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Journal Article

Analysis of a Diesel Passenger Car Behavior On-Road and over Certification Duty Cycles

Precise, repeatable and representative testing is a key tool for developing and demonstrating automotive fuel and lubricant products. This paper reports on the first findings of a project that aims to determine the requirements for highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in fuel economy and powertrain performance. This will be underpinned by identifying and quantifying the variations inherent to this specific test vehicle, both on-road and on Chassis Dynamometer (CD), that create a barrier to improved testing methods. In this initial work, a comparison was made between on-road driving, the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) cycles to understand the behavior of various vehicle systems along with the discrepancies that can arise owing to the particular conditions of the standard test cycles.
Journal Article

Application of a Split Lubrication Gasoline Engine to the Screening and Understanding of Friction Modifier Behaviour

A series of viscous and surface friction modifier additives has been studied in a modified SI engine with separable valve train lubrication. From the results, it has been possible to classify the hydrodynamic or boundary lubrication nature of the observed effects for a series of lubricant additives. It is shown that the frictional benefit of a given additive depends not only on the engine operating condition but also on the engine components on which it is acting. For some additives a fuel economy benefit can switch to a disbenefit as operating regime changes and a different aspect of the additive properties becomes important. Such observations are rationalised in the context of conventional lubrication theory.
Technical Paper

Developing a Precision and Severity Monitoring System for CEC Performance Tests

The Coordinating European Council, CEC, develops performance tests for the motor, oil, petroleum, additive and allied industries. In recent years, CEC has moved away from using round robin programmes (RRP's) for monitoring the precision and severity of test methods in favour of regular referencing within a test monitoring system (TMS). In a TMS, a reference sample of known performance, determined by cross-laboratory testing, is tested at regular intervals at each laboratory. The results are plotted on control charts and determine whether the installation is and continues to be fit to evaluate products. Results from all laboratories are collated and combined to monitor the general health of the test. The TMS approach offers considerable benefits in terms of detecting test problems and improving test quality. However, the effort required in collating data for statistical analysis is much greater, and there are technical difficulties in determining precision from TMS data.
Technical Paper

Development and Assessment of Traction Fluids for Use in Toroidal (IVT) Transmissions

The attributes of a traction fluid are fundamental to the successful operation of a traction drive transmission. The fluid must lubricate and protect the components against wear and corrosion, whilst simultaneously providing high traction to transmit power efficiently. A selection of commercial and candidate fluids have been assessed with both a bench-test and a novel traction rig. The principal objective has been to achieve a balance between the conflicting requirements of low temperature viscometrics and high temperature traction. Fluid performance is found to vary according to the rig employed underlining the need to test under prevailing conditions. Data from the traction rig is validated against a variator module.
Technical Paper

Extending the Limits of Fuel Economy through Lubrication

It is anticipated that worldwide energy demand will approximately double by 2050, whilst at the same time, CO2 emissions need to be halved. Therefore, there is increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of all machines, with great focus on improving the fuel efficiency of passenger cars. The use of downsized, boosted, gasoline engines, can lead to exceptional fuel economy, and on a well-to-wheels basis, can give similar CO2 emissions to electric vehicles (depending, of course, on how the electricity is generated). In this paper, the development of a low weight concept car is reported. The car is equipped with a three-cylinder 0.66 litre gasoline engine, and has achieved over 100 miles per imperial gallon, in real world driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Future fuels and lubricant base oils from Shell Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology

Shell was the first oil marketer to bring to commercial scale, Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology for fuels and base oils production. This started with the commissioning of the multi-purpose GTL facility at Bintulu, Malaysia in 1993. The plant produces both automotive gas oil (GTL Fuel) as well as a number of speciality products including detergent feedstocks, a range of Fisher-Tropsch commercial wax grades, and a feedstock for base oils production. The base oil feedstock has been shipped to Shell facilities in Japan and France since 1994 where it is solvent de-waxed to produce the first commercially available GTL base oils. The GTL Fuel is currently being used in premium diesels in Germany, Greece and Thailand. Shell has announced in 2003 its intention to build two world scale GTL trains in Qatar and this will include substantial fuels and base oils facilities.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Properties on Lubricant Oxidative Stability:Part 1 - Engine Tests

Lubricant samples were aged on a SI bench engine that was run using ten different gasoline fuels. For each gasoline tested, the oxidative stability of the lubricant and the extent of engine wear was assessed in terms of a number of different parameters. Surprisingly, it was found that fuels containing higher levels of olefin (whether C8 olefin, or a C5/C6 olefin blend, or a catalytically cracked refinery stream) performed directionally better than a reference gasoline with low levels of aromatics and olefins. Fuels with a higher final boiling point and higher aromatic content, appeared to be associated with enhanced levels of sludge formation than the reference gasoline, but did not give rise to enhanced engine wear.
Technical Paper

Lubrication, Tribology & Motorsport

We review some of the key tribological issues of relevance to motorsport applications. Tribology is the science of friction and wear, and in a high performance engine, friction and wear are controlled by good component design (e.g. the engine and the transmission) and also by the use of high performance lubricants with the correct physical (and chemical) properties, matched to the machine they are used in. In other words, design of a specific lubricant for specific hardware can lead to optimised performance. (Tribology is also important in the tire-road contact but are not considered here.) The importance of key physical properties of a lubricant is demonstrated with an emphasis on how the choice of the correct lubricant can help to minimize engine friction (and thus increase available power output) whilst protecting against engine wear. Key lubricant parameters discussed in the paper are the viscosity variation of a lubricant with temperature, shear rate and pressure.
Technical Paper

Research on the Effect of Lubricant Oil and Fuel Properties on LSPI Occurrence in Boosted S. I. Engines

The effects of lubricant oil and fuel properties on low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) occurrence in boosted S.I. engines were experimentally evaluated with multi-cylinder engine and de-correlated oil and fuel matrices. Further, the auto-ignitability of fuel spray droplets and evaporated homogeneous fuel/oil mixtures were evaluated in a combustion bomb and pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) tests to analyze the fundamental ignition process. The work investigated the effect of engine conditions, fuel volatility and various lubricant additives on LSPI occurrence. The results support the validity of aspects of the LSPI mechanism hypothesis based on the phenomenon of droplets of lubricant oil/fuel mixture (caused by adhesion of fuel spray on the liner wall) flying into the chamber and autoigniting before spark ignition.
Journal Article

The Effect of Engine, Axle and Transmission Lubricant, and Operating Conditions on Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Economy. Part 1: Measurements

It is expected that the world's energy demand will double by 2050, which requires energy-efficient technologies to be readily available. With the increasing number of vehicles on our roads the demand for energy is increasing rapidly, and with this there is an associated increase in CO₂ emissions. Through the careful use of optimized lubricants it is possible to significantly reduce vehicle fuel consumption and hence CO₂. This paper evaluates the effects on fuel economy of high quality, low viscosity heavy-duty diesel engine type lubricants against mainstream type products for all elements of the vehicle driveline. Testing was performed on Shell's driveline test facility for the evaluation of fuel consumption effects due to engine, gearbox and axle oils and the variation with engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

The Effect of Engine, Axle and Transmission Lubricant, and Operating Conditions on Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Economy: Part 2: Predictions

A predictive model for estimating the fuel saving of “top tier” engine, axle and transmission lubricants (compared to “mainstream” lubricants), in a heavy duty truck, operating on a realistic driving cycle, is described. Simulations have been performed for different truck weights (10, 20 and 40 tonnes) and it was found that the model predicts percentage fuel economy benefits that are of a similar magnitude to those measured in well controlled field trials1. The model predicts the percentage fuel saving from the engine oil should decrease as the vehicle load increases (which is in agreement with field trial results). The percentage fuel saving from the axle and gearbox oils initially decreases with load and then stays more or less constant. This behaviour is due to the detailed way in which axle and gearbox efficiency varies with speed/load and lubricant type.