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Journal Article

Application of a Tunable-Diode-Laser Absorption Diagnostic for CO Measurements in an Automotive HCCI Engine

An infrared laser absorption technique has been developed to measure in-cylinder concentrations of CO in an optical, automotive HCCI engine. The diagnostic employs a distributed-feedback, tunable diode laser selected to emit light at the R15 line of the first overtone of CO near 2.3 μm. The collimated laser beam makes multiple passes through the cylinder to increase its path length and its sampling volume. High-frequency modulation of the laser output (wavelength modulation spectroscopy) further enhances the signal-to-noise ratio and detection limits of CO. The diagnostic has been tested in the motored and fired engine, exhibiting better than 200-ppm sensitivity for 50-cycle ensemble-average values of CO concentration with 1-ms time resolution. Fired results demonstrate the ability of the diagnostic to quantify CO production during negative valve overlap (NVO) for a range of fueling conditions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Combustion, Piston Temperatures, Fuel Sprays, and Fuel-Air Mixing in a DISI Optical Engine

A transparent direct-injection spark-ignition engine incorporating a rapid-acting, drop-down cylinder has been built. The design enables access in less than a minute for cleaning windows. Combustion performance of the optical engine is characterized in terms of indicated pressure and coefficient of variation of indicated pressure as a function of injection timing. Piston temperatures are measured and a skip-fire routine is developed so that quartz piston top temperatures agree with a matching non-optical engine. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of in-cylinder fuel injections highlights the effects of ambient pressure and fuel temperature on spray morphology. Measurements of gasoline vapor distribution provide statistics on heterogeneity of fuel distribution as a function of injection timing. Flame imaging records details of flame development which depend on the degree of fuel mixing.
Journal Article

Detailed Characterization of Negative Valve Overlap Chemistry by Photoionization Mass Spectroscopy

For next-generation engines that operate using low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) modes, a major issue remains poor combustion stability at low-loads. Negative valve overlap (NVO) enables enhanced main combustion control through modified valve timings to retain combustion residuals along with a small fuel injection that partially reacts during the recompression. While the thermal effects of NVO fueling on main combustion are well understood, the chemical effects of NVO reactions are less certain, especially oxygen-deficient reactions where fuel pyrolysis dominates. To better understand NVO period chemistry details, comprehensive speciation of engine samples collected at the end of the NVO cycle was performed by photoionization mass spectroscopy (PIMS) using synchrotron generated vacuum-ultraviolet light.
Journal Article

Dual-Wavelength PLIF Measurements of Temperature and Composition in an Optical HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap

Negative valve overlap (NVO) is a valve strategy employed to retain and recompress residual burned gases to assist HCCI combustion, particularly in the difficult regime of low-load operation. NVO allows the retention of large quantities of hot residual burned gases as well as the possibility of fuel addition for combustion control purposes. Reaction of fuel injected during NVO increases charge temperature, but in addition could produce reformed fuel species that may affect main combustion phasing. The strategy holds potential for controlling and extending low-load HCCI combustion. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of applying two-wavelength PLIF of 3-pentanone to obtain simultaneous, in-cylinder temperature and composition images during different parts of the HCCI/NVO cycle. Measurements are recorded during the intake and main compression strokes, as well as during the more challenging periods of NVO recompression and re-expansion.
Journal Article

Effects of LIF Tracers on Combustion in a DI HCCI Engine

Many experimental efforts to track fuel-air-residual mixture preparation in internal combustion engines have employed laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of tracers. Acetone and 3-pentanone are often chosen as tracers because of their relatively strong LIF signal, weak quenching, and reasonable match to thermo-chemical properties of common fuels such as iso-octane. However, the addition of these tracers to fuel-air mixtures could affect combustion behavior. In this work, we assess these effects to better understand limitations of tracer-based engine measurements. The effects of tracer seeding on combustion phasing, duration, and variation are studied in an HCCI engine using a recompression strategy to accommodate single- and multi-stage-ignition fuels.
Technical Paper

Examination of Iso-octane/Ketone Mixtures for Quantitative LIF Measurements in a DISI Engine

Mixtures of low concentrations of 3-pentanone in iso-octane are used widely in an attempt to obtain quantitative measurements of fuel equivalence ratio in direct-injection, spark-ignition engines. Despite similar boiling temperatures and heats of vaporization, 3-pentanone has been found to evaporate from the mixture more rapidly than the iso-octane. Thus, the signal detected by the planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic cannot accurately represent fuel distribution during spray evaporation and air-fuel mixing in an engine. Using an evaporation chamber, we demonstrate the non-steady PLIF signal of the iso-octane/3-pentanone mixture during steady evaporation. Significant improvement in the consistency of the PLIF signal during evaporation is achieved by adding a heavier ketone (3-hexanone) tracer to compensate for the early depletion of the 3-pentanone.
Technical Paper

Improving the NOX-CO2 Trade-Off of an HCCI Engine Using a Multi-Hole Injector

The combustion and emission performance of two high-pressure GDI-type injectors are compared in an automotive HCCI engine during low-load, stratified operation. One of these, an 8-hole injector with 70° spray angle, provides significant reduction in NOX emissions at a given fuel-to-CO2 conversion efficiency (i.e., an improved NOX-CO2 trade-off) compared to the other, a 53° swirl injector. In contrast, attempts to enhance the NOX-CO2 trade-off using alternate charge-stratification strategies such as split injection and high intake velocity are shown to be less successful. The 8-hole and swirl injectors are also compared using the optical techniques of Mie scattering (spray visualization), laser-induced fluorescence imaging (fuel distribution measurement), and direct combustion imaging. The resulting data suggest two possible explanations for the superior performance of the 8-hole injector.
Journal Article

Pathline Analysis of Full-cycle Four-stroke HCCI Engine Combustion Using CFD and Multi-Zone Modeling

This paper investigates flow and combustion in a full-cycle simulation of a four-stroke, three-valve HCCI engine by visualizing the flow with pathlines. Pathlines trace massless particles in a transient flow field. In addition to visualization, pathlines are used here to trace the history, or evolution, of flow fields and species. In this study evolution is followed from the intake port through combustion. Pathline analysis follows packets of intake charge in time and space from induction through combustion. The local scalar fields traversed by the individual packets in terms of velocity magnitude, turbulence, species concentration and temperatures are extracted from the simulation results. The results show how the intake event establishes local chemical and thermal environments in-cylinder and how the species respond (chemically react) to the local field.
Journal Article

The Effect of Acetylene on Iso-octane Combustion in an HCCI Engine with NVO

Prior studies have shown that fuel addition during negative valve overlap (NVO) can both increase temperature and alter composition of the charge carried over to main HCCI combustion. Late NVO fuel injection, i.e., near top dead center, can cause piston wetting and subsequent localized rich flames. Since acetylene is a product of rich combustion and is known to advance ignition, it is hypothesized that the species could play a chemical role in enhancing main combustion. The objective of this work is to quantify the effects of acetylene on HCCI combustion. While the research topic is specifically relevant to NVO-fueled HCCI operation, the experiments are conducted without NVO fueling to avoid uncertainties of NVO reforming reactions. Instead, a single post-NVO injection of iso-octane fuels the cycle, and acetylene is seeded into the intake flow at varying concentrations to simulate a reformed product of NVO.
Journal Article

Two-Wavelength PLIF Diagnostic for Temperature and Composition

Laser excitation wavelengths for two-line planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of 3-pentanone have been optimized for simultaneous imaging of temperature and composition under engine-relevant conditions. Validation of the diagnostic was performed in a motored optical IC engine seeded homogeneously with 3-pentanone. PLIF measurements of the uniform mixture during the compression stroke were used to measure the average temperature and to access the random uncertainty in the measurements. To determine the accuracy of the temperature measurements, experimental average temperatures were compared to values computed assuming isentropic compression and to the output of a tuned 1-D engine simulation. The comparison indicated that the absolute accuracy of the temperature measurements is better than ±5%. Probability density functions (PDFs) calculated from the single-shot images were used to estimate the precision of the measurements.