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Technical Paper

1D Simulation Accuracy Enhancement for Predicting Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2019-01-09
2019-26-0298
In today’s competitive scenario, the automotive product life cycle has drastically reduced and all Auto OEM’s are coming up with their updated products with lesser development time. These frequent product upgrades are possible due to use of various digital tools during product design and development. Design and optimization of engine coolpack (powertrain cooling unit) to attain engine cooling performance is one of the important parameter during vehicle development or upgrade. Hence, to keep control over development cost and time of delivery, quick and accurate digital validation capability like one dimensional (1D) simulation is the need of the hour. To predict the powertrain cooling (PTC) performance at vehicle concept stage, when physical prototypes are not available, airflow data from similar developed platforms is considered as an input for 1D simulation.
Technical Paper

A Novel Technique to Establish Various Important Characteristic to Analyze Complete Hydraulic Power Steering System using Model Based Design Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0259
Steering system deliver a precise directional control to the vehicle chassis and ensure the safe driving at all maneuvers. Hydraulic power assisted system (HPAS) helps drivers to steer by boosting steering assistance of the steering wheel while retaining the road feel. HPAS performance is associated with the design characteristics of rotary valve, steering, suspension, kinematics, brake, tire, vehicle speed and load transfer. Thus a detailed power steering system model is absolutely necessary to evaluate and optimize the performance characteristics. However, many components of HPAS system are proprietary in nature so it is very challenging to get component characteristic of each sub-system for the complete power steering system model. Hence, it is very important to establish a technique to extract all such influencing characteristics with available test facility.
Technical Paper

A Robust Solution for a Power-Train Mounting System for Automotive NVH Refinements

2015-01-14
2015-26-0140
Production variations of a heavy duty truck for its vibrations were measured and then analyzed through an Ishikawa diagram. Noise and Control factors of the truck idle shake were indentified. The major cause was found to be piece to piece variations of its power-train (PT) rubber mounts. To overcome the same, a new nominal level of the mount stiffness was sought based on minimization of a cost function related to vibration transmissibility and fatigue damage of the mounts under dynamic loadings. Physical prototypes of such mounts were proved to minimize the variations of the driver's seat shake at idling among various trucks of the same design. These learning's are useful for design of various subsystems or components to refine the full vehicle-Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) at the robust design level.
Technical Paper

A Unique and Novel Approach for Increasing the Life of Automotive Audio Signaling Device

2014-04-01
2014-01-0237
Automotive Audio Signaling system is very vital and is controlled by local regulatory requirements. In India, usage of horn is very frequent due to highly congested traffic conditions, and is in the order of 10 to 12 times per kilometer. This results in the deterioration of the “contact”, which enables the functioning of the device. Hence the device requires premature replacement or frequent tuning, which are time consuming and results an increase in warranty costs and cost of service as well. Thus, to overcome this problem a unique and novel approach is proposed in this paper which enhances the life of the automobile horn, by implementing an additional pair of Contacts on circuit breakers, providing a parallel path for the power supply. This effort ensures that the life of the horn is increased by 5 times than the existing design.
Technical Paper

Air Intake System Optimization for Passenger Car Engine

2019-01-09
2019-26-0044
The customer expectations in the passenger car market are predominantly in the areas of engine/vehicle performance along with NVH refinement. In addition, continuously evolving regulatory emission and crash norms with system cost considerations bring out multiple challenges on to design engineers. One of the vehicle systems that has its footprints on all of the above requirements is the engine air intake system. In this paper, using multidisciplinary approach we discuss the impact of air intake system design of a 3-cylinder gasoline engine on different attributes of customer requirements. The primary function of the air intake system is to provide filtered air to the engine. However, this paper explains how requirements like engine performance, NVH refinement, regulatory and styling, durability, servicing and system cost are affected by intake system design parameters.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Automotive Control Pedals Ergonomics through Mathematical Modelling Based on Human Anthropometry

2017-01-10
2017-26-0252
Vehicle Ergonomics is one of the most vital factor to be considered in vehicle design and development, as the customer wants a comfortable and performance oriented vehicle. An uncomfortable driving posture can lead to painful driving experiences for longer hauls. The control pedals viz. Accelerator, Brake and clutch pedal (ABC Pedals), are the most frequently used parts in the vehicle, their proper positioning with respect to human anthropology is of prime importance, from driver comfort viewpoint. The methodology currently used for optimizing ergonomics with respect to the positioning of pedals in a vehicle included; measuring anthropometric angles manually with the help of H-Point Machine, subjective jury analysis and through software like RAMSIS, JACK, etc. Manual measurement doesn’t give the flexibility of iterations for optimization. The subjective analysis is based on insinuations thereby, cannot be standardized.
Technical Paper

Body Block FE Model Development and Correlation with Physical Tests

2017-01-10
2017-26-0293
Steering column and steering wheel are critical safety components in vehicle interior environment. Steering system needs to be designed to absorb occupant impact energy in the event of crash thereby reducing the risk of injury to the occupant. This is more critical for non-airbag vehicle versions. To evaluate the steering system performance, Body block impact test is defined in IS11939 standard [1]. Nowadays for product development, CAE is being extensively used to reduce development cycle time and minimize number of prototypes required for physical validation. In order to design the steering system to meet the Body Block performance requirements, a detailed FE model of Body Block impactor is required. The static stiffness and moment of inertia of body block are defined in SAE J244a [2]. The reference data available in SAE J244a is not sufficient to develop a Body Block model that would represent the physical impactor.
Technical Paper

CAE Based Head Form Impact Simulations for Development of Vehicle Interiors

2019-01-09
2019-26-0237
The interior components of a passenger vehicle are designed to provide comfort and safety to its occupants. In the event of accident, vehicle interiors are primary source of injuries when occupants interact with them. Vehicle interiors consists of Instrument panel (IP), center console, seats and controls in front of seating position etc. Severity of the injuries depends on the energy dissipating characteristics, profiles, projections of different interior components. These are assessed by ECE R21 and IS12553 head form impact tests. To evaluate the Head form impact performance on Interior components, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulations are extensively used during the vehicle development. In order to predict failure of plastic components and snap joints which might lead to expose sharp edges, it is critical to model plastic material and snap joint.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetics Modelling of Exhaust After-Treatment System: A One Dimensional Simulation Approach

2019-01-09
2019-26-0249
The Indian automotive industry has taken a big leap towards stringent Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission standards by year 2020. A digital driven design and development focusing on innovative and commercially viable technologies for combustion and exhaust after-treatment system is the need of the time. One-dimensional (1D) simulation serves as a best alternative to its counterparts in terms of obtaining faster and accurate results, which makes it an ideal tool for carrying out optimization studies at system level. In this work, 1D chemical kinetics modelling and analysis of exhaust after-treatment system (EAT) for a heavy-duty diesel has been performed using GT-Power. Initially, a single site 1D model for a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) has been developed and then, a two-site, 1D model for a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was also developed based on reactor data.
Technical Paper

Critique of Torsional Vibration Damper (TVD) Design for Powertrain NVH

2017-01-10
2017-26-0217
Crank train torsional vibration is an important aspect for design and development of Powertrain for NVH refinement and durability. Crank train torsional vibration parameters like angular acceleration of flywheel or twist, depends upon various design parameters like geometry of crankshaft, mass of flywheel, stiffness of clutch, mass of pulley etc. It also depends upon engine operating conditions like engine speed, engine load, combustion peak pressure and combustion pressure variation etc. Most of these parameters are decided by engine power, torque, engine architecture and packaging constraints. Addition of torsional vibration damper (TVD), which works on the principle of tuned dynamic absorber, is commonly deployed design solution to control the torsional vibrations as well as stresses (to improve durability of crank train) induced in crank train assembly at specified modal frequency.
Technical Paper

Derivation of Test Schedule for Clutch Using Road Load Data Analysis and Energy Dissipation as Basis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0389
During every clutch engagement energy is dissipated in clutch assembly because of relative slippage of clutch disc w.r.t. flywheel and pressure plate. Energy dissipated in clutch is governed by many design parameters like driveline configuration of the vehicle vis-a-vis vehicle mass, and operational parameters like road conditions, traffic conditions. Clutch burning failure, which is the major failure mode of clutch assembly, is governed by energy dissipation phenomenon during clutch engagement. Clutch undergoes different duty cycles during usage in city traffic, highways or hilly regions during its lifetime. A test schedule was derived using energy dissipated during every clutch engagement event as a base and using road load data collected on the vehicle. Road load data was collected in different road mix conditions comprised of city traffic, highway, hilly region, rough road for few hundred kilometers.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization and Cost Effective Methodology for Column Mounted Single Stalk Combination Switch.

2011-04-12
2011-01-0775
As the automobile industry in India is growing fast and competitive, there is a need to design the vehicle and its parts at most cost effective. This paper gives the details of design optimization and cost effective methodology followed to develop a Single Stalk Combination Switch, without degrading the end user delight. This paper describes various design criteria affecting the combination switch design.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Automotive Radiator Cooling Module Fan of Passenger Vehicle for Effective Noise Management Using CFD Technique

2017-01-10
2017-26-0183
An automotive radiator cooling fan has been observed to be an important noise source in a vehicle and with increasing noise refinements, the need for a quieter but effective fan is of utmost importance. Although some empirical prediction techniques are present in literature, they are not sufficiently accurate and cannot give a detailed view of the entire noise spectrum and the various noise prone zones. Hence the need for highly accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study is essential to be able to resolve the minute acoustic stress. Large Eddy Simulation technique in CFD is used to resolve the minute scales of motion in the flow as the sound pressures simulated are very small compared to system level pressures and require immense accuracy. Detailed mesh dependency and Y+ studies are conducted to implement higher accuracy as well as keep mesh requirements within computationally feasible zone.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of a Mini-Truck Hydraulic Power Steering System Based on Road Load Data (RLD)

2010-04-12
2010-01-0198
Today's automotive industry demands high quality component as well as system designs within very short period of time to provide more value added features to customers on one hand and to meet stringent safety standards on the other. To reconcile economy issues, design optimization has become a key issue. In the last few decades, many OEMs took to analytical tools like Computer-Aided-Engineering (CAE) tools in order to decrease the number of prototype builds and to speed up the time of development cycle. Although such analytical tools are relatively inexpensive to use and faster to implement as compared to the costly traditional design and testing processes: however, there are many variables that CAE tools cannot adequately consider, such as manufacturing processes, assembly, material anisotropy and residual stresses. Therefore, still smart measuring and testing techniques are required to substantiate the CAE results.
Technical Paper

Designing In-Cab Sound of Vehicles as per the Customer Driving Pattern on Roads

2019-01-09
2019-26-0170
Vehicle refinement from point of view reduction in its Noise, Vibrations and Harshness (NVH) affects customer’s buying decision and it also directly influences his/her driving experience on road at different speeds. Customer voice, however, indicates that a traditional process of developing design solutions is not aligned with the customers’ expectations. Traditionally the load cases for NVH development are focused only on quietness of passengers’ cabin at idling and in 3rd gear wide open throttle cruising on smooth roads. In reality, the Driver of a premium sedan car or a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) or a Compact Utility Vehicle (CUV) expects something different than merely the low sound pressure level inside the cabin. His/her driving pattern over a day plays a crucial role. A vehicle-owner wishes to balance various attributes of the in-cab sound and tactile vibrations at a time.
Technical Paper

Development and Prediction of Vehicle Drag Coefficient Using OpenFoam CFD Tool

2019-01-09
2019-26-0235
Vehicle aerodynamic design has a critical impact on fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Reducing aerodynamic wind resistance of the vehicle's exterior shape and reducing losses associated with requirements for engine compartment cooling through vehicle front openings plays key role in achieving desired aerodynamic efficiency. Today fairly large number of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are being performed during the vehicle aerodynamic design and development process and it is rapidly increasing day by day. Vehicle aerodynamic design and development process involves mainly aerodynamic shape development, aerodynamic optimizations of vehicle external components (side view mirror, spoilers, underbody shield etc.) and number of” what if studies during preliminary design process. Licensing costs of the available commercial CFD simulation solver has significant impact on product development cost when numbers of aerodynamic simulations expand.
Journal Article

Development of High Fidelity Dynamic Model with Thermal Response for Single Plate Dry Clutch

2017-01-10
2017-26-0260
Single plate dry clutch is most commonly used in automotive transmission. This paper proposes a unique approach of modelling a single plate dry clutch in Simulink and Simscape simulation environment. Clutch model is divided into two subsystems as translational and rotational. The translational system is linear system of diaphragm and cushion spring as a two-degree freedom system. Nonlinearity of the diaphragm and cushion spring has been modelled based on experimental data. This enables to simulate friction torque variation during clutch engagement. In rotational system, frictional torque generation between flywheel-clutch disc and pressure plate-clutch disc has been modelled separately. This novel approach of developing separate friction models helps in understanding variation in torque carrying capacity due to rise in the temperature of the friction pads because of frictional and engine heat.
Technical Paper

Effect of Steering System Compliance on Steered Axle Tire Wear

2012-09-24
2012-01-1909
Subject paper focuses primarily on non uniform tire wear problem of front steered wheels in a pickup model. Cause and effect analysis complemented with field vehicle investigations helped to identify some of the critical design areas. Investigation revealed that steering geometry of the vehicle is undergoing huge variations in dynamic condition as compared to initial static setting. Factors contributing to this behavior are identified and subsequently worked upon followed by a detailed simulation study in order to reproduce the field failures on test vehicles. Similar evaluation with modified steering design package is conducted and results are compared for assessing the improvements achieved. In usual practice, it is considered enough if Steering Geometry parameters are set in static condition and ensured to lie within design specifications.
Technical Paper

Energy Based Analytical Study of Effect of Engine Calibration, Clutch Modulation on the Life of Dry Clutch in View of City Traffic Using Road Load Data

2019-01-09
2019-26-0331
Single plate dry clutch is one of the most abuse components in the vehicle. With the growing population of traffic in cities, useful life of clutch is affected drastically which is evident from the rise in complaints on clutch from metropolitan cities. The governing design parameter, which affects the life of clutch, is the energy dissipated in clutch per unit area of friction lining of clutch disc. The life of clutch is affected by many factors like vehicle weight, engine torque, driveline ratios, friction lining, size of clutch, which are taken into consideration during design stage of the clutch. Apart from these factors, one more factor, engine calibration, affects the clutch life drastically. However, it is not taken into consideration during design stage owing to its inherent nature as it gets matured over the vehicle development program.
Technical Paper

Engine Mounting System Design Approach for Electric Vehicles

2019-01-09
2019-26-0116
As we are moving towards complete electrification from combustion engine to electric motor, the system design approach also changes due to application. For a range of 100-150 kg EV powertrain weight, number of mounts as well as mount locations, orientations and stiffnesses plays a significant role during system design. The electric powertrains are usually lighter and their mounts are usually stiffer than the mounts for typical combustion engines, the static displacements at dead load are usually lower. However, currently it seems like there is no common direction of all OEM’s regarding the question of how stiff an e-motor mounting system should actually be. Due to the high torque of the EV’s one could even think about switching to a four point mounting instead of a pendulum mounting.
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