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Journal Article

Analysis of EGR Effects on the Soot Distribution in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine using Time-Resolved Laser Induced Incandescence

The soot distribution as function of ambient O₂ mole fraction in a heavy-duty diesel engine was investigated at low load (6 bar IMEP) with laser-induced incandescence (LII) and natural luminosity. A Multi-YAG laser system was utilized to create time-resolved LII using 8 laser pulses with a spacing of one CAD with detection on an 8-chip framing camera. It is well known that the engine-out smoke level increases with decreasing oxygen fraction up to a certain level where it starts to decrease again. For the studied case the peak occurred at an O₂ fraction of 11.4%. When the oxygen fraction was decreased successively from 21% to 9%, the initial soot formation moved downstream in the jet. At the lower oxygen fractions, below 12%, no soot was formed until after the wall interaction. At oxygen fractions below 11% the first evidence of soot is in the recirculation zone between two adjacent jets.
Journal Article

Automated Detection of Primary Particles from Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Images of Soot Aggregates in Diesel Engine Environments

The major challenge of the post-processing of soot aggregates in transmission electron microscope (TEM) images is the detection of soot primary particles that have no clear boundaries, vary in size within the fractal aggregates, and often overlap with each other. In this study, we propose an automated detection code for primary particles implementing the Canny Edge Detection (CED) and Circular Hough Transform (CHT) on pre-processed TEM images for particle edge enhancement using unsharp filtering as well as image inversion and self-subtraction. The particle detection code is tested for soot TEM images obtained at various ambient and injection conditions, and from five different combustion facilities including three constant-volume combustion chambers and two diesel engines.
Journal Article

Diesel Spray Ignition Detection and Spatial/Temporal Correction

Methods for detection of the spatial position and timing of diesel ignition with improved accuracy are demonstrated in an optically accessible constant-volume chamber at engine-like pressure and temperature conditions. High-speed pressure measurement using multiple transducers, followed by triangulation correction for the speed of the pressure wave, permits identification of the autoignition spatial location and timing. Simultaneously, high-speed Schlieren and broadband chemiluminescence imaging provides validation of the pressure-based triangulation technique. The combined optical imaging and corrected pressure measurement techniques offer improved understanding of diesel ignition phenomenon. Schlieren imaging shows the onset of low-temperature (first-stage) heat release prior to high-temperature (second-stage) ignition. High-temperature ignition is marked by more rapid pressure rise and broadband chemiluminescence.
Journal Article

Effects of Post-Injection Strategies on Near-Injector Over-Lean Mixtures and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emission in a Heavy-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

Post-injection strategies aimed at reducing engine-out emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) were investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine operating at a low-load, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high dilution (12.7% intake oxygen) where UHC emissions are problematic. Exhaust gas measurements showed that a carefully selected post injection reduced engine-out load-specific UHC emissions by 20% compared to operation with a single injection in the same load range. High-speed in-cylinder chemiluminescence imaging revealed that without a post injection, most of the chemiluminescence emission occurs close to the bowl wall, with no significant chemiluminescence signal within 27 mm of the injector. Previous studies have shown that over-leaning in this near-injector region after the end of injection causes the local equivalence ratio to fall below the ignitability limit.
Journal Article

Ignition Quality Effects on Lift-Off Stabilization of Synthetic Fuels

The ignition and flame stabilization characteristics of two synthetic fuels, having significantly different cetane numbers, are investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel over a range of ambient conditions representative of a compression ignition engine operating at variable loads. The synthetic fuel with a cetane number of 63 (S-1) is characterized by ignition delays that are only moderately longer than n-dodecane (cetane number of 87) over a range of ambient conditions. By comparison, the synthetic fuel with a cetane number of 17 (S-2) requires temperatures approximately 300 K higher to achieve the same ignition delays. The much different ignition characteristics and operating temperature range present a scenario where the lift-off stabilization may be substantially different.
Technical Paper

Influence of Spray-Target and Squish Height on Sources of CO and UHC in a HSDI Diesel Engine During PPCI Low-Temperature Combustion

Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging during the expansion stroke, exhaust gas emissions, and cylinder pressure measurements were used to investigate the influence on combustion and CO/UHC emissions of variations in squish height and fuel spray targeting on the piston. The engine was operated in a highly dilute, partially premixed, low-temperature combustion mode. A small squish height and spray targeting low on the piston gave the lowest exhaust emissions and most rapid heat release. The LIF data show that both the near-nozzle region and the squish volume are important sources of UHC emissions, while CO is dominated by the squish region and is more abundant near the piston top. Emissions from the squish volume originate primarily from overly lean mixture. At the 3 bar load investigated, CO and UHC levels in mixture leaving the bowl and ring-land crevice are low.
Technical Paper

Mechanisms of Post-Injection Soot-Reduction Revealed by Visible and Diffused Back-Illumination Soot Extinction Imaging

Small closely-coupled post injections of fuel in diesel engines are known to reduce engine-out soot emissions, but the relative roles of various underlying in-cylinder mechanisms have not been established. Furthermore, the efficacy of soot reduction is not universal, and depends in unclear ways on operating conditions and injection schedule, among other factors. Consequently, designing engine hardware and operating strategies to fully realize the potential of post-injections is limited by this lack of understanding. Following previous work, several different post-injection schedules are investigated using a single-cylinder 2.34 L heavy-duty optical engine equipped with a Delphi DFI 1.5 light-duty injector. In this configuration, adding a closely-coupled post injection with sufficiently short injection duration can increase the load without increasing soot emissions.