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Technical Paper

Anti-Lock Brake Sensor Rings with Corrosion and Chip Resistance

As the social aaareness of the need for greater automobile safety has risen, autonolive parts manufacturers have focused a lot of new research and development to aulomotive brake systems. Aith the much rapid advances and steady cost reductions in microelectronics technology, highly reliable, electronically controlled lour-thee1 antilock brake systems (ABS) are beginning to gain broad acceptance. Horever, wide acceptance of ABS depends upon the system and having superior performance, and high reliability at an affordable price. The toothed wheels (sensor rings) used for measuring the wheel velocity in the ABS require high precision in the pitch error of the teeth and specific magnetic properties in order to accurately detect wheel velocity, which is the first signal for brake control. Moreover, as these sensor rings are located close to the wheel, they require increased corrosion resistance ability higher than any other automotive parts.
Journal Article

Development of Aluminum Wire for Low-Voltage Automotive Wiring Harnesses

From the viewpoint of reducing the environmental impacts by automobile emission, improving fuel efficiency is essential. That is why automobiles need to be lightened. However, more and more electrical systems have been necessary in an automobile to ensure safety and comfort. With the increase in the number of electrical systems, the weight of Electrical Distribution System (EDS) also has become increased. In order to reduce the weight of EDS, it was decided to evaluate a change of material from copper to aluminum. In fact, aluminum wires have been used for high-voltage wires, but they have almost never been used for low-voltage wires. SUMITOMO ELECTRIC GROUP developed an aluminum wire that is available for low-voltage wire harnesses and started mass production of the wire from October 2010. In this paper, I'm reporting mainly on our development of a new aluminum alloy that can be used for aluminum wires.
Journal Article

Development of High Strength Aluminum Wires for Low-Voltage Automotive Wiring Harnesses

The weight of wire harnesses increases with the growing number of systems used in the vehicle in recent years. For the purpose of reducing the weight of wire harnesses, aluminum instead of the conventional copper is getting popular as a wire conductor. The conventional Al wire, however, is not able to be used for small gauge wires such as the sizes of 0.35mm2 and 0.5mm2 and wires used in the engine compartment due to its insufficient conductor strength. For this reason, we tried to develop a stronger aluminum alloy that has conductor strength equivalent to or stronger than that of copper. For the first time in the industry, we have successfully developed a high-strength aluminum alloy wire. Starting with the application of 0.35mm2 wire for engine wire harnesses, we began mass production in April 2015. This paper reports the development of high-strength aluminum alloy that can be used for small gauge wires and wires used in the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

Development of High Strength Si3N4 Sintered Body for the Valve Systems of Automotive Engines

The high reliability silicon nitride sintered body and the mirror finish grinding machining technique have been developed, which improved fuel efficiency by reducing weight and friction loss of the valve systems. This ceramics, consists of finer grains (mean grain size:1-3μm) has high strength (σ 3b=1600MPa) and high Weibull modulus (m>20). In the case of motoring test by using this ceramics as the cam follower of the valve systems, it has a durability of more than 10,000rpm., which is approx. 30% higher than that of conventional silicone nitride, against the impact load to which the cam followers were subjected at occurrence of valve bouncing.
Technical Paper

Development of Remote Control Unit for Car Navigation System

We developed a remote control unit (Hereinafter referred to as the controller) employing mainly an eight-directional joystick with push-button function. And it has good operational feeling. As previous joysticks generated operator feeling via springs, so the click sensation could not be felt. We thought that a good click feeling can be obtained by applying rubber contacts to the switch element of the joystick. Additionally, in order to include the push-button functions, we supported the operant unit with biaxial bearing and employed a sliding-knob structure penetrating this operant unit. Also in order to obtain a uniform operator feeling for all eight directions, we applied eight rubber contacts and gave the switches eight contacts. In order to restrain the rise in IC costs with the increase to eight contacts, we introduced an eight-contact four- output switch matrix and a one-contact three-electrode pattern.
Technical Paper

Development of a Drill Bit for CFRP/Aluminum-Alloy Stack: To Improve Flexibility, Economical Efficiency and Work Environment

In the expansion of composite material application, it is one of the most important subjects in assembly of aircraft structure how drilling of composite/metal stack should be processed in an efficient way. This paper will show the result of development of a drill bit for CFRP/Aluminum-alloy stack by Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) and Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal (SEH). In order to improve workability and economic performance, the drill bit which enables drilling CFRP/Al-alloy stack: at 1 shot; from both directions; without air blow and coolant (just usual vacuuming); was required. A best mix drill bit which has smooth multi angles edge and pointed finishing edge was produced as a result of some trials. Developed drill bit achieved required performance and contributed to large cost reduction, labor hour saving, production speed increase and work environment improvement.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method to Predict Fatigue Failure Life of Junction Block Bracket Using CAE

With the rapid advances in electronic control within automobiles, the junction block (J/B), primarily used for electrical transmission and electrical wiring, has begun to house electronic control units. It is evolving into an active component with smart functions that also controls vehicle devices, at the core of the wiring harness. We have developed a method using CAE to predict the fatigue failure life of J/B brackets for use as a design-assist tool in the early stage of J/B development. Failure of J/B brackets starts with the repetitive stress generated in the brackets during resonance. This stress is maximum at primary natural vibration which is the lowest frequency during resonance. By accurately estimating the above-mentioned stresses using CAE, we established a method to determine the number of vibrations at which fatigue failure of the J/B bracket would occur (fatigue failure life) from the fatigue failure life characteristics of the material.
Technical Paper

Electronic Control Unit of the Sumitomo Electronic Antilock System

The first SUMITOMO ELECTRONIC ANTILOCK SYSTEM (ALS), a 4-Sensor 3-Channel System for sophisticated FWD vehicles, has been in production since 1987. Further developments have lead to systems suitable for 4W vehicles and compact cars, showing increased control quality and reduced size, weight and production cost. Reliability, one of the major targets in the development of the First system's Electronic Control Unit (ECU) since 1982, was successfully achieved. Recent work has been geared toward reducing the size and production cost of ECU hardware, whilst maintaining the system's reliability. This paper describes the basic design of the current 1987 ECU and further details developments of the hardware.
Technical Paper

Fiber-Optic Data Link for Vehicle Navigation

Fiber-optic data links have been developed for use in vehicle navigation systems, especially for the communication of CD data. The links consist of transmitters, receivers, and cable assemblies. The transmitters, which include only LEDs, must have driver circuits on their exteriors. In the receiver section, a PD, an amplifier, and a TTL compatible comparator are all integrated into the custom designed IC which is hermetically sealed into an originally developed metal package. Small optical connectors and heat-resistant plastic fiber cords with sufficient reliability and good operability for automotive uses have also been developed.
Technical Paper

Friction Characteristics Evaluation of Carbon/Carbon Composite Produced by Carbon Powder Sintering Method

We have developed a new Carbon/Carbon composite (C/C) manufacturing process called the “Carbon Powder Sintering Method [1] (C.P.S.M.)”. This study was conducted to evaluate the friction characteristics of C/C manufactured by the C.P.S.M. as compared with C/C manufactured by conventional methods using a dynamometer. In general, C/C shows a high friction coefficient at a high temperature, but shows a low friction coefficient at room temperature. There is a transition temperature point between both friction coefficients. As a result of this study, it was found that the transition temperature of the C.P.S.M. C/C is lower than for any other conventional C/C.
Technical Paper

High Performance P/M Stainless Steel for ABS Sensor Application

ABS sensor rings for automotive use are becoming smaller and thinner because of the demand for low cost and light weight. Such small thin parts are easier to break as they must withstand the same severe conditions as larger heavier parts. Superior elongation properties, after corrosion testing, are necessary for avoiding breakage and to obtain superior corrosion resistance. We have, therefore, developed such high performance P/M stainless steel with superior elongation and corrosion resistance. Conventional stainless steel has uniform pores on its inner surface which makes allows water penetration thus making corrosion worse and decreasing elongation. It is possible to increase corrosion resistance by changing pore structure (e.g. decrease continual pores) through the addition of special alloys that accelerate the sintering process.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Machining of Titanium by New PCD Tools

The paper deals with the end-milling machinability of α-β titanium alloy (Ti-6AI-4V alloy) by new PCD (Polycrystal-line Diamond) cutting tools at high cutting speeds in order to develop a new technology for a high productivity titanium finishing. The main focus of this paper is on investigating the relationships among cutting conditions, PCD tool materials, and tool wear. It was found that the edge engagement time of cutting tools with titanium workpiece has a great effect on PCD tool wear. Compared to cemented carbide tools, PCD tools have a longer tool life, especially at higher cutting speeds. The geometric shape of cutting edges and tool material greatly influences the performance of PCD tools in cutting titanium alloy.
Technical Paper

Joining of Si3 N4 Turbine Rotor and Metal Shaft

The joining process of silicon nitride (S13N4) turbine rotor and steel metal shaft was investigated. The process consists of brazing procedures with multi-layer metallizing and complementary steps involving shrink fitting and non-destructive tests. In the course of the brazing steps, preliminary investigations using small specimens were conducted on the formation of a highly strengthened interface at high temperature and thermal stress reduction, and superior high temperature strength and heat cycle resistance were obtained. Rotary tests at high temperature were successfully completed using the rotor joined by this process.
Technical Paper

Lubrication Pump Made of Rapidly Solidified Aluminum Alloy for High Performance Engine

An internal gear-type pump has advantages compared with an external involute gear-type pump, for example, higher mechanical or volumetric efficiency, considerable reduction of weight and dimension in the oil-pump system[1]. This paper presents characteristics of the internal gear type rotors with a modified trochoidal profile in the oil-pump system, and new P/M(Powder Metallurgy) aluminum alloys which satisfy required wear properties as the lubrication oil-pump rotors. Also, the advantage of high volumetric efficiency and discharge performance and excellent properties of the oil-pump rotor with a modified trochoid profile were combined with a R/S (Rapidly Solidified) aluminum alloy in the scavenging pump for racing car engine. Good results without wear or damage after an actual race are also reported.
Technical Paper

Rotary Car Air Conditioner Made with P/M Al-Si Wrought Alloys

We have developed new P/M Al-Si wrought alloys having high strength and high wear resistance for use in the rotors and vanes of rotary car air conditioners. In addition, combined with the development of near-net-shape extrusion technologies, through a joint project with Diesel Kiki Co.,Ltd., we have succeeded in the world's first mass production of rotors made of P/M aluminum wrought alloy. In this paper, the properties and production technology of vanes and rotors made with new P/M Al-Si wrought alloys are presented.
Technical Paper

The Development of P/M Complicated Shape Helical Gears

Recently, powder metal parts have been used in a lot of automobiles. One typical powder metal part is a helical gear. Compacting helical gears is much different from conventional compacting, because a part of the tool rotates on its own axis. The important points are as follows: (1) how to guide the upper punch into a die smoothly and to fit in it, (2) how to rotate the die/punch smoothly in order that the part of gear trains may not be broken by twisting stress during pressing process and (3) how to prevent green compacts from having crack/lamination. The larger the helix angle, the more difficult its compacting. The compacting of complicated shapes such as helical gears with an irregular shape or another helical gear is more difficult. Powder metal helical gears are produced because powder metal is suitable for mass production at low cost. Most powder metal helical gears are simple shapes such as helical gears only outside or inside.
Technical Paper

Valve Spring with High Fatigue Resistance for Automotive Engine

Recently, SiCr clean steel wire for springs on automotive engine valves has been developed. This report describes the characteristics of valve springs subjected to a new manufacturing process using SiCr clean steel wire. The process developed by the authors is as follows: First, form a helical spring with SiCr clean steel wire. Next, quench using the distortion preventing technic --Marquenching--. Temper at a temperature lower than the conventional temperature. Shot peen to the surface layer of the spring. And lastly, polish electrolytically to remove micro surface defects formed through shot peening. Using this new manufacturing process, a valve spring with high fatigue resistance can be produced. At the test stress of 588MPa(τm)±490MPa (τa), the number of cycles to fracture was above 100 million, while the number of cycles to fracture was 4 million using the conventional process with the SiCr clean steel which has the best fatigue resistance for commercial use.