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Technical Paper

1D Simulation Accuracy Enhancement for Predicting Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2019-01-09
2019-26-0298
In today’s competitive scenario, the automotive product life cycle has drastically reduced and all Auto OEM’s are coming up with their updated products with lesser development time. These frequent product upgrades are possible due to use of various digital tools during product design and development. Design and optimization of engine coolpack (powertrain cooling unit) to attain engine cooling performance is one of the important parameter during vehicle development or upgrade. Hence, to keep control over development cost and time of delivery, quick and accurate digital validation capability like one dimensional (1D) simulation is the need of the hour. To predict the powertrain cooling (PTC) performance at vehicle concept stage, when physical prototypes are not available, airflow data from similar developed platforms is considered as an input for 1D simulation.
Technical Paper

A Method To Evaluate Passenger Thermal Comfort In Automobile Air Conditioning Systems

2017-01-10
2017-26-0150
In present day passenger cars, Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) system is one of the essential features due to rise in overall ambient temperatures and comfort expectation of customers. During the development of MAC system, the focus is on cooling capacity of system for maintaining in-cabin temperatures. However, parameters like solar radiation, air velocities at occupant, relative humidity, metabolic rate and clothing of occupants also influence occupant’s thermal comfort and normally not considered in design of the MAC system. Subjective method is used to evaluate thermal comfort inside vehicle cabin which depends mainly on human psychology. To better understand the effect and minimize the human psychological factors a large sample of people are required. That process of evaluating the comfort inside the vehicle cabin is not only time consuming but also impractical.
Technical Paper

A Method to Evaluate Impact of Power Steering on Fuel Economy and Optimization

2019-01-09
2019-26-0309
Vehicle manufacturers strive hard to achieve best in class fuel economy. Apart from light weighting of the structures, driveline optimization and reduction of tire rolling resistance, tapping of parasitic losses is also important and helps to optimize the design of auxiliary power consuming systems. One of such system studied in this work is power steering system. The effect of parasitic losses on fuel economy is predominant for small commercial vehicle compare to heavy vehicles. The evaluation of deterioration in the fuel economy due to implementation of power steering system on one of the small commercial vehicle is carried out using multiple virtual simulation tools. Virtual route profile is modelled using longitude, latitude and altitude data captured through GPS and steering duty cycle is mapped in terms of steering rotation angle. A system level model of hydraulic power steering system is developed.
Technical Paper

A Novel Technique to Establish Various Important Characteristic to Analyze Complete Hydraulic Power Steering System using Model Based Design Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0259
Steering system deliver a precise directional control to the vehicle chassis and ensure the safe driving at all maneuvers. Hydraulic power assisted system (HPAS) helps drivers to steer by boosting steering assistance of the steering wheel while retaining the road feel. HPAS performance is associated with the design characteristics of rotary valve, steering, suspension, kinematics, brake, tire, vehicle speed and load transfer. Thus a detailed power steering system model is absolutely necessary to evaluate and optimize the performance characteristics. However, many components of HPAS system are proprietary in nature so it is very challenging to get component characteristic of each sub-system for the complete power steering system model. Hence, it is very important to establish a technique to extract all such influencing characteristics with available test facility.
Technical Paper

A Robust Solution for a Power-Train Mounting System for Automotive NVH Refinements

2015-01-14
2015-26-0140
Production variations of a heavy duty truck for its vibrations were measured and then analyzed through an Ishikawa diagram. Noise and Control factors of the truck idle shake were indentified. The major cause was found to be piece to piece variations of its power-train (PT) rubber mounts. To overcome the same, a new nominal level of the mount stiffness was sought based on minimization of a cost function related to vibration transmissibility and fatigue damage of the mounts under dynamic loadings. Physical prototypes of such mounts were proved to minimize the variations of the driver's seat shake at idling among various trucks of the same design. These learning's are useful for design of various subsystems or components to refine the full vehicle-Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) at the robust design level.
Technical Paper

A Unique and Novel Approach for Increasing the Life of Automotive Audio Signaling Device

2014-04-01
2014-01-0237
Automotive Audio Signaling system is very vital and is controlled by local regulatory requirements. In India, usage of horn is very frequent due to highly congested traffic conditions, and is in the order of 10 to 12 times per kilometer. This results in the deterioration of the “contact”, which enables the functioning of the device. Hence the device requires premature replacement or frequent tuning, which are time consuming and results an increase in warranty costs and cost of service as well. Thus, to overcome this problem a unique and novel approach is proposed in this paper which enhances the life of the automobile horn, by implementing an additional pair of Contacts on circuit breakers, providing a parallel path for the power supply. This effort ensures that the life of the horn is increased by 5 times than the existing design.
Technical Paper

Air Compressor Duty Cycle Reduction in Passenger Bus Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-0139
Today urban buses are equipped with more air consuming devices for an example pneumatic doors, exhaust brake, air suspension and in SCR system to name a few. This has resulted in higher air demand leading to high compressor duty cycles which cause conditions (such as higher compressor head temperatures) that may adversely affect air brake charging system performance. These conditions may require additional maintenance due to a higher amount of oil vapor droplets being passed along into the air brake system. Factors that add to the duty cycle are air suspension, additional air accessories, use of an undersized compressor, frequent stops, excessive air leakage from fittings, connections, lines, chambers or valves, etc. This paper discussed about methodology used to reduce air consumption of air consuming devices used in urban bus application. Performance assessment of air consuming devices with minimum available air pressure was conducted and found satisfactory.
Technical Paper

Air Intake System Optimization for Passenger Car Engine

2019-01-09
2019-26-0044
The customer expectations in the passenger car market are predominantly in the areas of engine/vehicle performance along with NVH refinement. In addition, continuously evolving regulatory emission and crash norms with system cost considerations bring out multiple challenges on to design engineers. One of the vehicle systems that has its footprints on all of the above requirements is the engine air intake system. In this paper, using multidisciplinary approach we discuss the impact of air intake system design of a 3-cylinder gasoline engine on different attributes of customer requirements. The primary function of the air intake system is to provide filtered air to the engine. However, this paper explains how requirements like engine performance, NVH refinement, regulatory and styling, durability, servicing and system cost are affected by intake system design parameters.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Approach to Derive Free Package Space Requirement for Pedestrian Head Form

2019-01-09
2019-26-0013
Pedestrians are a vulnerable road user group, comprising 22% of global road traffic deaths [1]. In Japan, pedestrian fatalities accounted for 28% of total road fatalities and approximately 16% in Australia. These figures compare with 13% for the USA and 40-50% for India and Thailand [2]. Various pedestrian safety requirements are mandated in different markets in recent years worldwide. For pedestrian head-form, vehicle front-end styling and the free package space below bonnet plays a vital role in deciding the pedestrian head-form safety performance. Currently during initial phase of vehicle development, the free package space requirement is decided based on benchmark data. However, the benchmarking data does not give any insight into the physics involved and is subjective in nature as it varies from vehicle to vehicle. This paper gives an analytical approach for defining the free package space requirements for meeting the targeted pedestrian head form performance requirements.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Automotive Control Pedals Ergonomics through Mathematical Modelling Based on Human Anthropometry

2017-01-10
2017-26-0252
Vehicle Ergonomics is one of the most vital factor to be considered in vehicle design and development, as the customer wants a comfortable and performance oriented vehicle. An uncomfortable driving posture can lead to painful driving experiences for longer hauls. The control pedals viz. Accelerator, Brake and clutch pedal (ABC Pedals), are the most frequently used parts in the vehicle, their proper positioning with respect to human anthropology is of prime importance, from driver comfort viewpoint. The methodology currently used for optimizing ergonomics with respect to the positioning of pedals in a vehicle included; measuring anthropometric angles manually with the help of H-Point Machine, subjective jury analysis and through software like RAMSIS, JACK, etc. Manual measurement doesn’t give the flexibility of iterations for optimization. The subjective analysis is based on insinuations thereby, cannot be standardized.
Technical Paper

Analytical Estimation of Clutch Life for Manual Transmission

2019-04-02
2019-01-0335
The clutch is the connecting link between engine and the power train. It connects and disconnects the engine to the gearbox as per the wish of the driver. Clutch has a friction disc which acts like a fuse wire which wears in the process of the connection. This paper tries to calculate the clutch life analytically (In terms of Kms. run by vehicle), of automotive vehicles having manual transmission. As the clutch engages and disengages the engine to the gearbox, during this time due to slippage, energy is dissipated which results in the wear of the clutch disc. It calculates life based on the volumetric wear of the clutch disc and wear allowance available. The work done by other people in this domain include the empirical estimation of clutch life based on the past data, effect of the surface topography on the friction characteristics of the wet clutches, modeling of clutch housing and facing temperature for the estimation of the clutch life of a manual transmission etc.
Technical Paper

Body Block FE Model Development and Correlation with Physical Tests

2017-01-10
2017-26-0293
Steering column and steering wheel are critical safety components in vehicle interior environment. Steering system needs to be designed to absorb occupant impact energy in the event of crash thereby reducing the risk of injury to the occupant. This is more critical for non-airbag vehicle versions. To evaluate the steering system performance, Body block impact test is defined in IS11939 standard [1]. Nowadays for product development, CAE is being extensively used to reduce development cycle time and minimize number of prototypes required for physical validation. In order to design the steering system to meet the Body Block performance requirements, a detailed FE model of Body Block impactor is required. The static stiffness and moment of inertia of body block are defined in SAE J244a [2]. The reference data available in SAE J244a is not sufficient to develop a Body Block model that would represent the physical impactor.
Technical Paper

CAE Based Head Form Impact Simulations for Development of Vehicle Interiors

2019-01-09
2019-26-0237
The interior components of a passenger vehicle are designed to provide comfort and safety to its occupants. In the event of accident, vehicle interiors are primary source of injuries when occupants interact with them. Vehicle interiors consists of Instrument panel (IP), center console, seats and controls in front of seating position etc. Severity of the injuries depends on the energy dissipating characteristics, profiles, projections of different interior components. These are assessed by ECE R21 and IS12553 head form impact tests. To evaluate the Head form impact performance on Interior components, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulations are extensively used during the vehicle development. In order to predict failure of plastic components and snap joints which might lead to expose sharp edges, it is critical to model plastic material and snap joint.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetics Modelling of Exhaust After-Treatment System: A One Dimensional Simulation Approach

2019-01-09
2019-26-0249
The Indian automotive industry has taken a big leap towards stringent Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission standards by year 2020. A digital driven design and development focusing on innovative and commercially viable technologies for combustion and exhaust after-treatment system is the need of the time. One-dimensional (1D) simulation serves as a best alternative to its counterparts in terms of obtaining faster and accurate results, which makes it an ideal tool for carrying out optimization studies at system level. In this work, 1D chemical kinetics modelling and analysis of exhaust after-treatment system (EAT) for a heavy-duty diesel has been performed using GT-Power. Initially, a single site 1D model for a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) has been developed and then, a two-site, 1D model for a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was also developed based on reactor data.
Technical Paper

Comparative Manufacturing and Ownership Cost Estimates for Secondary Loop Mobile Air Conditioning Systems (SL-MACs)

2017-03-28
2017-01-0173
This paper quantifies and compares the cooling performance and refrigerant and fuel cost savings to automobile manufacturers and owners of secondary-loop mobile air conditioners (SL-MACs) using refrigerants hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-134a and the available alternatives HFC-152a and HFO-1234yf. HFC-152a and HFO-1234yf are approved for use by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and satisfy the requirements of the European Union (EU) F-Gas Regulations. HFC-152a is inherently more energy efficient than HFC-134a and HFO-1234yf and in SL-MAC systems can generate cooling during deceleration, prolong comfort during idle stop (stop/start), and allow powered cooling at times when the engine can supply additional power with the lowest incremental fuel use. SL-MAC systems can also reduce the refrigerant charge, emissions, and service costs of HFO-1234yf.
Technical Paper

Cost Effective High Strength Electric Resistance Welded Tubes For Structural Applications

2010-10-05
2010-01-1912
The properties of Cold drawn electric resistance welded, as drawn (CEW-AD) tubes and Electric resistance welded (ERW) tubes are vastly different. Deformation resistance of ERW tube is less than half that of CEW-AD tube, hence not preferred for structural applications, common practice being the use of CEW-AD tubes for Chassis cross members in vehicles. A new cost effective high strength ERW tube was developed which has been proved to be superior to the currently used CEW-AD tubes in terms of mechanical properties, formability, consistency and uniformity of the properties over the tube length. The newly developed tube through use of special micro alloy grade in ERW has made it possible to eliminate some of the manufacturing processes like annealing, phosphating, cold drawing etc. which has led to considerable cost saving.
Technical Paper

Crash Pulse Characterization for Restraints System Performance Optimization

2015-01-14
2015-26-0152
The vehicle crash signature (here on referred as crash pulse) significantly affects occupant restraints system performance in frontal crash events. Restraints system optimization is usually undertaken in later phase of product development. This leads to sub-optimal configurations and performance, as no opportunity exists to tune vehicle structure and occupant package layouts. In concept phase of development, crash pulse characterization helps to map occupant package environment with available structure crush space and stiffness. The crash pulse slope, peaks, average values at discrete time intervals, can be tuned considering library of restraints parameters. This would help to derive an optimal occupant kinematics and occupant-restraints interaction in crash event. A case study has been explained in this paper to highlight the methodology.
Technical Paper

Critique of Torsional Vibration Damper (TVD) Design for Powertrain NVH

2017-01-10
2017-26-0217
Crank train torsional vibration is an important aspect for design and development of Powertrain for NVH refinement and durability. Crank train torsional vibration parameters like angular acceleration of flywheel or twist, depends upon various design parameters like geometry of crankshaft, mass of flywheel, stiffness of clutch, mass of pulley etc. It also depends upon engine operating conditions like engine speed, engine load, combustion peak pressure and combustion pressure variation etc. Most of these parameters are decided by engine power, torque, engine architecture and packaging constraints. Addition of torsional vibration damper (TVD), which works on the principle of tuned dynamic absorber, is commonly deployed design solution to control the torsional vibrations as well as stresses (to improve durability of crank train) induced in crank train assembly at specified modal frequency.
Technical Paper

DFSS to Design Engine Cooling System of Small Gasoline Vehicle with Rear Engine

2019-01-09
2019-26-0037
In automobile design, a rear-engine layout mainly espoused for small entry-level cars and light commercial vehicles for three reasons - packaging, traction, and ease of manufacturing. The aim of this paper is to strategize cooling system of rear-mounted engine of a small gasoline car. Radiator and cooling fan packaged close to engine at rear of the car for simple packaging. Efficient thermal management ensured by robust overheat protection stratagem using EMS software. DFSS, a disciplined problem prevention approach that helps in achieving the most optimum design solution and provides improved and cost effective quality products; is used to finalize an optimum design based on the analysis of the various tests carried out as per DOE [1]. This paper is about designing a distinctive cooling system of a car having rear-mounted engine with rear radiator but front mounted HVAC system [2].
Technical Paper

Derivation of Test Schedule for Clutch Using Road Load Data Analysis and Energy Dissipation as Basis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0389
During every clutch engagement energy is dissipated in clutch assembly because of relative slippage of clutch disc w.r.t. flywheel and pressure plate. Energy dissipated in clutch is governed by many design parameters like driveline configuration of the vehicle vis-a-vis vehicle mass, and operational parameters like road conditions, traffic conditions. Clutch burning failure, which is the major failure mode of clutch assembly, is governed by energy dissipation phenomenon during clutch engagement. Clutch undergoes different duty cycles during usage in city traffic, highways or hilly regions during its lifetime. A test schedule was derived using energy dissipated during every clutch engagement event as a base and using road load data collected on the vehicle. Road load data was collected in different road mix conditions comprised of city traffic, highway, hilly region, rough road for few hundred kilometers.
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