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Journal Article

Influence of the Flow Field on Flame Propagation in a Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine

Flame propagation in an optically accessible hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine was visualized by high-speed schlieren imaging. Two intake configurations were evaluated: low tumble with a tumble ratio of 0.22, corresponding to unmodified intake ports, and high tumble with a tumble ratio of 0.70, resulting from intake modification. For each intake configuration, fueling was either far upstream of the engine, with presumably no influence on the intake flow, or the fuel was injected directly early during the compression stroke from an angled single-hole injector, adding significant angular momentum to the in-cylinder flow. Crank-angle resolved schlieren imaging during combustion allowed deducing apparent flame location and propagation speed, which were then correlated with in-cylinder pressure measurements on a single-cycle basis. In a typical cycle, flame shape and convective displacement are strongly affected by the in-cylinder flow.
Technical Paper

Interaction of Intake-Induced Flow and Injection Jet in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen-Fueled Engine Measured by PIV

The in-cylinder charge motion during the compression stroke of an optically accessible engine equipped with direct injection of hydrogen fuel is measured via particle image velocimetry (PIV). The evolution of the mean flow field and the tumble ratio are examined with and without injection, each with the unmodified 4-valve pent-roof engine head and with the intake ports modified to yield higher tumble. The measurements in the vertical symmetry plane of the cylinder show that intake modification produces the desired drastic increase in tumble flow, changing the tumble ratio at BDC from 0.22 to 0.70. Either intake-induced flow is completely disrupted by the high-pressure hydrogen injection from an angled, centrally located single-hole nozzle. The injection event leads to sudden reversal of the tumble. Hence the tumble ratio is negative after injection. However, the two intake configurations still differ in tumble ratio by about the same magnitude as before injection.
Journal Article

Mixture Formation in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines: CFD and Optical Analysis of Single- and Multi-Hole Nozzles

This paper describes the validation of a CFD code for mixture preparation in a direct injection hydrogen-fueled engine. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located injector. A single-hole and a 13-hole nozzle are used at about 100 bar and 25 bar injection pressure. Numerical results from the commercial code Fluent (v6.3.35) are compared to measurements in an optically accessible engine. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence provides phase-locked images of the fuel mole-fraction, while single-cycle visualization of the early jet penetration is achieved by a high-speed schlieren technique. The characteristics of the computational grids are discussed, especially for the near-nozzle region, where the jets are under-expanded. Simulation of injection from the single-hole nozzle yields good agreement between numerical and optical results in terms of jet penetration and overall evolution.
Technical Paper

Multi-dimensional Modeling of Non-equilibrium Plasma for Automotive Applications

While spark-ignition (SI) engine technology is aggressively moving towards challenging (dilute and boosted) combustion regimes, advanced ignition technologies generating non-equilibrium types of plasma are being considered by the automotive industry as a potential replacement for the conventional spark-plug technology. However, there are currently no models that can describe the low-temperature plasma (LTP) ignition process in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that are typically used in the multi-dimensional engine modeling community. A key question for the engine modelers that are trying to describe the non-equilibrium ignition physics concerns the plasma characteristics. A key challenge is also represented by the plasma formation timescale (nanoseconds) that can hardly be resolved within a full engine cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Optical Evolution of Gaseous Jets in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

This paper performs a parametric analysis of the influence of numerical grid resolution and turbulence model on jet penetration and mixture formation in a DI-H2 ICE. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located single-hole injector nozzle. The simulation includes the intake and exhaust port geometry, in order to account for the actual flow field within the cylinder when injection of hydrogen starts. A reduced geometry is then used to focus on the mixture formation process. The numerically predicted hydrogen mole-fraction fields are compared to experimental data from quantitative laser-based imaging in a corresponding optically accessible engine. In general, the results show that with proper mesh and turbulence settings, remarkable agreement between numerical and experimental data in terms of fuel jet evolution and mixture formation can be achieved.
Journal Article

PIV and PLIF to Evaluate Mixture Formation in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen-Fuelled Engine

In an optically accessible single-cylinder engine fueled with hydrogen, acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to evaluate in-cylinder mixture formation. The experiments include measurements for engine operation with hydrogen injection in-cylinder either prior to or after intake valve closure (IVC). Pre-IVC injection is used to produce a near-homogeneous mixture for PLIF calibration experiments and to establish a baseline comparison for post-IVC injection. Calibration experiments and a temperature correction allow conversion of the acetone fluorescence signal to equivalence ratio. For post-IVC injection with start of injection (SOI) coincident with IVC, PLIF results are similar to pre-IVC injection. With retard of SOI from IVC, mixture inhomogeneities increase monotonically, with high hydrogen concentration spatially located near the injector and within a smaller volume.