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Journal Article

A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse

2017-03-28
2017-01-0837
Modeling plume interaction and collapse for direct-injection gasoline sprays is important because of its impact on fuel-air mixing and engine performance. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic interaction between plumes and the complicated two-phase coupling of the evaporating spray has shown to be notoriously difficult to predict. With the availability of high-speed (100 kHz) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, we compare velocity field predictions between plumes to observe the full temporal evolution leading up to plume merging and complete spray collapse. The target “Spray G” operating conditions of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is the focus of the work, including parametric variations in ambient gas temperature. We apply both LES and RANS spray models in different CFD platforms, outlining features of the spray that are most critical to model in order to predict the correct aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing.
Journal Article

A Hydrogen Direct Injection Engine Concept that Exceeds U.S. DOE Light-Duty Efficiency Targets

2012-04-16
2012-01-0653
Striving for sustainable transportation solutions, hydrogen is often identified as a promising energy carrier and internal combustion engines are seen as a cost effective consumer of hydrogen to facilitate the development of a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. Driven by efficiency and emissions targets defined by the U.S. Department of Energy, a research team at Argonne National Laboratory has worked on optimizing a spark-ignited direct injection engine for hydrogen. Using direct injection improves volumetric efficiency and provides the opportunity to properly stratify the fuel-air mixture in-cylinder. Collaborative 3D-CFD and experimental efforts have focused on optimizing the mixture stratification and have demonstrated the potential for high engine efficiency with low NOx emissions. Performance of the hydrogen engine is evaluated in this paper over a speed range from 1000 to 3000 RPM and a load range from 1.7 to 14.3 bar BMEP.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation on Scalability and Grid Convergence of Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1095
Traditional Lagrangian spray modeling approaches for internal combustion engines are highly grid-dependent due to insufficient resolution in the near nozzle region. This is primarily because of inherent restrictions of volume fraction with the Lagrangian assumption together with high computational costs associated with small grid sizes. A state-of-the-art grid-convergent spray modeling approach was recently developed and implemented by Senecal et al., (ASME-ICEF2012-92043) in the CONVERGE software. The key features of the methodology include Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), advanced liquid-gas momentum coupling, and improved distribution of the liquid phase, which enables use of cell sizes smaller than the nozzle diameter. This modeling approach was rigorously validated against non-evaporating, evaporating, and reacting data from the literature.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Energy Recovery in Vehicles by Using Regenerative Magnetic Shock Absorbers

2001-05-14
2001-01-2071
Road vehicles can expend a significant amount of energy in undesirable vertical motions that are induced by road bumps, and much of that is dissipated in conventional shock absorbers as they dampen the vertical motions. Presented in this paper are some of the results of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness of efficiently transforming that energy into electrical power by using optimally designed regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers. In turn, the electrical power can be used to recharge batteries or other efficient energy storage devices (e.g., flywheels) rather than be dissipated. The results of the study are encouraging - they suggest that a significant amount of the vertical motion energy can be recovered and stored.
Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0734
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional Model for Prediction of In-Cylinder Turbulence and Tumble Flow in a Spark-Ignited Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0852
Improving fuel efficiency and emission characteristics are significant issues in engine research. Because the engine has complex systems and various operating parameters, the experimental research is limited by cost and time. One-dimensional (1D) simulation has attracted the attention of researchers because of its effectiveness and relatively high accuracy. In a 1D simulation, the applied model must be accurate for the reliability of the simulation results. Because in-cylinder turbulence mainly determines the combustion characteristics, and mean flow velocity affects the in-cylinder heat transfer and efficiency in a spark-ignited (SI) engine, a number of sophisticated models have been developed to predict in-cylinder turbulence and mean flow velocity. In particular, tumble is a significant factor of in-cylinder turbulence in SI engine.
Technical Paper

A Simple Fan Model for Underhood Thermal Management Analyses

2002-03-04
2002-01-1025
This work presents a simple fan model that is based on the actuator disk approximation, and the blade element and vortex theory of a propeller. A set of equations are derived that require as input the rotational speed of the fan, geometric fan data, and the lift and drag coefficients of the blades. These equations are solved iteratively to obtain the body forces generated by the fan in the axial and circumferential directions. These forces are used as momentum sources in a CFD code to simulate the effect of the fan in an underhood thermal management simulation. To validate this fan model, a fan experiment was simulated. The model was incorporated into the CFD code STAR-CD and predictions were generated for axial and circumferential air velocities at different radial positions and at different planes downstream of the fan. The agreement between experimental measurements and predictions is good.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Refinement of Turbulence Intensity Prediction for the Estimation of In-Cylinder Pressure in a Spark-Ignited Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0525
The role of 1D simulation tool is growing as the engine system is becoming more complex with the adoption of a variety of new technologies. For the reliability of the 1D simulation results, it is necessary to improve the accuracy and applicability of the combustion model implemented in the 1D simulation tool. Since the combustion process in SI engine is mainly determined by the turbulence, many models have been concentrating on the prediction of the evolution of in-cylinder turbulence intensity. In this study, two turbulence models which can resemble the turbulence intensity close to that of 3D CFD tool were utilized. The first model is dedicated to predicting the evolution of turbulence intensity during intake and compression strokes so that the turbulence intensity at the spark timing can be estimated properly. The second model is responsible for predicting the turbulence intensity of burned and unburned zone during the combustion process.
Technical Paper

A study on Reducing the Computing Burden of Misfire Detection using a Conditional Monitoring Method

2004-03-08
2004-01-0722
This paper presents a conditional misfire monitoring method to reduce the computing burden of the motoring. In this conditional monitoring method, the ECU performs misfire detection only when there is high probability of misfire events. The condition for performing the misfire detection is determined by the pre-index which is defined as the deviation of the segment durations of the crankshaft in this paper. The quantity of the code of calculating the pre-index is 7 times less than that of a conventional monitoring method so that the computing burden can be reduced with the conditional monitoring method. The experimental results shown that the pre-index and the conditional monitoring method are valid.
Technical Paper

Accurate Measurements of Heat Release, Oxidation Rates, and Soluble Organic Compounds of Diesel Particulates through Thermal Reactions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0814
In an effort of providing better understanding of regeneration mechanisms of diesel particulate matter (PM), this experimental investigation focused on evaluating the amount of heat release generated during the thermal reaction of diesel PM and the concentrations of soluble organic compounds (SOCs) dissolved in PM emissions. Differences in oxidation behaviors were observed for two different diesel PM samples: a SOC-containing PM sample and a dry soot sample with no SOCs. Both samples were collected from a cordierite particulate filter membrane in a thermal reactor connected to the exhaust pipe of a light-duty diesel engine. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to measure the amount of heat release during oxidation, along with subsequent oxidation rates and the concentrations of SOCs dissolved in particulate samples, respectively.
Technical Paper

Achieving Stable Engine Operation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using 87 AKI Gasoline Down to Idle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0832
For several years there has been a great deal of effort made in researching ways to run a compression ignition engine with simultaneously high efficiency and low emissions. Recently much of this focus has been dedicated to using gasoline-like fuels that are more volatile and less reactive than conventional diesel fuel to allow the combustion to be more premixed. One of the key challenges to using fuels with such properties in a compression ignition engine is stable engine operation at low loads. This paper provides an analysis of how stable gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine operation was achieved down to idle speed and load on a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine using only 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline. The variables explored to extend stable engine operation to idle included: uncooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection timing, injection pressure, and injector nozzle geometry.
Technical Paper

Air-to-Fuel Ratio Calculation Methods for Oxygenated Fuels in Two-Stroke Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0965
In 1990, Roy Douglas developed an analytical method to calculate the global air-to-fuel ratio of a two-stroke engine from exhaust gas emissions. While this method has considerable application to two-stroke engines, it does not permit the calculation of air-to-fuel ratios for oxygenated fuels. This study proposed modifications to the Roy Douglas method such that it can be applied to oxygenated fuels. The ISO #16183 standard, the modified Spindt method, and the Brettschneider method were used to evaluate the modifications to the Roy Douglas method. In addition, a trapped air-to-fuel ratio, appropriate for two-stroke engines, was also modified to incorporate oxygenated fuels. To validate the modified calculation method, tests were performed using a two-stroke carbureted and two-stroke direct injected marine outboard engine over a five-mode marine test cycle running indolene and low level blends of ethanol and iso-butanol fuels.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Stroke-to-Bore Ratio of Atkinson DISI Engines with Variable Valve Timing

2018-04-03
2018-01-1419
In this study, fundamental questions in improving thermal efficiency of spark-ignition engine were revisited, regarding two principal factors, that is, stroke-to-bore (S/B) ratio and valve timings. In our experiment, late intake valve closing (LIVC) camshaft and variable valve timing (VVT) module for valve timing control were equipped in the single-cylinder, direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine with three different S/B ratios (1.00, 1.20, and 1.47). In these three setups, displacement volume and compression ratio (CR) were fixed. In addition, the tumble ratio for cylinder head was also kept the same to minimize the flow effect on the flame propagation caused by cylinder head while focusing on the sole effect of changing the S/B ratio.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Knock Mitigation Effect of Coolant and Thermal Boundary Temperatures in Spark Ignited Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0213
Increasing compression ratio is essential for developing future high-efficiency engines due to the intrinsic characteristics of spark-ignited engines. However, it also causes the unfavorable, abnormal knocking phenomena which is the auto-ignition in the unburned end-gas region. To cope with regulations, many researchers have been experimenting with various methods to suppress knock occurrence. In this paper, it is shown that cooling the combustion chamber using coolants, which is one of the most practical methods, has a strong effect on knock mitigation. Furthermore, the relationship between thermal boundary and coolant temperatures is shown. In the beginning of this paper, knock metrics using an in-cylinder pressure sensor are explained for readers, even though entire research studies cannot be listed due to the innumerableness. The coolant passages for the cylinder head and the liner were separated to examine independent cooling strategies.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Particulate Morphology, Microstructures, and Fractal Geometry for ael Diesel Engine-Simulating Combustor

2004-10-25
2004-01-3044
The particulate matter (PM) produced from a diesel engine-simulating combustor was characterized in its morphology, microstructure, and fractal geometry by using a unique thermophoretic sampling and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) system. These results revealed that diesel PM produced from the laboratory-scale burner showed similar morphological characteristics to the particulates produced from diesel engines. The flame air/fuel ratio and the particulate temperature history have significant influences on both particle size and fractal geometry. The primary particle sizes were measured to be 14.7 nm and 14.8 nm under stoichiometric and fuel-rich flame conditions, respectively. These primary particle sizes are smaller than those produced from diesel engines. The radii of gyration for the aggregate particles were 83.8 nm and 47.5 nm under these two flame conditions.
Technical Paper

An Overview of ARES Research

2011-01-19
2011-26-0085
With an intention to improve the performance of reciprocating engines used for distributed generation US-Dept. of Energy has launched ARES program. Under this program, the performance targets for these natural gas-fuelled stationary engines are ≻ 50% efficiency and NOx emissions ≺ 0.1 g/bhp-hr by 2013. This paper presents two technologies developed under this program. Lean-burn operation is very popular with engine manufacturers as it offers simultaneous low-NOx emissions and high engine efficiencies, while not requiring the use of any aftertreatment devices. Though engines operating on lean-burn operation are capable of better performance, they are currently limited by the inability to sustain reliable ignition under lean conditions. Addressing such an issue, research has evaluated the use of laser ignition as an alternative to the conventional Capacitance Discharge Ignition (CDI).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Cyclic Variation and the Effect of Fuel Stratification on Combustion Stabilityin a Port Fuel Injection (PFI) CAI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0670
CAI engine is well known to be advantageous over conventional SI engines because it facilitates higher engine efficiency and lower emission (NOx and smoke). However, its limited operation range, large cyclic variation, and difficulty in heat release control are still unresolved obstacles. Previous studies showed that a high load range of the CAI engine is limited mainly by the combustion noise caused by a stiff pressure rise (knock), and that a low load range is also limited by the combustion instability caused by the high dilution of residual gas. In this study, the characteristics of each cycle were analyzed to find the cause of the cycle variation at the high load limit of CAI operation. Moreover, to improve combustion stability, we tested the in-cylinder fuel stratification by applying nonsymmetrical fuel injection to the intake port. Experiments were performed on a PFI single cylinder research engine equipped with dual CVVT and low lift (2 mm) cam shaft with NVO strategy.
Journal Article

Assessing the Importance of Radiative Heat Transfer for ECN Spray A Using the Transported PDF Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0857
The importance of radiative heat transfer on the combustion and soot formation characteristics under nominal ECN Spray A conditions has been studied numerically. The liquid n-dodecane fuel is injected with 1500 bar fuel pressure into the constant volume chamber at different ambient conditions. Radiation from both gas-phase as well as soot particles has been included and assumed as gray. Three different solvers for the radiative transfer equation have been employed: the discrete ordinate method, the spherical-harmonics method and the optically thin assumption. The radiation models have been coupled with the transported probability density function method for turbulent reactive flows and soot, where unresolved turbulent fluctuations in temperature and composition are included and therefore capturing turbulence-chemistry-soot-radiation interactions. Results show that the gas-phase (mostly CO2 ad H2O species) has a higher contribution to the net radiation heat transfer compared to soot.
Journal Article

Assessment of Multiple Injection Strategies in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1920
Hydrogen is widely considered a promising fuel for future transportation applications for both, internal combustion engines and fuel cells. Due to their advanced stage of development and immediate availability hydrogen combustion engines could act as a bridging technology towards a wide-spread hydrogen infrastructure. Although fuel cell vehicles are expected to surpass hydrogen combustion engine vehicles in terms of efficiency, the difference in efficiency might not be as significant as widely anticipated [1]. Hydrogen combustion engines have been shown capable of achieving efficiencies of up to 45 % [2]. One of the remaining challenges is the reduction of nitric oxide emissions while achieving peak engine efficiencies. This paper summarizes research work performed on a single-cylinder hydrogen direct injection engine at Argonne National Laboratory.
Technical Paper

Axial Flux Variable Gap Motor: Application in Vehicle Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-1088
Alternative electric motor geometry with potentially increased efficiency is being considered for hybrid electric vehicle applications. An axial flux motor with a dynamically adjustable air gap (i.e., mechanical field weakening) has been tested, analyzed, and modeled for use in a vehicle simulation tool at Argonne National Laboratory. The advantage of adjusting the flux is that the motor torque-speed characteristics can better match the vehicle load. The challenge in implementing an electric machine with these qualities is to develop a control strategy that takes advantage of the available efficiency improvements without using excessive energy to mechanically adjust the air gap and thus reduce the potential energy savings. Motor efficiency was mapped in terms of speed, torque, supply voltage, and rotor-to-stator air gap.
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