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Journal Article

A Case Study of Reaction Time Reduction of Vehicle Brake System

2011-09-18
2011-01-2379
There has to be a good co-relation/ relationship between the pedal effort applied, pedal travel, deceleration level achieved and stopping distance for “good brake feel”. Brake feel also depend upon the time lag between the force applied on brake pedal and the response of braking system. Hence “brake feel” can be improved by reducing the response time of the brake system. Many vehicles are having “poor brake feel” complaints, pertaining to the above mentioned reasons. This paper relates to an improved brake system for automobile in which reduction in reaction time was done by artificially increasing differential pressure head across vacuum booster diaphragm. Brake booster is given an input of compressed air to the valve body during actuation, thereby increasing the differential pressure across the diaphragm. The compressed air is bled from turbocharger-intercooler of the vehicle which is stored in a reservoir, with one way valve, while cruising.
Technical Paper

A Feedback and Feedforward Control Algorithm for a Manual Transmission Vehicle Simulation Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1356
Authors were challenged with a task of developing a full vehicle simulation model, with a target to simulate the electrical system performance and perform digital tests like Battery Charge Balance, in addition to the fuel efficiency estimation. A vehicle is a complicated problem or domain to model, due to the complexities of subsystems. Even more difficult task is to have a control algorithm which controls the vehicle model with the required control signals to follow the test specification. Particularly, simulating the control of a vehicle with a manual transmission is complicated due to many associated control signals (Throttle, Brake and Clutch) and interruptions like gear changes. In this paper, the development of a full vehicle model aimed at the assessment of electrical system performance of the vehicle is discussed in brief.
Technical Paper

A Low Cost Euro-III Development Strategy for 4 L Engine for Commercial Vehicle Application

2006-10-16
2006-01-3384
Reduction of NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) and particulates from engine exhaust is one of the prime considerations in current research and development in automotive industry. The present paper describes the combustion optimization done on a four cylinder, 4 liter DI diesel engine to meet stringent Euro-III emission norms. The engine FIE (Fuel Injection Equipment) and injector geometry was optimized for performance and emission. Smoke measurements were considered as indicative of soot, to predict particulate emissions. This was done to simplify the overall process and save development time. It was concluded that by combining the flexibility of electronically controlled fuel injection begin, with improved nozzle technologies, with higher spray velocities and spray penetration, a considerable reduction in NOx and particulate emissions can be achieved. This can serve as a low cost solution, without any exhaust after-treatment systems.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach for Diagnostics, End of Line and System Performance Checks for Micro Hybrid Battery Management Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0291
Micro Hybrid Systems are a premier approach for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, by improving the efficiency of electrical energy generation, storage, distribution and consumption, yet with lower costs associated with development and implementation. However, significant efforts are required while implementing micro hybrid systems, arising out of components like Intelligent Battery Sensor (IBS). IBS provides battery measurements and battery status, and in addition mission critical diagnostic data on a communication line to micro hybrid controller. However, this set of data from IBS is not available instantly after its initialization, as it enters into a lengthy learning phase, where it learns the battery parameters, before it gives the required data on the communication line. This learning period spans from 3 to 8 hours, until the IBS is fully functional and is capable of supporting the system functionalities.
Technical Paper

A Simple, Cost Effective, Method of Evaluating Bump Steer and Brake Steer, and Achieving Correlation with ADAMS Analysis

2008-04-14
2008-01-0227
This paper proposes a cost effective method, with simple techniques, to evaluate Bump Steer and Brake Steer on a rigid axle vehicle under dynamic conditions. A relationship between calculated values, measured values and a subjective assessment of the vehicle lateral deviation is established. An array, of inter-relationship of the parameters such as offset of steering arm, draglink length, front spring stiffness, height of spring hanger bracket is done. Percentage of influence of the parameter change on the performance of the vehicle is evaluated and standard statistical analysis is used to arrive at inter-relationship of various parameters and ranking of their influence on lateral deviation of the vehicle under braking is established, there by resulting in reduction in iterative process. The results obtained display a good correlation with ADAMS Analysis to the tune of 90% and are in agreement with subjective assessment.
Technical Paper

A Study on Improvements in Side Impact Test vs CAE Structural Correlation

2013-01-09
2013-26-0034
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) plays an important role in the product development. Now a days major decisions like concept selection and design sign off are taken based on CAE. All the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are putting consistent efforts to improve accuracy of the CAE results. In recent years confidence on CAE prediction has been increased mainly because of good correlation of CAE predictions with the test results. Defining proper correlation criteria and using a systematic approach helps significantly in building the overall confidence level for predictions given by CAE simulations. Representation of manufacturing effects on material properties and material failure in the simulation is still a big challenge for achieving a good CAE correlation. This paper describes side impact test vs CAE correlation. The important parameters affecting the CAE correlation were discussed.
Technical Paper

Adhesive Failure Prediction in Crash Simulations

2019-01-09
2019-26-0297
Structural adhesive is a good alternative to provide required strength at joinery of similar and dissimilar materials. Adhesive joinery plays a critical role to maintain structural integrity during vehicle crash scenario. Robust adhesive failure definitions are critical for accurate predictions of structural performance in crash Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulations. In this paper, structural adhesive material characterization challenges like comprehensive In-house testing and CAE correlation aspects are discussed. Considering the crash loading complexity, test plan is devised for identification of strength and failure characteristics at 0°, 45°, 75°, 90°, and Peel loading conditions. Coupon level test samples were prepared with high temperature curing of structural adhesive along with metal panels. Test fixtures were prepared to carryout testing using Instron VHS machine under quasi-static and dynamic loading.
Technical Paper

An Effort to Build Mathematical Model using Time Series Analysis to Aid Steering Auto-Correction in Heavy Commercial Vehicle during High Speed Braking

2015-09-29
2015-01-2763
Steering pull during high speed braking of heavy commercial vehicles possesses a potential danger to the occupants. Even with negligible wheel-to-wheel brake torque variation, steering pull during the high speed braking has been observed. If the steering pull (i.e. steering rotation) is forcibly held at zero degree during high speed braking, the phenomena called axle twist, wheel turn and shock absorber deflection arise. In this work the data have been collected on the mentioned measures with an intention to develop a mathematical model which uses real time data, coming from feedback mechanism to predict the values of the measures in coming moments in order to aid steering system to ‘auto-correct’. Driven by the intention, ‘Time Series Analysis’, a well-known statistical methodology, has been explored to see how suitable it is in building the kind of model.
Technical Paper

An Engine Stop Start System with Driver Behavior Learning and Adaption for Improving the User Experience

2018-04-03
2018-01-0609
Engine Stop/Start System (ESS) promises to reduce greenhouse emissions and improve fuel economy of vehicles. Previous work of the Authors was concentrated on bridging the gap of improvement in fuel economy promised by ESS under standard laboratory conditions and actual driving conditions. Findings from the practical studies lead to a conclusion that ESS is not so popular among the customers, due to the complexities of the system operation and poor integration of the system design with the driver behavior. In addition, due to various functional safety requirements, and traffic conditions, actual benefits of ESS are reduced. A modified control algorithm was proposed and proven for the local driving conditions in India. The ways in which a given driver behaves on the controls of the vehicles like Clutch and Brake Pedals, Gear Shift Lever were not uniform across the demography of study and varied significantly.
Journal Article

An Intelligent Alternator Control Mechanism for Energy Recuperation and Fuel Efficiency Improvement

2013-04-08
2013-01-1750
With the current state of ever rising fuel prices and unavailability of affordable alternate technologies, significant research and development efforts have been invested in recent times towards improving fuel efficiency of vehicles powered with conventional internal combustion engines. To achieve this, a varied approach has been adopted by researchers to cover the entire energy chain including fuel quality, combustion quality, power generation efficiency, down-sizing, power consumption efficiency, etc. Apart from energy generation, distribution and consumption, another domain that has been subjected to significant scrutiny is energy recuperation or recovery. A moving vehicle and a running engine provide a number of opportunities for useful back-recovery and storage of energy. The most significant sources for recuperation are the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle or running engine and to a lesser extent the thermal energy from medium such as exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Application of a Pre-Turbocharger Catalyst (PTC) on an Indian Multi Utility Diesel Vehicle for Meeting BS IV

2011-01-19
2011-26-0024
Diesel engines tend to operate on lower exhaust temperatures, compared to their gasoline counterparts. Exhaust emission control becomes a significant issue at these lower temperatures, as any catalytic converter needs certain light off temperature to commence functioning. The trend so far has been to move the catalytic converters closer to the exhaust manifold, in order to get the benefit of higher temperatures - but most of the applications are limited to the location available after the turbo chargers. This is due the fact that very minute and efficient catalyst is required, if it has to be placed before the turbo charger. This catalyst also needs to be extremely durable to take care of high exotherms which occur within the catalysts and also to prevent any possible damage to the turbo chargers.
Technical Paper

Approach for Dynamic Analysis of Automotive Exhaust System

2008-10-07
2008-01-2666
The automotive industry is heading in the direction of signing off the exhaust system durability based on computer simulation rather than rig simulation and physical vehicle testing. This is due to the cost, time and availability of prototype vehicles and test track. Use of Finite Element Method (FEM) enables to assure the structural integrity of the exhaust system and also contribute to better understanding of the system behavior in the various operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. This paper deals with dynamic analysis of a modular automotive exhaust system where it is directly mounted on power train pack. Selection of dynamic loads, processing of the test data, and effect of assembly loads along with material property variation due to temperature are explained. It also includes validation of the CAE model, prediction of probable failure locations and improving the design based on analysis outcome.
Technical Paper

Average-Value Model of Induction Motor Drive for Cost Effective HIL Testing of E-Motor Controller for Mild Hybrid Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1887
Induction motor is very much used in mild hybrid vehicles because of its low cost, rugged structure and reliability. To test the induction motor controller in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment efficiently in both motoring and generating modes, generally, an instantaneous dynamic model of induction motor drive is used which requires the instantaneous values of PWM signals of inverter switches and hence a very high sampling frequency of about twenty times the switching frequency is required to effectively capture all the switching information of MOSFETS. This requires a HIL system with very powerful processor which increases the overall cost of system. In this paper, a dynamic average-value model of induction motor drive is developed in MATLAB/Simulink which requires only the duty cycle information instead of instantaneous switching information of PWM signals. Its performance is compared with the instantaneous model which is also developed in MATLAB/Simulink.
Technical Paper

Challenges to Meet New Noise Regulations and New Noise Limits for M and N Category Vehicles

2013-01-09
2013-26-0107
New noise regulations, with reduced noise limits, have been proposed by UN-ECE. A new method which aims at representing urban driving of the vehicles more closely on roads is proposed and is considerably different from the existing one (IS 3028:1998). It is more complex; we also found that some of the low powered vehicles can not be tested as per this method. The paper proposes ways of improvement in the test method. The new noise reduction policy options will have a considerable impact on compliance of many categories of vehicles. Technological challenges, before the manufacturers, to meet all performance needs of the vehicle along with the cost of development will be critical to meet the new noise limits in the proposed time frame.
Technical Paper

Combustion Mechanical Breakdown: A Comparison of the Multiple Regression Method versus the Coherence Method for a HSDI Diesel Powertrain

2011-01-19
2011-26-0035
In the automotive industry there are now several methodologies available to estimate the Combustion Mechanical Breakdown (CMB) of engine radiated noise. This paper compares the results of two different CMB analysis methodologies (multiple regression vs. coherence) performed on a HSDI diesel powertrain installed in an Engine Noise Test Cell (ENTC) and highlights the specific differences in the way each method defines combustion and mechanical noise.
Technical Paper

Derivation of Test Schedule for Clutch Using Road Load Data Analysis and Energy Dissipation as Basis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0404
During every clutch engagement energy is dissipated in clutch assembly because of relative slippage of clutch disc w.r.t. flywheel and pressure plate. Energy dissipated in clutch is governed by many design parameters like driveline configuration of the vehicle vis-a-vis vehicle mass, and operational parameters like road conditions, traffic conditions. Clutch burning failure, which is the major failure mode of clutch assembly, is governed by energy dissipation phenomenon during clutch engagement. Clutch undergoes different duty cycles during usage in city traffic, highways or hilly regions during its lifetime. A test schedule was derived using energy dissipated during every clutch engagement event as a base and using road load data collected on the vehicle. Road load data was collected in different road mix conditions comprised of city traffic, highway, hilly region, rough road for few hundred kilometers.
Technical Paper

Development & Calibration of a Rain-Light Sensor and Controller for Indian Market

2010-04-12
2010-01-0296
Modern vehicles complexity is increasing to meet the demands of user. Automatic wiper and headlamp activation system using rain light sensor, (RLS) is one of the popular customer requirement. RLS is a combination of an infrared rain sensor and an optical light sensor. The RLS and controller operate the front wiper once it detects rain droplets on the windscreen. It switches on the headlamps automatically when while vehicles enter in to the tunnel. During integration of a rain light sensor on a vehicle the following should be considered: customer usage pattern, environmental factors, light intensity, raining pattern and vehicle architecture limitations. This paper illustrates the methodology used calibrated a pre-developed rain light sensor for specific markets like India.
Technical Paper

Development of Exhaust Silencer for Improved Sound Quality and Optimum Back Pressure

2010-04-12
2010-01-0388
For an automotive exhaust system, noise level and back pressure are the most important parameters for passenger comfort and engine performance respectively. The sound quality perception of the existing silencer design was unacceptable, although the back pressure measured was below the target limit. To improve the existing design, few concepts were prepared by changing the internal elements of silencer only. The design constraints were the silencer shell dimensions, volume of silencer, inlet pipe and outlet tailpipe positions, which had to be kept same as that of the existing base design. The sound quality signal replaying and synthesizing was performed to define the desired sound quality. The numerical simulation involves 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with appropriate boundary condition having less numerical diffusions to predict the back pressure. The various silencer concepts developed with this preliminary analysis, was then experimentally verified with the numerical data.
Technical Paper

Development of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Technology for Urban Transport in India

2019-01-09
2019-26-0092
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is considered for automotive applications due to rapid start up, energy efficiency, high power density and less maintenance. In line with National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap of Govt. of India that aims to develop and demonstrate hydrogen powered IC engine and fuel cell based vehicle. TATA Motors Ltd. has designed, developed and successfully demonstrated “Low Floor Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus” which comprises of integrated fuel cell power system, hydrogen storage and dispensing system. The fuel cell power system, converts the stored chemical energy in the hydrogen to DC electrical energy. The power generated is regulated and used for powering the traction motor. The development of fuel cell bus consists of five stages: Powertrain sizing as per vehicle performance targets, fuel cell stack selection and balance of plant design and development, bus integration, hydrogen refueling infrastructure creation and testing of fuel cell bus.
Technical Paper

Development of IT Enabled System for Data Management to Meet EU Vehicle Recyclability Directives

2010-04-12
2010-01-0276
EU directive 2005/64/EC on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to their Reusability, Recyclability and Recoverability ( RRR ) requires vehicle manufacturers to put in place the necessary arrangements and procedures for Parts, Materials and Weight (PMW ) data collection from full chain of supply. This is required to perform the calculations of recyclability rate and recoverability rate in line with ISO 22628. Commonly practiced data collection methodologies included spreadsheet and use of internationally available IT support system for collection of material data. Data complexity and prohibitive cost for using Internationally available IT Support systems like IMDS (International Material Data System) has led to the in-house development of IT enabled Solution customizing Siemens PLM software product (Team centre Enterprise) and SAP (SRM suite).
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