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Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4250
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Hydraulic Hybrid Systems for Class 6 Trucks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1472
In order to reduce fuel consumption, companies have been looking at hybridizing vehicles. So far, two main hybridization options have been considered: electric and hydraulic hybrids. Because of light duty vehicle operating conditions and the high energy density of batteries, electric hybrids are being widely used for cars. However, companies are still evaluating both hybridization options for medium and heavy duty vehicles. Trucks generally demand very large regenerative power and frequent stop-and-go. In that situation, hydraulic systems could offer an advantage over electric drive systems because the hydraulic motor and accumulator can handle high power with small volume capacity. This study compares the fuel displacement of class 6 trucks using a hydraulic system compared to conventional and hybrid electric vehicles. The paper will describe the component technology and sizes of each powertrain as well as their overall vehicle level control strategies.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse

2017-03-28
2017-01-0837
Modeling plume interaction and collapse for direct-injection gasoline sprays is important because of its impact on fuel-air mixing and engine performance. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic interaction between plumes and the complicated two-phase coupling of the evaporating spray has shown to be notoriously difficult to predict. With the availability of high-speed (100 kHz) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, we compare velocity field predictions between plumes to observe the full temporal evolution leading up to plume merging and complete spray collapse. The target “Spray G” operating conditions of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is the focus of the work, including parametric variations in ambient gas temperature. We apply both LES and RANS spray models in different CFD platforms, outlining features of the spray that are most critical to model in order to predict the correct aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing.
Journal Article

A Hydrogen Direct Injection Engine Concept that Exceeds U.S. DOE Light-Duty Efficiency Targets

2012-04-16
2012-01-0653
Striving for sustainable transportation solutions, hydrogen is often identified as a promising energy carrier and internal combustion engines are seen as a cost effective consumer of hydrogen to facilitate the development of a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. Driven by efficiency and emissions targets defined by the U.S. Department of Energy, a research team at Argonne National Laboratory has worked on optimizing a spark-ignited direct injection engine for hydrogen. Using direct injection improves volumetric efficiency and provides the opportunity to properly stratify the fuel-air mixture in-cylinder. Collaborative 3D-CFD and experimental efforts have focused on optimizing the mixture stratification and have demonstrated the potential for high engine efficiency with low NOx emissions. Performance of the hydrogen engine is evaluated in this paper over a speed range from 1000 to 3000 RPM and a load range from 1.7 to 14.3 bar BMEP.
Technical Paper

A Modular Automotive Hybrid Testbed Designed to Evaluate Various Components in the Vehicle System

2009-04-20
2009-01-1315
The Modular Automotive Technology Testbed (MATT) is a flexible platform built to test different technology components in a vehicle environment. This testbed is composed of physical component modules, such as the engine and the transmission, and emulated components, such as the energy storage system and the traction motor. The instrumentation on the tool enables the energy balance for individual components on drive cycles. Using MATT, a single set of hardware can operate as a conventional vehicle, a hybrid vehicle and a plug-in hybrid vehicle, enabling direct comparison of petroleum displacement for the different modes. The engine provides measured fuel economy and emissions. The losses of components which vary with temperature are also measured.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation on Scalability and Grid Convergence of Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1095
Traditional Lagrangian spray modeling approaches for internal combustion engines are highly grid-dependent due to insufficient resolution in the near nozzle region. This is primarily because of inherent restrictions of volume fraction with the Lagrangian assumption together with high computational costs associated with small grid sizes. A state-of-the-art grid-convergent spray modeling approach was recently developed and implemented by Senecal et al., (ASME-ICEF2012-92043) in the CONVERGE software. The key features of the methodology include Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), advanced liquid-gas momentum coupling, and improved distribution of the liquid phase, which enables use of cell sizes smaller than the nozzle diameter. This modeling approach was rigorously validated against non-evaporating, evaporating, and reacting data from the literature.
Journal Article

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods

2010-04-12
2010-01-1266
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple “cold” start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Energy Recovery in Vehicles by Using Regenerative Magnetic Shock Absorbers

2001-05-14
2001-01-2071
Road vehicles can expend a significant amount of energy in undesirable vertical motions that are induced by road bumps, and much of that is dissipated in conventional shock absorbers as they dampen the vertical motions. Presented in this paper are some of the results of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness of efficiently transforming that energy into electrical power by using optimally designed regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers. In turn, the electrical power can be used to recharge batteries or other efficient energy storage devices (e.g., flywheels) rather than be dissipated. The results of the study are encouraging - they suggest that a significant amount of the vertical motion energy can be recovered and stored.
Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0734
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional Model for Prediction of In-Cylinder Turbulence and Tumble Flow in a Spark-Ignited Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0852
Improving fuel efficiency and emission characteristics are significant issues in engine research. Because the engine has complex systems and various operating parameters, the experimental research is limited by cost and time. One-dimensional (1D) simulation has attracted the attention of researchers because of its effectiveness and relatively high accuracy. In a 1D simulation, the applied model must be accurate for the reliability of the simulation results. Because in-cylinder turbulence mainly determines the combustion characteristics, and mean flow velocity affects the in-cylinder heat transfer and efficiency in a spark-ignited (SI) engine, a number of sophisticated models have been developed to predict in-cylinder turbulence and mean flow velocity. In particular, tumble is a significant factor of in-cylinder turbulence in SI engine.
Technical Paper

A Screening Attenuation Evaluation Method for HEV Power Cable

2008-04-14
2008-01-1476
This paper proposes a new screening attenuation evaluation method (PHSA) for hybrid power cables. Hybrid power cables connect battery, inverter and motor. As the noise and shield characteristics of these cables are different from general communication shield wires, new method for evaluating screening attenuation is needed. We considered the radiation direction, noise current path and various load terminations to evaluate the screening attenuation which is different from standard screening attenuation measurement. Feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method were verified with real experiment results.
Technical Paper

A Simple Fan Model for Underhood Thermal Management Analyses

2002-03-04
2002-01-1025
This work presents a simple fan model that is based on the actuator disk approximation, and the blade element and vortex theory of a propeller. A set of equations are derived that require as input the rotational speed of the fan, geometric fan data, and the lift and drag coefficients of the blades. These equations are solved iteratively to obtain the body forces generated by the fan in the axial and circumferential directions. These forces are used as momentum sources in a CFD code to simulate the effect of the fan in an underhood thermal management simulation. To validate this fan model, a fan experiment was simulated. The model was incorporated into the CFD code STAR-CD and predictions were generated for axial and circumferential air velocities at different radial positions and at different planes downstream of the fan. The agreement between experimental measurements and predictions is good.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Refinement of Turbulence Intensity Prediction for the Estimation of In-Cylinder Pressure in a Spark-Ignited Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0525
The role of 1D simulation tool is growing as the engine system is becoming more complex with the adoption of a variety of new technologies. For the reliability of the 1D simulation results, it is necessary to improve the accuracy and applicability of the combustion model implemented in the 1D simulation tool. Since the combustion process in SI engine is mainly determined by the turbulence, many models have been concentrating on the prediction of the evolution of in-cylinder turbulence intensity. In this study, two turbulence models which can resemble the turbulence intensity close to that of 3D CFD tool were utilized. The first model is dedicated to predicting the evolution of turbulence intensity during intake and compression strokes so that the turbulence intensity at the spark timing can be estimated properly. The second model is responsible for predicting the turbulence intensity of burned and unburned zone during the combustion process.
Technical Paper

A study on Reducing the Computing Burden of Misfire Detection using a Conditional Monitoring Method

2004-03-08
2004-01-0722
This paper presents a conditional misfire monitoring method to reduce the computing burden of the motoring. In this conditional monitoring method, the ECU performs misfire detection only when there is high probability of misfire events. The condition for performing the misfire detection is determined by the pre-index which is defined as the deviation of the segment durations of the crankshaft in this paper. The quantity of the code of calculating the pre-index is 7 times less than that of a conventional monitoring method so that the computing burden can be reduced with the conditional monitoring method. The experimental results shown that the pre-index and the conditional monitoring method are valid.
Technical Paper

Accurate Measurements of Heat Release, Oxidation Rates, and Soluble Organic Compounds of Diesel Particulates through Thermal Reactions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0814
In an effort of providing better understanding of regeneration mechanisms of diesel particulate matter (PM), this experimental investigation focused on evaluating the amount of heat release generated during the thermal reaction of diesel PM and the concentrations of soluble organic compounds (SOCs) dissolved in PM emissions. Differences in oxidation behaviors were observed for two different diesel PM samples: a SOC-containing PM sample and a dry soot sample with no SOCs. Both samples were collected from a cordierite particulate filter membrane in a thermal reactor connected to the exhaust pipe of a light-duty diesel engine. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to measure the amount of heat release during oxidation, along with subsequent oxidation rates and the concentrations of SOCs dissolved in particulate samples, respectively.
Technical Paper

Achieving Stable Engine Operation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using 87 AKI Gasoline Down to Idle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0832
For several years there has been a great deal of effort made in researching ways to run a compression ignition engine with simultaneously high efficiency and low emissions. Recently much of this focus has been dedicated to using gasoline-like fuels that are more volatile and less reactive than conventional diesel fuel to allow the combustion to be more premixed. One of the key challenges to using fuels with such properties in a compression ignition engine is stable engine operation at low loads. This paper provides an analysis of how stable gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine operation was achieved down to idle speed and load on a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine using only 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline. The variables explored to extend stable engine operation to idle included: uncooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection timing, injection pressure, and injector nozzle geometry.
Technical Paper

Advanced Automatic Transmission Model Validation Using Dynamometer Test Data

2014-04-01
2014-01-1778
As a result of increasingly stringent regulations and higher customer expectations, auto manufacturers have been considering numerous technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Transmissions have been shown to be one of the most cost-effective technologies for improving fuel economy. Over the past couple of years, transmissions have significantly evolved and impacted both performance and fuel efficiency. This study validates the shifting control of advanced automatic transmission technologies in vehicle systems by using Argonne National Laboratory's model-based vehicle simulation tool, Autonomie. Different midsize vehicles, including several with automatic transmission (6-speeds, 7-speeds, and 8-speeds), were tested at Argonne's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). For the vehicles, a novel process was used to import test data.
Technical Paper

Air-to-Fuel Ratio Calculation Methods for Oxygenated Fuels in Two-Stroke Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0965
In 1990, Roy Douglas developed an analytical method to calculate the global air-to-fuel ratio of a two-stroke engine from exhaust gas emissions. While this method has considerable application to two-stroke engines, it does not permit the calculation of air-to-fuel ratios for oxygenated fuels. This study proposed modifications to the Roy Douglas method such that it can be applied to oxygenated fuels. The ISO #16183 standard, the modified Spindt method, and the Brettschneider method were used to evaluate the modifications to the Roy Douglas method. In addition, a trapped air-to-fuel ratio, appropriate for two-stroke engines, was also modified to incorporate oxygenated fuels. To validate the modified calculation method, tests were performed using a two-stroke carbureted and two-stroke direct injected marine outboard engine over a five-mode marine test cycle running indolene and low level blends of ethanol and iso-butanol fuels.
Technical Paper

Ambient Temperature (20°F, 72°F and 95°F) Impact on Fuel and Energy Consumption for Several Conventional Vehicles, Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1462
This paper determines the impact of ambient temperature on energy consumption of a variety of vehicles in the laboratory. Several conventional vehicles, several hybrid electric vehicles, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and a battery electric vehicle were tested for fuel and energy consumption under test cell conditions of 20°F, 72°F and 95°F with 850 W/m₂ of emulated radiant solar energy on the UDDS, HWFET and US06 drive cycles. At 20°F, the energy consumption increase compared to 72°F ranges from 2% to 100%. The largest increases in energy consumption occur during a cold start, when the powertrain losses are highest, but once the powertrains reach their operating temperatures, the energy consumption increases are decreased. At 95°F, the energy consumption increase ranges from 2% to 70%, and these increases are due to the extra energy required to run the air-conditioning system to maintain 72°F cabin temperatures.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Stroke-to-Bore Ratio of Atkinson DISI Engines with Variable Valve Timing

2018-04-03
2018-01-1419
In this study, fundamental questions in improving thermal efficiency of spark-ignition engine were revisited, regarding two principal factors, that is, stroke-to-bore (S/B) ratio and valve timings. In our experiment, late intake valve closing (LIVC) camshaft and variable valve timing (VVT) module for valve timing control were equipped in the single-cylinder, direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine with three different S/B ratios (1.00, 1.20, and 1.47). In these three setups, displacement volume and compression ratio (CR) were fixed. In addition, the tumble ratio for cylinder head was also kept the same to minimize the flow effect on the flame propagation caused by cylinder head while focusing on the sole effect of changing the S/B ratio.
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