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Technical Paper

A DFSS Approach to Design Cooling System of Small Passenger Car Having Rear Engine and Front Mounted Radiator

2016-04-05
2016-01-0657
DFSS is a disciplined problem prevention approach which helps in achieving the most optimum design solution and provides improved and cost effective quality products. This paper presents the implementation of DFSS method to design a distinctive cooling system where engine is mounted in the rear and radiator is mounted in the front of the car. In automobile design, a rear-engine design layout places the engine at the rear of the vehicle. This layout is mainly found in small, entry level cars and light commercial vehicles chosen for three reasons - packaging, traction, and ease of manufacturing. In conventional Passenger cars, a radiator is located close to the engine for simple packaging and efficient thermal management. This paper is about designing a distinctive cooling system of a car having rear mounted engine and front mounted radiator.
Technical Paper

A Low Cost Euro-III Development Strategy for 4 L Engine for Commercial Vehicle Application

2006-10-16
2006-01-3384
Reduction of NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) and particulates from engine exhaust is one of the prime considerations in current research and development in automotive industry. The present paper describes the combustion optimization done on a four cylinder, 4 liter DI diesel engine to meet stringent Euro-III emission norms. The engine FIE (Fuel Injection Equipment) and injector geometry was optimized for performance and emission. Smoke measurements were considered as indicative of soot, to predict particulate emissions. This was done to simplify the overall process and save development time. It was concluded that by combining the flexibility of electronically controlled fuel injection begin, with improved nozzle technologies, with higher spray velocities and spray penetration, a considerable reduction in NOx and particulate emissions can be achieved. This can serve as a low cost solution, without any exhaust after-treatment systems.
Technical Paper

Approach to Control the in Cab Noise without Affecting Passenger Comfort in AC Midi Buses

2015-01-14
2015-26-0125
This paper discusses various fruitful iterations / experiments performed to reduce air flow induced noise without compromising on total air flow requirement for thermal comfort and ways to avoid heat ingress inside the bus. Also the paper discusses the devised process for noise reduction through front loading of computer aided engineering and computational fluid dynamics analysis. Air conditioning buses in light commercial vehicle (LCV) segment is growing market in India, especially for applications like staff pick-up and drop, school applications and private fleet owners. The air-conditioning system is typically mounted on bus roof top and located laterally and longitudinally at center. It is an easiest and most feasible way to package air conditioning system to cater the large passenger space (32 to 40 seats) with the conditioned air. This makes air conditioning duct design simple and commercially viable.
Technical Paper

Average-Value Model of Induction Motor Drive for Cost Effective HIL Testing of E-Motor Controller for Mild Hybrid Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1887
Induction motor is very much used in mild hybrid vehicles because of its low cost, rugged structure and reliability. To test the induction motor controller in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment efficiently in both motoring and generating modes, generally, an instantaneous dynamic model of induction motor drive is used which requires the instantaneous values of PWM signals of inverter switches and hence a very high sampling frequency of about twenty times the switching frequency is required to effectively capture all the switching information of MOSFETS. This requires a HIL system with very powerful processor which increases the overall cost of system. In this paper, a dynamic average-value model of induction motor drive is developed in MATLAB/Simulink which requires only the duty cycle information instead of instantaneous switching information of PWM signals. Its performance is compared with the instantaneous model which is also developed in MATLAB/Simulink.
Journal Article

Body Induced Boom Noise Control by Hybrid Integrated Approach for a Passenger Car

2013-05-13
2013-01-1920
Vehicle incab booming perception, a low frequency response of the structure to the various excitations presents a challenging task for the NVH engineers. The excitation to the structure causing boom can either be power train induced, depending upon the number of cylinders or the road inputs, while transfer paths for the excitation is mainly through the power train mounts or the suspension attachments to the body. The body responds to those input excitations by virtue of the dynamic behavior mainly governed by its modal characteristics. This paper explains in detail an integrated approach, of both experimental and numerical techniques devised to investigate the mechanism for boom noise generation. It is therefore important, to understand the modal behavior of the structure. The modal characteristics from the structural modal test enable to locate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the body, which are likely to get excited due to the operating excitations.
Technical Paper

Clutch Hysteresis Maximization for Elimination of Gear Rattle in a Passenger Bus

2013-01-09
2013-26-0100
The acceptable noise and vibration performance is one of the most important requirements in a passenger bus as it is intended for widest spectrum of passengers covering all age groups. Gear rattle, being one of the critical factors for NVH and durability, plays a vital role in passenger comfort inside vehicle. The phenomenon of gear rattle happens due to irregularity in engine torque, causing impacts between the teeth of unloaded gear pairs of a gearbox which produce vibrations giving rise to this unacceptable acoustic response. In depth assessment of the dynamic behavior of systems and related components required to eliminate gear rattle. During normal running conditions, abnormal in-cab noise was perceived in a bus. Initial subjective evaluation revealed that the intensity was high during acceleration and deceleration. Objective measurements and analysis of the in-cab noise and vibration measurements had indicated that the noise is mainly due to gear rattling.
Technical Paper

Design of Cabin Suspension Characteristics of Heavy Commercial Vehicle

2008-04-14
2008-01-0265
In the commercial vehicle business, Tractor-trailer combination vehicles are mostly used for carrying heavy loads for longer distances. To improve operating economy of the vehicle by reducing turn around time, it becomes a necessity to have a better driving comfort level for the vehicles. In a Tractor-trailer combination vehicle, due to point load acting on the tractor, pitching effect on the cab is very dominant. To overcome this pitching effect, a fully suspended cabin (suspended at four points) has been designed in order to have better ride comfort as compared to the fixed cabin. This paper discusses some of the measures taken to reduce the overall cabin pitching effect on Tractor -trailer combination vehicles.
Technical Paper

Design of Commercial Vehicle Cooling Packages

2008-04-14
2008-01-0264
Optimization of vehicle engine cooling package with requisite heat rejection capacity plays a key role in achieving most fuel economy and also in meeting the stringent noise norms. A set of design and operating features from existing vehicle engine cooling systems is reviewed and evaluated for their potential to provide optimized engine cooling. The features reviewed states significant potential in engine performance but these are balanced by satisfying required engine cooling requirement. Sets of trials are carried out on said vehicle with dissimilar features of cooling packages and the results are evaluated. Fuel economy trials in performance mode are carried out on vehicle with well thought-out cooling package for healthier comparison.
Technical Paper

Development of Cost Effective Footpad to Mitigate Lower Leg Injury During Anti Vehicle IED Blast

2013-04-08
2013-01-1246
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and Anti-Tank (AT) mines are a significant threat for military vehicles and their occupants. These explosive devices are designed for the destruction and damage of armored and other vehicles, by using them in battle fields on routes of army vehicles. The blast event results in effects like shockwave, fragments, fire, gases, blast overpressure as well as the vertical impulse load. A blast event affects occupants inside the vehicle in the form of various types of injuries (lower leg, spinal, chest, head etc) and trauma. The Lower leg is the foremost injured body region in a blast event. The term lower leg is used to designate the tibia, fibula and the foot/ankle complex in this paper. Detonations occurring under a vehicle produce high velocity floorboard flutter/deformation and transmit axial loads to lower leg and create injuries.
Technical Paper

Development of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Technology for Urban Transport in India

2019-01-09
2019-26-0092
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is considered for automotive applications due to rapid start up, energy efficiency, high power density and less maintenance. In line with National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap of Govt. of India that aims to develop and demonstrate hydrogen powered IC engine and fuel cell based vehicle. TATA Motors Ltd. has designed, developed and successfully demonstrated “Low Floor Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus” which comprises of integrated fuel cell power system, hydrogen storage and dispensing system. The fuel cell power system, converts the stored chemical energy in the hydrogen to DC electrical energy. The power generated is regulated and used for powering the traction motor. The development of fuel cell bus consists of five stages: Powertrain sizing as per vehicle performance targets, fuel cell stack selection and balance of plant design and development, bus integration, hydrogen refueling infrastructure creation and testing of fuel cell bus.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficient Air Conditioned Buses

2015-01-14
2015-26-0044
This paper focuses on factors that enhance energy efficiency of air conditioning system on mid-sized, standard and premium buses with engine power from 125 to 280 HP. It covers aspects like light weighting of roof air conditioning system, usage of optimized ducting system with minimal resistance to blowers, deployment of rotary scroll compressor with fast idle control in place of reciprocating piston compressor. The scope of this paper covers AC compressors driven by main engine of vehicle/ bus, study related to auxiliary/donkey engine driven AC compressor is not considered. Context- In order to enhance fuel efficiency in buses an energy efficient air conditioning system should be deployed. This will lead to reduced parasitic load on the engine and translate into direct fuel saving.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cabin Comfort in Air Conditioned Buses Using CFD

2014-04-01
2014-01-0699
The objective of the work presented in this paper is to provide an overall CFD evaluation and optimization study of cabin climate control of air-conditioned (AC) city buses. Providing passengers with a comfortable experience is one of the focal point of any bus manufacturer. However, detailed evaluation through testing alone is difficult and not possible during vehicle development. With increasing travel needs and continuous focus on improving passenger experience, CFD supplemented by testing plays an important role in assessing the cabin comfort. The focus of the study is to evaluate the effect of size, shape and number of free-flow and overhead vents on flow distribution inside the cabin. Numerical simulations were carried out using a commercially available CFD code, Fluent®. Realizable k - ε RANS turbulence model was used to model turbulence. Airflow results from numerical simulation were compared with the testing results to evaluate the reliability.
Journal Article

Front Under Run Protection Device Strength Test Certification Through FE Simulations

2011-04-12
2011-01-0529
Passive safety regulations specify minimum safety performance requirements of vehicle in terms of protecting its occupants and other road users in accident scenarios. Currently for majority cases, the compliance of vehicle design to passive safety regulations is assessed through physical testing. With increased number of products and more comprehensive passive safety requirements, the complexity of certification is getting challenged due to high cost involved in prototype parts and the market pressures for early product introduction through reduced product development timelines. One of the ways for addressing this challenge is to promote CAE based certification of vehicle designs for regulatory compliance. Since accuracy of CAE predictions have improved over a period of time, such an approach is accepted for few regulations like ECE-R 66/01, AIS069 etc which involves only loadings of the structures.
Technical Paper

Hill Start Assistance Developed for Buses Equipped with AMT

2016-04-05
2016-01-1111
The AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) has attracted increasing interest of automotive researches, because it has some advantages of both MT (Manual Transmission) and AT (Automatic Transmission), such as low cost, high efficiency, easy to use and good comfort. The hill-start assistance is an important feature of AMT. The vehicle will move backward, start with jerk, or cause engine stalling if failed on the slope road. For manual transmission, hill-start depends on the driver's skills to coordinate with the brake, clutch and throttle pedal to achieve a smooth start. However, with the AMT, clutch pedal is removed and therefore, driver can’t perceive the clutch position, making it difficult to hill-start with AMT without hill-start control strategy. This paper discussed about the hill start control strategy and its functioning.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Model to Evaluate and Optimize the Dynamic Performance of Pneumatic Brake System

2015-01-14
2015-26-0082
Pneumatic brake system is widely used in heavy truck, medium and heavy buses for its great superiority and braking performance over other brake systems. Pneumatic brake system consists of various valves such as Dual Brake Valve (DBV), Quick release Valve (QRV), Relay Valve (RV), Brake chambers. Dynamics of each valve is playing a crucial role in overall dynamic performance of the braking system. However, it is very difficult to find the contribution of each valve and pipe diameters in overall braking performance. Hence, it is very difficult to arrive a best combination for targeted braking performance as it is not possible to evaluate all combination on the actual vehicle. Hence, it is very important to have a mathematical model to optimize and evaluate the overall braking performance in early design phase. The present study is focusing on the mathematical model of a pneumatic brake circuit.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Commercial Vehicle Cooling Package for Improvement of Vehicle Fuel Economy

2015-04-14
2015-01-1349
In a heavy commercial vehicle, the engine cooling package is designed by considering peak heat load on the vehicle cooling system from an engine end. In cooling systems, the major unit that consumes most power from the engine is the engine cooling fan. It was seen from the vehicle measured duty cycle data, for most of the time engine operates at part load condition. Regardless of demand from the engine cooling system, engine fan was operating continuously at equivalent speed of the engine. This results in continuous consumption of productive engine power from the fan end ultimately affecting vehicle fuel economy. The present study shows that low idle speed viscous fan has the potential to meet stringent engine cooling performance requirements and consumes less engine power throughout an actual vehicle duty cycle. Experiments were conducted on test vehicle with different fan speeds.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Braking Strategy for an Unaltered Mechanical Braking System of a Conventional Vehicle Converted into a Hybrid Vehicle

2013-01-09
2013-26-0155
Regenerative braking has become one of the major features for a hybrid vehicle as it converts brake energy into electrical energy storable into battery and leads to an increase in overall fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Traditional regenerative braking systems are designed such that the mechanical braking force from the friction brakes is varied in order to get maximum electric braking. This is the optimum method; however, such a system calls from electronics (Anti-lock Braking System) for regulation of mechanical braking leading to an increased cost. In this paper, the authors present a new strategy for implementing a regenerative brake strategy without changing the mechanical brake system of a conventional vehicle converted to a hybrid vehicle. The electric motor that serves as the traction motor or the Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) system, is used for regenerative braking also. There is no change in the other vehicle specifications as compared to the conventional vehicle.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Capacitor based Hybrid Energy Storage and Energy Management for Mild Hybrid Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1882
In a Mild hybrid electric vehicle, a battery serves as a continuous source of energy but is inefficient in supplying peak power demands required during torque assists for short duration. Moreover, the random charging and discharging that result due to varying drive cycle of the vehicle affects the life of the battery. In this paper, an Ultra-capacitor based hybrid energy storage system (HESS) has been developed for mild hybrid vehicle which aims at utilizing the advantages of ultracapacitors by combining them with lead-acid batteries, to improve the overall performance of the battery, and to increase their useful life. Active current-sharing is achieved by interfacing ultracapacitor to the battery through a bi-directional boost dc-dc converter.
Technical Paper

“Dynamic Analysis of Cabin Tilting System of Heavy Trucks Using ADAMS-View for Development of a Software Interface for Optimization”

2008-10-07
2008-01-2683
Design of a Cabin Tilting System of heavy trucks, a multi degree of freedom mechanism, is a challenge. Factors like adequate tilting angle, cabin styling, packaging, non interference of tilting system with ride comfort, forces in the system, specifications of the hydraulic system, are all very important for designing the system. Numerous considerations make the design process highly iterative hence longer design time. This paper primarily focuses on Kinematics and Dynamic analysis of the system in ADAMS and validation of system with real time testing results. Intention of this work is to make a parametric ADAMS model and link it to a Knowledge Based Engineering application to facilitate designer to quickly carry out design iterations for reducing development time. The Knowledge Based Engineering software is made using object oriented language called ‘Object Definition Language’ which has been developed using C and C++ software languages.
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