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Technical Paper

A Critical Road Test Evaluation of a High-Performance Gasoline Additive Package in a Fleet of Modern European and Asian Vehicles

2004-06-08
2004-01-2027
A road test has been conducted to quantify the benefits provided by a high-performance gasoline additive package in a fleet of cars representative of Europe, SE Asia, and South America. The emissions, fuel consumption, and engine cleanliness benefits of additised versus untreated gasoline were compared in 15 pairs of cars. A further 6 cars were operated on a mixture of fuels to show the benefits of additised fuel versus mixed fuelling. The design of the experiment was based on a similar road test conducted in 1991. Through careful test design and execution, it has been possible to assess the performance of the package at a high statistical confidence level. The package provides a high level of inlet system cleanliness, a significant reduction in fuel consumption and reduced HC emissions.
Technical Paper

A New Protocol for the Road Test Evaluation of Gasoline Additive Packages

2006-10-16
2006-01-3408
The accurate confirmation of fuel economy benefits arising from the use of a gasoline additive package is a difficult exercise. In order to fully understand, and accurately quantify, the interaction between the treated fuel and the engine it is necessary to carry out a fleet test which allows the benefit to be measured precisely yet under realistic conditions. A series of road tests, based on a ‘paired fleet’ design, has been carried out over the last two decades. Careful analysis of the results of these tests has led to the design of a new fleet testing protocol based around ‘quads’ rather than pairs of vehicles. This new test protocol also incorporates advances in vehicle selection and preparation procedures and has resulted in a test that is both more robust and flexible, and that achieves even better resolution than before.
Technical Paper

A new method to simulate the octane appetite of any spark ignition engine.

2011-08-30
2011-01-1873
The octane appetite of an SI engine can be expressed in terms of an Octane Index: OI = (1−K) RON + K MON where K is a constant for a given operating condition and depends only on the pressure and temperature variation in the engine (it is not a property of the fuel). Experimental measurements of K values can be costly and time consuming. This paper reports the development of a new K-value simulation method that can be applied to any spark ignition engine given basic engine data. Good agreement between simulation and experimental results suggests the method is reliable and can be applied to a wide range of engines.
Journal Article

Analysis of a Diesel Passenger Car Behavior On-Road and over Certification Duty Cycles

2016-10-17
2016-01-2328
Precise, repeatable and representative testing is a key tool for developing and demonstrating automotive fuel and lubricant products. This paper reports on the first findings of a project that aims to determine the requirements for highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in fuel economy and powertrain performance. This will be underpinned by identifying and quantifying the variations inherent to this specific test vehicle, both on-road and on Chassis Dynamometer (CD), that create a barrier to improved testing methods. In this initial work, a comparison was made between on-road driving, the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) cycles to understand the behavior of various vehicle systems along with the discrepancies that can arise owing to the particular conditions of the standard test cycles.
Journal Article

Application of a Split Lubrication Gasoline Engine to the Screening and Understanding of Friction Modifier Behaviour

2011-08-30
2011-01-2134
A series of viscous and surface friction modifier additives has been studied in a modified SI engine with separable valve train lubrication. From the results, it has been possible to classify the hydrodynamic or boundary lubrication nature of the observed effects for a series of lubricant additives. It is shown that the frictional benefit of a given additive depends not only on the engine operating condition but also on the engine components on which it is acting. For some additives a fuel economy benefit can switch to a disbenefit as operating regime changes and a different aspect of the additive properties becomes important. Such observations are rationalised in the context of conventional lubrication theory.
Journal Article

Computer Simulation Studies of Adsorption of Binary and Ternary Mixtures of Gasoline Components in Engine Deposits

2014-10-13
2014-01-2719
Carbonaceous deposits can accumulate on various surfaces of the internal combustion engine and affect its performance. The porous nature of these deposits means that they act like a “sponge”, adsorbing fuel components and changing both the composition and the amount of fuel in the combustion chamber. Here we use a previously developed and validated model of engine deposits to predict adsorption of normal heptane, isooctane, toluene and their mixtures in deposits of different origin within a port fuel injected spark ignition engine (Combustion Chamber Deposits, or CCDs, and Intake Valve Deposits, or IVDs) and under different conditions. We explore the influence of molecular structure of adsorbing species, composition of the bulk mixture and temperature on the uptake and selectivity behaviour of the deposits. While deposits generally show high capacity toward all three components, we observe that selectivity behaviour is a more subtle and complex property.
Technical Paper

Developing a Precision and Severity Monitoring System for CEC Performance Tests

2004-06-08
2004-01-1892
The Coordinating European Council, CEC, develops performance tests for the motor, oil, petroleum, additive and allied industries. In recent years, CEC has moved away from using round robin programmes (RRP's) for monitoring the precision and severity of test methods in favour of regular referencing within a test monitoring system (TMS). In a TMS, a reference sample of known performance, determined by cross-laboratory testing, is tested at regular intervals at each laboratory. The results are plotted on control charts and determine whether the installation is and continues to be fit to evaluate products. Results from all laboratories are collated and combined to monitor the general health of the test. The TMS approach offers considerable benefits in terms of detecting test problems and improving test quality. However, the effort required in collating data for statistical analysis is much greater, and there are technical difficulties in determining precision from TMS data.
Journal Article

Development of a Fuel System Cleanliness Test Method in a Euro 4 Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine (VW 1.4 L TSI 90 kW)

2017-10-08
2017-01-2296
Driven by increasingly stringent tailpipe CO2 and fuel economy regulations, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are enjoying rapidly increasing market penetration. Already more than 50% of newly produced vehicles in the US and western Europe employ direct-injection technology and many markets in Asia are also seeing an increasingly rapid uptake. However, with the adoption of GDI engine technology, which is able to push the boundaries of engine efficiency, new challenges are starting to arise such as injector nozzle deposits, which can adversely affect performance. Multi-hole solenoid actuated fuel injectors are particularly vulnerable to deposits formed when operated on some market fuels. In order to address this challenge, the development of a reliable industry test platform for injector cleanliness in GDI engines is currently underway in both the US and Europe.
Journal Article

Formation and Removal of Injector Nozzle Deposits in Modern Diesel Cars

2013-04-08
2013-01-1684
Deposits forming in the injector nozzle holes of modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the fuel injected into the combustion chamber, causing reduced or less efficient combustion, resulting in power loss and increased fuel consumption. A study of the factors affecting injector nozzle tip temperature, a parameter critical to nozzle deposit formation, has been conducted in a Peugeot DW10 passenger car bench engine, as used in the industry standard CEC F-098 injector nozzle deposit test, [1]. The findings of the bench engine study were applied in the development of a Chassis Dynamometer (CD) based vehicle test method using Euro 5 compliant vehicles. The developed test method was refined to tune the conditions as far as practicable towards a realistic driving pattern whilst maintaining sufficient deposit forming tendency to enable test duration to be limited to a reasonable period.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects in a Boosted DISI Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1985
Due to the recent drive to reduce CO₂ emissions, the turbocharged direct injection spark ignition (turbo DISI) gasoline engine has become increasingly popular. In addition, future turbo DISI engines could incorporate a form of charge dilution (e.g., lean operation or external EGR) to further increase fuel efficiency. Thus, the conditions experienced by the fuel before and during combustion are and will continue to be different from those experienced in naturally aspirated SI engines. This work investigates the effects of fuel properties on a modern and prototype turbo DISI engine, with particular focus on the octane appetite: How relevant are RON and MON in predicting a fuel's anti-knock performance in these modern/future engines? It is found that fuels with high RON and low MON values perform the best, suggesting the current MON requirements in fuel specifications could actually be detrimental.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Emissions from Gasoline Vehicles for the Asian Market

2008-06-23
2008-01-1765
In this study, the influence of gasoline composition on exhaust emissions has been evaluated using three gasoline vehicles. Although the vehicles were obtained within Europe, each is representative of models to be found in Asian markets. Two of the vehicles were current Euro 4 certification, while the third was of Euro 2 certification equivalent to that available in specific Asian markets. Fuel effects studied included aromatics, olefins and benzene content. Other fuel properties were held constant within the normal constraints of blending when using realistic gasoline components. An orthogonal matrix of eight fuels was blended to evaluate these properties over the ranges: Aromatics (excluding benzene) 34% to 49%, olefins 18% to 25% and benzene 1% to 5%. All fuels were tested in all three cars driving the current legislative NEDC cycle, using a randomised block design with at least 3 repeats on each fuel/vehicle combination.
Technical Paper

Impact of Demanding Low Temperature Urban Operation on the Real Driving Emissions Performance of Three European Diesel Passenger Cars

2018-09-10
2018-01-1819
In Europe, the development and implementation of new regulatory test procedures including the chassis dynamometer (CD) based World Harmonised Light Duty Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) procedure, has been driven by the close scrutiny that real driving emissions and fuel consumption from passenger cars have come under in recent times. This is due to a divergence between stated certification performance and measured on-road performance, and has been most pointed in the case of NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions from diesel cars. The RDE test is certainly more relevant than CD test cycles, but currently certification RDE cycles will not necessarily include the most extreme low speed congested or low temperature conditions which are likely to be more challenging for NOx after-treatment systems.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Properties on Lubricant Oxidative Stability: Part 2 - Chemical Kinetics Modelling

2007-01-23
2007-01-0003
Previously reported tests (SAE 2005-01-3839) suggest that lubricant oxidative stability can be improved by running a spark ignition engine with fuels rich in light olefins (e.g. from a catalytically cracked refinery stream). To further our understanding, we have modelled the influence of fuel chemistry on the kinetics of lubricant oxidation. In the hypothesis presented here, the olefins interfere with key chain branching reactions in the lubricant oxidation process and react to form epoxides, which are sufficiently volatile to leave the lubricant. The modelling also predicts that ethanol has a directionally beneficial effect on lubricant oxidative stability. The effect of this will be limited because ethanol is much less soluble in lube-oil under prevailing engine conditions than heavier hydrocarbon components.
Technical Paper

The Application of Telematics to the High-Precision Assessment of Fuel-Borne Fuel Economy Additives

2012-09-10
2012-01-1738
The demonstration benefit from fuel-borne fuel-economy additives to a precision of 1%, or better, traditionally requires very careful experimental design and considerable resource intensity. In practice, the process usually requires the use of well-defined drive cycles (e.g. emission certification cycles HFET, NEDC) in conjunction with environmentally-controlled chassis dynamometer facilities. Against this background, a method has been developed to achieve high-precision fuel economy comparison of gasoline fuels with reduced resource intensity and under arbitrary real-world driving conditions. The method relies upon the inference of instantaneous fuel consumption via the collection of OBD data and the simultaneous estimation of instantaneous engine output from vehicle dynamical behaviour.
Journal Article

The Effect of Engine, Axle and Transmission Lubricant, and Operating Conditions on Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Economy. Part 1: Measurements

2011-08-30
2011-01-2129
It is expected that the world's energy demand will double by 2050, which requires energy-efficient technologies to be readily available. With the increasing number of vehicles on our roads the demand for energy is increasing rapidly, and with this there is an associated increase in CO₂ emissions. Through the careful use of optimized lubricants it is possible to significantly reduce vehicle fuel consumption and hence CO₂. This paper evaluates the effects on fuel economy of high quality, low viscosity heavy-duty diesel engine type lubricants against mainstream type products for all elements of the vehicle driveline. Testing was performed on Shell's driveline test facility for the evaluation of fuel consumption effects due to engine, gearbox and axle oils and the variation with engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

The M111 Engine CCD and Emissions Test: Is it Relevant to Real-World Vehicle Data?

2002-05-06
2002-01-1642
A European test procedure for evaluating engine deposits, using the Mercedes Benz M111 bench engine, has already been approved for inlet valve deposits (IVD) and is under development for combustion chamber deposits (CCD) by the Co-ordinating European Council (CEC). This paper describes CCD effects on emissions using a slightly modified version of this engine test procedure and compares it with CCD/emissions data from road vehicles. The engine used was a modern four valve, four cylinder, 2.0 litre passenger car unit and the bench test procedure used extended the operating time from the specified 60 hours to 180 hours. The road vehicle trial used two Mercedes Benz C200 passenger cars fitted with the M111 engine and two Ford Mondeo 2.0 litre passenger cars. Data was collected up to 11200km, approximately equivalent to 180 hours operation of the bench engine.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Adverse Effects of Inlet Valve Deposits on SI Engine Operation, through a Novel Technique to Create Surrogate Deposits

2018-09-10
2018-01-1742
For gasoline spark ignition engines, port fuel injection (PFI) on a global basis remains the most common type of fuel delivery. When operated with lower quality fuels and lubricants, PFI engines are prone to suffering from the build-up of harmful deposits on critical engine parts including the inlet valves. High levels of inlet valve deposits (IVDs) have been associated with drivability issues like engine stumble and hesitation on sudden acceleration. Fuels formulated with the appropriate level of deposit control additive (DCA) can maintain engine cleanliness and even remove deposits from critical components. This study, involving a single cylinder research bench engine operated in PFI injection mode and heavily augmented with measurement equipment, aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the detrimental impacts of IVDs on engine efficiency and performance.
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