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Technical Paper

A Competition Hybrid Electric Vehicle

A series hybrid electric vehicle was constructed using a compact car chassis for the 1992 Solar and Electric 500 competition. A computer model for simulation of the vehicle and event conditions was used to determine design and race strategy. Currently available small engines were compared before selecting a V-twin, four-stroke, OHV engine for the auxiliary power unit. Chassis dynamometer, test track, and race results are compared with expected performance.
Technical Paper

A Dual-Use Hybrid Electric Command and Control Vehicle

Until recently, U.S. government efforts to dramatically reduce emissions, greenhouse gases and vehicle fuel consumption have primarily focused on passenger car applications. Similar aggressive reductions need to be extended to heavy vehicles such as delivery trucks, buses, and motorhomes. However, the wide range of torques, speeds, and powers that such vehicles must operate under makes it difficult for any current powertrain system to provide the desired improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Hybrid electric powertrains provide the most promising, near-term technology that can satisfy these requirements. This paper highlights the configuration and benefits of a hybrid electric powertrain capable of operating in either a parallel or series mode. It describes the hybrid electric components in the system, including the electric motors, power electronics and batteries.
Technical Paper

A Heavy-Fueled Engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

The growing usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for aerial surveillance and reconnaissance in military applications calls for lightweight, reliable powerplants that burn heavy distillate fuels. While mass-produced engines exist that provide adequate power-to-weight ratio in the low power class needed for UAVs, they all use a spark-ignited combustion system that requires high octane fuels. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has embarked upon an internal research effort to design and demonstrate an engine that will meet the requirements of high power density, power output compatible with small unmanned aircraft, heavy-fuel combustion, reliable, durable construction, and producible design. This effort has culminated in the successful construction and operation of a demonstrator engine.
Journal Article

A Large-Scale Robotic System for Depainting Advanced Fighter Aircraft

The general benefits of automation are well documented. Order of magnitude improvements are achievable in processing speeds, production rates, and efficiency. Other benefits include improved process consistency (inversely, reduced process variation), reduced waste and energy consumption, and risk reduction to operators. These benefits are especially true for the automation of the aerospace paint removal (or "depaint") processes. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®) developed and implemented two systems in the early 1990s for depainting full-body fighter aircraft at Robins Air Force Base (AFB) at Warner Robins, Georgia, and Hill AFB at Ogden, Utah. These systems have been in production use, almost continuously for approximately 20 years, for the depainting of the F-15 Eagle and the F-16 Falcon fighter aircraft, respectively.
Technical Paper

A Parallel Hybrid Drivetrain

Next generation vehicles are under environmental and economic pressure to reduce emissions and increase fuel economy, while maintaining the same ride and performance characteristics of present day combustion engine automobiles. This has prompted researchers to investigate hybrid vehicles as one possible solution to this challenge. At Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), a unique parallel hybrid drivetrain was designed and prototyped. This hybrid drivetrain alleviates the disadvantages of series hybrid drivetrains by directly coupling the driving wheels to two power sources, namely an engine and an electric motor. At the same time, the design allows the engine speed to be decoupled from the vehicle speed, allowing the engine to operate at its most efficient state. This paper describes the drivetrain, its components, and the test stand that was assembled to test the parallel hybrid drivetrain.
Technical Paper

Alternative Fuels: Development of a Biodiesel B20 Purchase Description

Alternative fuels made from materials other than petroleum are available for use in alternative fueled vehicles (AFVs) and some conventional vehicles. Liquid fuels such as biodiesel could be used in U.S. Army or other Military/Federal Government compression ignition (CI) engine powered vehicles. The military combat/tactical fleet is exempt from Federal Government mandates to use alternative fueled vehicles and has adopted JP-8/JP-5 jet fuel as the primary military fuel. The Army non-tactical fleet and other Federal nonexempt CI engine powered vehicles are possible candidates for using biodiesel. Inclusion of biodiesel as an alternative fuel qualifying for alternative fueled vehicle credits for fleets required to meet AFV requirements has allowed for its use at 20 (minimum) percent biodiesel in petroleum diesel fuel. Alternative fuels are being considered for the 21st Century Truck (21T) program. [1]
Journal Article

An Efficient, Durable Vocational Truck Gasoline Engine

This paper describes the potential for the use of Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) in a gasoline powered medium truck engine. The project goal was to determine if it is possible to match the thermal efficiency of a medium-duty diesel engine in Class 4 to Class 7 truck operations. The project evaluated a range of parameters for a D-EGR engine, including displacement, operating speed range, boosting systems, and BMEP levels. The engine simulation was done in GT-POWER, guided by experimental experience with smaller size D-EGR engines. The resulting engine fuel consumption maps were applied to two vehicle models, which ran over a range of 8 duty cycles at 3 payloads. This allowed a thorough evaluation of how D-EGR and conventional gasoline engines compare in fuel consumption and thermal efficiency to a diesel. The project results show that D-EGR gasoline engines can compete with medium duty diesel engines in terms of both thermal efficiency and GHG emissions.
Technical Paper

Analysis For A Parallel Four-Wheel Propane Electric Hybrid Vehicle

This paper analyzes the hybridization of a conventionally powered light duty front wheel drive pick up truck by adding an electric motor driven rear axle. Also studied are the effects of using propane fuel instead of gasoline. This hybrid powertrain configuration can be described as a parallel hybrid electric vehicle. Supervisory power management control has been developed to best determine the proportion of load to be provided by the engine and/or electric motor. To perform these analyses, a simulation tool (computer model of the powertrain components) was developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK'. The models account for the thermal and mechanical efficiencies of the components and are designed to develop control strategies for meeting road loads with improved fuel economy and reduced emissions. Results of this study have shown that fuel economy can be improved and emissions reduced using commercially available components (motor, rear axle, and lead acid batteries).
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Hybrid Multi-Mode Hydromechanical Transmission

A multi-mode hybrid hydromechanical transmission (HMT) with infinite variability is designed to meet the power transmission needs of medium duty on- and off-road vehicles. A hydraulic pump-motor assembly provides output speed and torque variability in an input coupled split power configuration. Dual planetary arrangements with two multiplate clutches allow multi-mode ratio change and combination of power from the mechanical and variable branches of the power path. Hydraulic accumulators offer hydraulic power assist during launch conditions and storage of reclaimed energy during braking events. Transmission kinematic, force and power flow analyses will be developed for the HMT and analyzed for suitability in a bus application. The resulting benefits and areas for improvement will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Application of On-Highway Emissions Technology to a Backhoe

Recent legislation, including the California Clean Air Act of 1988 and the Federal Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, includes off-road engines, equipment, and vehicles as targets for new exhaust emissions regulations. The Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District in cooperation with EXXON USA is conducting a major Low NOx Demonstration Program including mobile sources, construction equipment, and offshore equipment. As a part of this program, an existing backhoe has been retrofitted with a low NOx engine and demonstrated in the field. This paper discusses the work performed to allow Case model 580 backhoes to be retrofitted with Cummins 4BTAA3.9 on-highway turbocharged diesel engines. A standard production conversion kit can be used to mount the new engines in place of the older existing JI Case engines in some models while other newer models already have 4B3.9 engines. In addition, an air-to-air aftercooler and associated plumbing was designed and installed.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Technology Readiness Level of a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for Use on International Space Station

When technologies are traded for incorporation into vehicle systems to support a specific mission scenario, they are often assessed in terms of “Technology Readiness Level” (TRL). TRL is based on three major categories of Core Technology Components, Ancillary Hardware and System Maturity, and Control and Control Integration. This paper describes the Technology Readiness Level assessment of the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on the International Space Station. A team comprising of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Southwest Research Institute and Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International have been working on various aspects of the CRA to bring its TRL from 4/5 up to 6. This paper describes the work currently being done in the three major categories. Specific details are given on technology development of the Core Technology Components including the reactor, phase separator and CO2 compressor.
Technical Paper

Automated Planning and Resource Management in an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

The Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is a fully automated robot submarine that is capable of maintaining a set of electronic sensors under the polar icecap. This function is primarily an issue of automated planning. The AUV is driven by three independent, and often conflicting, goals. These are mission, survival, and covertness. The plan that must be generated is essentially a route to achieve a mission that is acceptable to all three goals. The conflicting goals are implemented as independent expert systems that place constraints on the route taken. A higher level arbiter is used to help resolve conflicts in the situations where restraints posed by the independent goals preclude any solution being found.
Technical Paper

CO2 Pump for the Space Station Advanced Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem

The current operation of the International Space Station (ISS) calls for the oxygen used by the occupants to be vented overboard in the form of CO2, after the CO2 is scrubbed from the cabin air. Likewise, H2 produced via electrolysis in the oxygen generator is also vented. NASA is investigating the use of the Sabatier process to combine these two product streams to form water and methane. The water is then used in the oxygen generator, thereby conserving this valuable resource. One of the technical challenges to developing the Sabatier reactor is transferring CO2 from the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) to the Sabatier reactor at the required rate, even though the CDRA and the Sabatier reactor operate on different schedules. One possible way to transfer and store CO2 is to use a mechanical compressor and a storage tank.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Snowmobile Particulate Emissions

The primary goal of this project was to characterize particulate emissions from a snowmobile engine through measurement of particulate matter volatile organic fraction (VOF), particle size, and biological activity. Emissions were evaluated using both a mineral oil and a biosynthetic oil. Basic criteria pollutants were also measured from diluted exhaust using conventional techniques. Particulate matter volatile organic fraction was determined using a gas chromatographic method (DFI/GC). Particle size was characterized using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and particulate matter biological activity was measured using a modification of the Ames bioassay procedure. Results revealed that more than 99 percent of the particles were ultrafine (Dp<100nm), with a peak concentration in the nanoparticle (Dp<50nm) size range. It was also observed that the use of a biosynthetic lubricant increased both volatile and total PM mass emissions compared to the mineral lubricant.
Technical Paper

Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Exhaust Emissions, Including Toxic Air Contaminants, from School Buses in Compressed Natural Gas, Low Emitting Diesel, and Conventional Diesel Engine Configurations

In the United States, most school buses are powered by diesel engines. Some have advocated replacing diesel school buses with natural gas school buses, but little research has been conducted to understand the emissions from school bus engines. This work provides a detailed characterization of exhaust emissions from school buses using a diesel engine meeting 1998 emission standards, a low emitting diesel engine with an advanced engine calibration and a catalyzed particulate filter, and a natural gas engine without catalyst. All three bus configurations were tested over the same cycle, test weight, and road load settings. Twenty-one of the 41 “toxic air contaminants” (TACs) listed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as being present in diesel exhaust were not found in the exhaust of any of the three bus configurations, even though special sampling provisions were utilized to detect low levels of TACs.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Hydrocarbon Measurement with FTIR and FID in a Dual Fuel Locomotive Engine

Exhaust emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and methane were measured from a Tier 3 dual-fuel demonstration locomotive running diesel-natural gas blend. Measurements were performed with the typical flame ionization detector (FID) method in accordance with EPA CFR Title 40 Part 1065 and with an alternative Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy method. Measurements were performed with and without oxidation catalyst exhaust aftertreatment. FTIR may have potential for improved accuracy over the FID when NMHC is dominated by light hydrocarbons. In the dual fuel tests, the FTIR measurement was 1-4% higher than the FID measurement of. NMHC results between the two methods differed considerably, in some cases reporting concentrations as much as four times those of the FID. However, in comparing these data it is important to note that the FTIR method has several advantages over the FID method, so the differences do not necessarily represent error in the FTIR.
Technical Paper

Compatibility of Elastomers and Metals in Biodiesel Fuel Blends

Alternative fuels are being evaluated in automotive applications in both commercial and government fleets in an effort to reduce emissions and United States dependence on diesel fuel. Vehicles and equipment have been operated using 100 percent biodiesel and various blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel in a variety of applications, including farming equipment and transit buses. This government study investigates the compatibility of four base fuels and six blends with elastomer and metallic components commonly found in fuel systems. The physical properties of the elastomers were measured according to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 471, “Standard Test Method for Rubber Property-Effect of Liquids,” and ASTM D 412, “Standard Test Methods for Rubber Properties in Tension.” These evaluations were performed at 51.7°C for 0, 22, 70, and 694 hours. Tensile strength, hardness, swell, and elongation were determined for all specimens.
Technical Paper

Connected Commercial Vehicles

While initial Connected Vehicle research in the United States was focusing almost exclusively on passenger vehicles, a program was envisioned that would enhance highway safety, mobility, and operational efficiencies through the application of the technology to commercial vehicles. This program was realized in 2009 by funding from the I-95 Corridor Coalition, led by the New York State Department of Transportation, and called the Commercial Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (CVII) program. The CVII program focuses on developing, testing and deploying Connected Vehicle technology for heavy vehicles. Since its inception, the CVII program has developed numerous Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure applications for trucks that leverage communication with roadside infrastructure and other light and heavy duty vehicles to meet the objectives of the program.
Technical Paper

Control System Development for Retrofit Automated Manual Transmissions

For transmission suppliers tooled primarily for producing manual transmissions, retrofitting a manual transmission with actuators and a controller is business viable. It offers a low cost convenience for the consumer without losing fuel economy when compared to torque converter type automatics. For heavy duty truck fleets even the estimated 3% gain in fuel economy that the Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) offers over the manual transmission can result in lower operational costs. This paper provides a case study using a light duty transmission retrofitted with electric actuation for gears and the clutch. A high level description of the control algorithms and hardware is included. Clutch control is the most significant component of the AMT controller and it is addressed in detail during operations such as vehicle launch from rest, launch from coast and launch on grades.