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Technical Paper

A Bench Test Facility for Engine Muffler Evaluation

The problem associated with laboratory evaluation of muffler acoustical characteristics are complicated both by the acoustical considerations involved in obtaining an adequate noise source and by the ambiguities involved in defining what constitutes quality in a muffler built for general application. In order to quantitatively define the characteristics of quality mufflers, an extensive series of field tests were conducted on a variety of sizes and types of mufflers in conjunction with four engine configurations. Work then turned to the development of a wide band siren noise source and acoustical test system which would simulate the high impedance character of an engine exhaust noise source, and in addition generate the necessary intensity and spectral characteristics required to obtain test data over the range of noise conditions encountered in the field.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Variable Experimental Study of Diesel Geartrain Rattle

Geartrain noise can be a significant contribution to the overall sound level of diesel engines. Some engine manufacturers employ isolation solutions such as sound deadening covers and foam panels to combat the problem, but these add cost. Little has been published on geartrain noise reduction, and public standards for diesel geartrain design and development are not available. This paper describes an experimental study of the relative influence of gear design parameters on the rattle noise of a diesel engine timing geartrain. The geartrains of several diesel engines were benchmarked to determine the noise reduction strategies employed. A total of three gear sets were designed and tested in a 3.3L four cylinder normally aspirated diesel engine. The experimentation quantified the influence of an anti backlash idler gear in reducing gear rattle noise, and revealed that a key path for gear rattle noise transmission is through an idler gear journal bearing shaft.
Technical Paper

Advanced Nondestructive Testing Methods for Bearing Inspection

The principles of the magnetic-perturbation method of flaw detection and the Barkhausen noise residual stress measurement method are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that they provide very powerful tools for assuring improved ball bearing performance. The methods are applied for the evaluation of ball bearing races. Typical experimental results are presented along with metallurgical sectioning correlation.
Technical Paper

Cam/Roller Component Fatigue Reliability Analysis

Life prediction and reliability analysis of a cam roller system were investigated. From the tribological analysis, the cam roller system was found to operate under low film parameter conditions and components were subjected to the risk of contact fatigue. Surface analysis performed on the failed rollers indicated that the surface distress was the primary cause for failure. Then, numerical analyses were performed to evaluate the cam roller life and its related reliability. The adopted approach combined a contact fatigue crack growth calculations with a probabilistic model for controlling the design uncertainty. The computation-efficient Fast Probabilistic Integration (FPI™) code was used to solve the problem. With appropriate descriptions for uncertainty distributions, the surface fatigue life of the specified cam roller system can be predicted along with a confident reliability level.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converter Mat Material Durability Measurement Under Controlled Thermal and Vibration Environments

To aid in the catalytic converter design and development process, a test apparatus was designed and built which will allow comparative evaluation of the durability of candidate mat materials under highly controlled thermal and vibration environments. The apparatus directly controls relative shear deflection between the substrate and can to impose known levels of mat material strain while recording the transmitted shear force across the mat material. Substrate and can temperatures are controlled at constant levels using a resistive thermal exposure (RTE) technique. Mat material fatigue after several million cycles is evident by a substantial decrease in the transmitted force. A fragility test was found to be an excellent method to quickly compare candidate materials to be used for a specific application. Examples of test results from several materials are given to show the utility of the mat material evaluation technique.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converter Vibration Measurement Under Dynamometer Simulated Roadloads

In order to further reduce vehicle cold-start emissions, the use of catalytic converters that are “close-coupled” to the exhaust manifold is increasing. To understand the vibrational environment of close-coupled and underbody converters, a laboratory study was conducted on several passenger vehicles. Catalytic converter vibration spectra were measured on a chassis dynamometer with the vehicle operating over a variety of test conditions. Vehicle operating conditions included hard accelerations and extended steady-state speeds at distinct throttle positions over zero-percent and four-percent simulated road grades.
Technical Paper

Combined Fuel and Lubricant Effects on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

Many studies on low speed pre-ignition have been published to investigate the impact of fuel properties and of lubricant properties. Fuels with high aromatic content or higher distillation temperatures have been shown to increase LSPI activity. The results have also shown that oil additives such as calcium sulfonate tend to increase the occurrence of LSPI while others such as magnesium sulfonate tend to decrease the occurrence. Very few studies have varied the fuel and oil properties at the same time. This approach is useful in isolating only the impact of the oil or the fuel, but both fluids impact the LSPI behavior of the engine simultaneously. To understand how the lubricant and fuel impacts on LSPI interact, a series of LSPI tests were performed with a matrix which combined fuels and lubricants with a range of LSPI activity. This study was intended to determine if a low activity lubricant could suppress the increased LSPI from a high activity fuel, and vice versa.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion Mode Switching - A Substantial NVH Challenge

Tier 2, bin 5 diesel engines may use multiple combustion modes to achieve stringent emissions requirements. Unfortunately, switching between different combustion modes can cause step changes in noise that will be unacceptable to consumers. In this paper, several sound quality metrics are evaluated for their ability to quantify the NVH issues that arise during a rich pulse event. In addition, techniques are presented that allow an engine developer to reduce the NVH effects caused by changing combustion modes. Careful calibration tuning in close cooperation with performance and emissions development engineers is required to solve noise problems that arise from combustion mode switching events, since an NVH improvement may often come at the expense of a performance or emissions issue.
Training / Education

Diesel Engine Noise Control Web Seminar RePlay

This web seminar provides an in-depth overview of diesel engine noise including combustion and mechanical noise sources. In addition, the instructor will discuss a system approach to automotive integration including combining sub-systems and components to achieve overall vehicle noise and vibration goals.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Compatibility in the Off-Highway Vehicle Part III: Electromagnetic Emissions (EME)

Electromagnetic emissions (EME) from vehicles and their effect on broadcast radio and television were studied as early as 1944. Their original effect was significantly reduced by the early 1960s. Today, ignition noise (broadband) and vehicular micro-processor-controlled system noise (narrowband) are interfering with Land Mobile (two-way) communication services and other devices such as computers. Two SAE test methods, J551 and J1816, are used to measure this EME. Under development are methods to measure conducted EME on vehicle signal wiring and power input leads. This paper discusses EME measurement methods, provides insight into the sources of EME problems, and gives information on the test instrumentation used to make these measurements. This paper is the third in a series of papers on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in the off-highway vehicle. The first paper was an overview of a complete EMC program with discussion of several important segments.
Technical Paper

Interior Noise Source/Path Identification Technology

Excessive interior noise and vibration in propeller driven general aviation aircraft can result in poor pilot communications with ground control personnel and passengers, and, during extended flights, can lead to pilot and passenger fatigue. Noise source/path identification technology applicable to single engine propeller driven aircraft were employed to identify interior noise sources originating from structure-borne engine/propeller vibration, airborne propeller transmission, airborne engine exhaust noise, and engine case radiation. The approach taken was first to conduct a Principal Value Analysis (PVA) of an in-flight noise and vibration database acquired on a single engine aircraft to obtain a correlated data set as viewed by a fixed set of cabin microphones.
Technical Paper

Noise Benchmarking of the Detroit Diesel DD15 Engine

Several new or significantly upgraded heavy duty truck engines are being introduced in the North American market. One important aspect of these new or revised engines is their noise characteristics. This paper describes the noise related characteristics of the new DD15 engine, and compares them to other competitive heavy truck engines. DD15 engine features relevant to noise include a rear gear train, isolated oil pan and valve cover, and an amplified high pressure common rail fuel system. The transition between non-amplified and amplified common rail operation is shown to have a significant noise impact, not unlike the transition between pilot injection and single shot injection in some other engines.
Technical Paper

Noise Reduction Techniques as They Apply to Engine-Generator Design and Treatment

Small engines may require soundproofing to eliminate one or more of the following effects: hearing loss, speech interference, community annoyance, detectability, and psychological disorientation. Detectability criteria are frequently associated with military applications and may require the use of a soundproof enclosure in addition to other engine treatments. Acoustical noise sources are conveniently classed as either aerodynamic or mechanical. Aerodynamic sources are predominant on small engines. Treatment of exhaust noise by individual components, e.g., muffler, is inadequate; a system approach, through the use of an electro-acoustic analog computer, has proved to be a much more satisfactory procedure.
Technical Paper

System Component Coupling for Structure Borne Noise Isolation Studies

Control of structure borne noise transmission into an aircraft cabin generated from component excitation, such as rotor/engine vibration imbalance or firing excitations or from auxiliary equipment induced vibrations, can be studied empirically via impedance characterization of the system components and application of appropriate component coupling procedures. The present study was aimed at demonstrating the usefulness of such impedance modeling techniques as applied to a Bell 206B rotorcraft and a Cessna TR182 general aviation aircraft. Simulated rotor/engine excitations were applied to the assembled aircraft systems to provide baseline structure borne noise transmission data. Thereafter, impedance tests of the system components were carried out to provide a data base from which system component coupling studies were carried out.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Environmental Aging on Intumescent Mat Material Durability at Low Temperatures

Mat material durability data in the form of fragility curves were generated in a critical temperature region for three intumescent mat materials considered for low temperature converter applications. The mat materials were tested in a tourniquet wrap converter configuration employing a cylindrical ceramic substrate. Prior to developing durability data for these mat materials, the test items were subjected to various environmental thermal and/or vibration aging conditions. Mat material fragility data were generated in terms of the dynamic force required to impose prescribed differential motion between the can and substrate, thereby, subjecting the mat material to a dynamic shearing like that expected during resonant excitation. As expected, it was found that the mat material capacity to resist shearing deformation decreased when the test samples were subjected to 36 hours of low temperature thermal cyclic aging.
Journal Article

The Impact of Lubricant Volatility, Viscosity and Detergent Chemistry on Low Speed Pre-Ignition Behavior

The impact of additive and oil chemistry on low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) was evaluated. An additive metals matrix varied the levels of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), calcium sulfonate, and molybdenum within the range of commercially available engine lubricants. A separate test matrix varied the detergent chemistry (calcium vs. magnesium), lubricant volatility, and base stock chemistry. All lubricants were evaluated on a LSPI test cycle developed by Southwest Research Institute within its Pre-Ignition Prevention Program (P3) using a GM LHU 2.0 L turbocharged GDI engine. It was observed that increasing the concentration of calcium leads to an increase in the LSPI rate. At low calcium levels, near-zero LSPI rates were observed. The addition of zinc and molybdenum additives had a negative effect on the LSPI rate; however, this was only seen at higher calcium concentrations.