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Journal Article

Brief Investigation of SCR High Temperature N2O Production

Nitrous Oxide (N₂O) is a greenhouse gas with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 298-310 (298-310 times more potent than carbon dioxide (CO₂)). As a result, any aftertreatment system that generates N₂O must be well understood to be used effectively. Under low temperature conditions, N₂O can be produced by Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts. The chemistry is reasonably well understood with N₂O formed by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Ammonium nitrate and N₂O form in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) gas mixtures that are high in nitrogen dioxide (NO₂). This mechanism occurs at a relatively low temperature of about 200°C, and can be controlled by maintaining the nitric oxide (NO)/NO₂ ratio above 1. However, N₂O has also been observed at relatively high temperatures, in the region of 500°C.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Biodiesel Fuels on Transient Emissions from Modern Diesel Engines, Part I Regulated Emissions and Performance

The use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as a substitute for conventional petroleum fuel in diesel engines has received increased attention. This interest is based on a number of properties of biodiesel including the fact that it is produced from a renewable resource, its biodegradability, and its potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Transient exhaust emissions from three modern diesel engines were measured during this study, both with and without an oxidation catalyst. Emissions were characterized with neat biodiesel and with a blend of biodiesel and conventional diesel fuel. Regulated emissions and performance data are presented in this paper, while the results of a detailed chemical characterization of exhaust emissions are presented in a companion paper. The use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter, with some increase in emissions of oxides of nitrogen on some engines.