displacement

The objective was to develop a modem engine to succeed the M 102; 2.6 million of these units were made between 1979 and today making it the most successful Mercedes-Benz four-cylinder petrol engine to date. The new M 111 coordinated production set-up together with the familiar M 104 six-cylinder four-valve engines and the 600 diesel series. Emphasis has been deliberately given to improved torque rather than very high volumetric efficiency. This has made it possible to apply four-valve technology, which was originally only to be found in motor racing, in such a way that ordinary customers can benefit form advantages such as high torque and raised power output, as well as reduced fuel consumption and emissions. Extensive noise-reducing measures in the engine ensure that, despite the higher power output and lower engine weight, noise levels have also been improved.
Technical Paper

Development of a Single Run Method for the Determination of Individual Hydrocarbons (C2-C12) in Automotive Exhaust by Capillary Gas Chromatography

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has proposed procedures for the analysis of non-methane organic gases (NMOG) to determine the ozone forming potential (OFP) of automotive exhaust. For realization of these methods two differently configured GC systems are necessary. In order to reduce the efforts concerning costs, maintenance and quality control of two analytical instruments, a single run method is developed for routine analysis. This method allows identification and quantification of individual hydrocarbons (IHC) in the range of carbon numbers C2 to C12. Analytical problems arising from high contents of water and carbon dioxide in exhaust samples are discussed. Water reduction is obtained by a Nafion® Dryer by means of membrane diffusion of polar compounds. Contamination as well as memory effects due to this sample work up are described. Sample pre-concentration of 50-200 mL diluted automotive exhaust is performed using a triple phase “mixed bed” adsorption tube at O°C.
Journal Article

Diesel Lubricity Requirements of Future Fuel Injection Equipment

This paper looks at the underlying fundamentals of diesel fuel system lubrication for the highly-loaded contacts found in fuel injection equipment like high-pressure pumps. These types of contacts are already occurring in modern systems and their severity is likely to increase in future applications due to the requirement for increased fuel pressure. The aim of the work was to characterise the tribological behavior of these contacts when lubricated with diesel fuel and diesel fuel treated with lubricity additives and model nitrogen and sulphur compounds of different chemical composition. It is essential to understand the role of diesel fuel and of lubricity additives to ensure that future, more severely-loaded systems, will be free of any wear problem in the field.
Technical Paper

Engine Braking Systems and Retarders - An Overview from an European Standpoint

In particular on heavy duty commercial vehicles, the continuous braking systems “engine braking system” and “retarder”, which are independent of the service braking system, are installed to handle the continuous braking load on downhill stretches. These systems are also used to reduce lining wear and thermal loads of the service braking system. Exhaust braking systems are the most widely used form of engine braking systems. The current state-of-the-art in retarders is represented by two basic concepts, the electrodynamic retarder and the hydrodynamic retarder. A performance comparison of the different systems shows that low mountain descending speeds are the domain of engine braking systems, whereas retarders are more effective for medium and high descending speeds. The electrodynamic retarder is more favourable for lower road speeds, while the hydrodynamic retarder develops its effectiveness during higher downhill speeds.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Sunroof Buffeting of a Simplified Mercedes-Benz S-Class

Sunroof buffeting is examined experimentally and numerically in this paper. Despite the fact that some consider the simulation process for sunroof buffeting to be mature, there remain substantial uncertainties even in recently published methodologies. Capturing the frequencies and especially the sound pressure levels correctly is essential if CFD simulations are intended to be used during early stages of a car development process. Numerous experimental results of sunroof buffeting and the interior low-frequency characteristics of a 2013 Mercedes-Benz S-Class have been used to develop a simplified car model: a full-size S-Class model with slightly simplified geometries in the interior as well as at the exterior. To avoid the effects of numerous different materials in the interior, it is solely made from polyurethane and aluminum and built to maximize its structural rigidity and air-tightness.
Technical Paper

Generic Methodology for Vibration and Wear Analysis to Understand Their Influences in an Electric Drivetrain

The prime factor which influences noise and vibrations of electro-mechanical drives is wear at the components. This paper discusses the numerical methods developed for abrasion, vibration calculations and the coupling between wear and Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) models of the drive unit. The vibration domain model, initially, focuses on the calculations of mechanical excitations at the gear shafts which are generated via a nonlinear dynamic model. Furthermore, the bearings are studied for the influences on their stiffness and eventually their impact on the harmonics of the drivetrain. Later, free and forced vibrations of the complete drivetrain are simulated via a steady-state dynamic model. Consequently, the paper concentrates on the abrasion calculations at the gears. Wear is a complex process and understanding it is essential for determining the vibro-acoustics characteristics.
Technical Paper

Giant Magneto Resistors - Sensor Technology and Automotive Applications

The paper will give an introduction to the principle of the giant magneto resistive - GMR - effect and the silicon system integration of GMR sensors. The two main applications of a GMR as a magnetic field strength sensor and as an angular field direction sensor will be discussed under consideration of automotive requirements. The typical applications of a magnetic field strength GMR sensor in incremental position and speed sensing and those of GMR angular field sensors in position sensing will be summarized. Finally advantages of GMR in those applications will be discussed and conclusions on the use of GMR in automotive sensing will be drawn.
Technical Paper

Greater Safety Through Optimized Light Dispersion in Less Space - Obtained by the Consistent Use of Plastics in Producing Headlamps

Aerodynamic styling is playing an increasing role in the design of today's passenger cars. The profile sections of the frontends of cars imply that the available installation space for the headlamps - particularly its overall depth and height is decreased in size. New types of headlamps had to be developed. One result of extensive investigations are stepped reflectors with up to six paraboloids with different focal lengths arranged around the same focal point. This type of reflector (called homofocular reflector) cannot be formed from sheet steel but from plastic by injection molding. Depending on thermal, mechanical and geometric boundary conditions three different reflector materials can be used: lacquered thermosets, unlacquered thermoplastics by one or two material injection moldings. Similar to sheet steel the use of glass lenses reduces considerably the freedom of the designer. This disadvantage of offset by the use of plastic lenses.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulations and Tracer-LIF Diagnostics of Wall Film Dynamics in an Optically Accessible GDI Research Engine

Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and tracer-based Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements were performed to study the dynamics of fuel wall-films on the piston top of an optically accessible, four-valve pent-roof GDI research engine for a total of eight operating conditions. Starting from a reference point, the systematic variations include changes in engine speed (600; 1,200 and 2,000 RPM) and load (1000 and 500 mbar intake pressure); concerning the fuel path the Start Of Injection (SOI=360°, 390° and 420° CA after gas exchange TDC) as well as the injection pressure (10, 20 and 35 MPa) were varied. For each condition, 40 experimental images were acquired phase-locked at 10° CA intervals after SOI, showing the wall-film dynamics in terms of spatial extent, thickness and temperature.
Technical Paper

Laser-Based Measurements of Surface Cooling Following Fuel Spray Impingement

A major source for soot particle formation in Gasoline-Direct-Injection (GDI) engines are fuel-rich zones near walls as a result of wall wetting during injection. To address this problem, a thorough understanding of the wall film formation and evaporation processes is necessary. The wall temperature before, during and after fuel impingement is an important parameter in this respect, but is not easily measured using conventional methods. In this work, a recently developed laser-based phosphor thermography technique is implemented for investigations of spray-induced surface cooling. This spatially and temporally resolved method can provide surface temperature measurements on the wetted side of the surface without being affected by the fuel-film. Zinc oxide (ZnO) particles, dispersed in a chemical binder, were deposited onto a thin steel plate obtaining a coating thickness of 17 μm after annealing.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Crankcase for a New Turbo-Charged Direct Injection Diesel Engine

The comparison of a light weight crankcase to the production cast iron crankcase of the new Mercedes Benz 2.9-liter direct injection (DI) five-cylinder turbo diesel engine with intercooler is described. The light weight crankcase is cast from the aluminum alloy A 356 while other engine components like oil pan, timing case cover and brackets are manufactured from a magnesium alloy. This paper describes the engine design with the simultaneous calculation, the mechanical development and the acoustic measurements. In this study an engine weight reduction of about 30 kg with comparable noise emission compared to the production engine with cast iron crankcase is realized.
Technical Paper

Locally Structured Fiber Reinforcements: An Approach to Realize Anisotropic Directivity Pattern in Ultrasound Transducers

Ultrasonic transducers are widely used in automotive and industrial applications for surround sensing. Anisotropic directivity patterns with a narrow-angled beam in the vertical plane and a wide-angled beam in the horizontal plane are needed in automotive applications particularly. Today’s ultrasonic transducers for automotive applications are mainly metal based, pot-like ultrasonic transducers. The anisotropic directivity pattern is achieved by increasing the thickness of the vibrating plate-like part of the structure locally. Composites with locally structured fiber reinforcements open up the possibility to design the dynamical behavior of components without changing its contour. Using this new dimension of design to modify the directivity pattern of sound radiating components is less examined in literature.