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Technical Paper

A new method to simulate the octane appetite of any spark ignition engine.

The octane appetite of an SI engine can be expressed in terms of an Octane Index: OI = (1−K) RON + K MON where K is a constant for a given operating condition and depends only on the pressure and temperature variation in the engine (it is not a property of the fuel). Experimental measurements of K values can be costly and time consuming. This paper reports the development of a new K-value simulation method that can be applied to any spark ignition engine given basic engine data. Good agreement between simulation and experimental results suggests the method is reliable and can be applied to a wide range of engines.
Journal Article

Application of a Split Lubrication Gasoline Engine to the Screening and Understanding of Friction Modifier Behaviour

A series of viscous and surface friction modifier additives has been studied in a modified SI engine with separable valve train lubrication. From the results, it has been possible to classify the hydrodynamic or boundary lubrication nature of the observed effects for a series of lubricant additives. It is shown that the frictional benefit of a given additive depends not only on the engine operating condition but also on the engine components on which it is acting. For some additives a fuel economy benefit can switch to a disbenefit as operating regime changes and a different aspect of the additive properties becomes important. Such observations are rationalised in the context of conventional lubrication theory.
Journal Article

Computer Simulation Studies of Adsorption of Binary and Ternary Mixtures of Gasoline Components in Engine Deposits

Carbonaceous deposits can accumulate on various surfaces of the internal combustion engine and affect its performance. The porous nature of these deposits means that they act like a “sponge”, adsorbing fuel components and changing both the composition and the amount of fuel in the combustion chamber. Here we use a previously developed and validated model of engine deposits to predict adsorption of normal heptane, isooctane, toluene and their mixtures in deposits of different origin within a port fuel injected spark ignition engine (Combustion Chamber Deposits, or CCDs, and Intake Valve Deposits, or IVDs) and under different conditions. We explore the influence of molecular structure of adsorbing species, composition of the bulk mixture and temperature on the uptake and selectivity behaviour of the deposits. While deposits generally show high capacity toward all three components, we observe that selectivity behaviour is a more subtle and complex property.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects in a Boosted DISI Engine

Due to the recent drive to reduce CO₂ emissions, the turbocharged direct injection spark ignition (turbo DISI) gasoline engine has become increasingly popular. In addition, future turbo DISI engines could incorporate a form of charge dilution (e.g., lean operation or external EGR) to further increase fuel efficiency. Thus, the conditions experienced by the fuel before and during combustion are and will continue to be different from those experienced in naturally aspirated SI engines. This work investigates the effects of fuel properties on a modern and prototype turbo DISI engine, with particular focus on the octane appetite: How relevant are RON and MON in predicting a fuel's anti-knock performance in these modern/future engines? It is found that fuels with high RON and low MON values perform the best, suggesting the current MON requirements in fuel specifications could actually be detrimental.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Properties on Lubricant Oxidative Stability: Part 2 - Chemical Kinetics Modelling

Previously reported tests (SAE 2005-01-3839) suggest that lubricant oxidative stability can be improved by running a spark ignition engine with fuels rich in light olefins (e.g. from a catalytically cracked refinery stream). To further our understanding, we have modelled the influence of fuel chemistry on the kinetics of lubricant oxidation. In the hypothesis presented here, the olefins interfere with key chain branching reactions in the lubricant oxidation process and react to form epoxides, which are sufficiently volatile to leave the lubricant. The modelling also predicts that ethanol has a directionally beneficial effect on lubricant oxidative stability. The effect of this will be limited because ethanol is much less soluble in lube-oil under prevailing engine conditions than heavier hydrocarbon components.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Adverse Effects of Inlet Valve Deposits on SI Engine Operation, through a Novel Technique to Create Surrogate Deposits

For gasoline spark ignition engines, port fuel injection (PFI) on a global basis remains the most common type of fuel delivery. When operated with lower quality fuels and lubricants, PFI engines are prone to suffering from the build-up of harmful deposits on critical engine parts including the inlet valves. High levels of inlet valve deposits (IVDs) have been associated with drivability issues like engine stumble and hesitation on sudden acceleration. Fuels formulated with the appropriate level of deposit control additive (DCA) can maintain engine cleanliness and even remove deposits from critical components. This study, involving a single cylinder research bench engine operated in PFI injection mode and heavily augmented with measurement equipment, aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the detrimental impacts of IVDs on engine efficiency and performance.