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Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Mini and Full Flow Burner Systems for Diesel Engine Aftertreatment under Low Temperature Conditions

With introductions of stringent diesel engine emission regulations, the DOC and DPF systems have become the mainstream technology to eliminate soot particles through diesel combustion under various operation conditions. Urea-based SCR has been the mainstream technical direction to reduce NOx emissions. For both technologies, low-temperature conditions or cold start conditions pose challenges to activate DOC or SCR emission-reduction performance. To address this issue, mini or full flow burner systems may be used to increase exhaust temperature to reach DOC light-off or SCR initiation temperature by combustion of diesel fuel. In essence, the burner systems incorporate a fuel injector, spray atomization, proper fuel / air mixing mechanisms, and combustion control as independent heat sources.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Materials for Exhaust Systems under Combined Mechanical and Corrosive Environment

Corrosion resistance is an extremely important technical issue for long-term durability and reliability performance of exhaust components and systems. Failure mechanisms, such as corrosion, fatigue, corrosion-fatigue and stress corrosion cracking, have long been recognized as the principal degradation and failure mechanisms of vehicle components and systems under combined mechanical and corrosive environmental conditions. The combination of fluid flow, introduced by components such as advanced injectors, and corrosive environment leads to corrosion-erosion failure mechanism. These failure mechanisms are strongly material, environment, and loading dependent. How to characterize, screen, rank and select the materials in corrosion resistance is a big challenge posed to materials scientists and engineers. In this paper, the common corrosion related failure mechanisms appearing in auto exhaust systems are reviewed first.
Journal Article

Development of Common Rail and Manifold Fluid Delivery Systems for Large Diesel Engine Aftertreatement

EPA 2015 Tier IV emission requirements pose significant challenges to large diesel engine aftertreatment system (EAS) development aimed at reducing exhaust emissions such as NOx and PM. An EAS has three primary subsystems, Aftertreatment hardware, controls and fluid delivery. Fluid delivery is the subsystem which supplies urea into exhaust stream to allow SCR catalytic reaction and/or periodic DOC diesel dosing to elevate exhaust temperatures for diesel particulate filter (DPF) soot regeneration. The purpose of this paper is to discuss various aspects of fluid delivery system development from flow and pressure perspective. It starts by giving an overview of the system requirements and outlining theoretical background; then discusses overall design considerations, injector and pump selection criteria, and three main injector layouts. Steady state system performance was studied for manifold layout.
Technical Paper

Development of Urea SCR Systems for Large Diesel Engines

EPA 2015 Tier IV emission requirements pose significant challenges to large diesel engine after treatment system development with respect to reducing exhaust emissions including HC, CO, NOx and Particulate Matter (PM). For a typical locomotive, marine or stationary generator engine with 8 to 20 cylinders and 2500 to 4500 BHP, the PM reduction target could be over 90% and NOx reduction target over 75% for a wide range of running conditions. Generally, HC, CO and PM reductions can be achieved by combining DOC, cDPF and active regeneration systems. NOx reduction can be achieved by injecting urea as an active reagent into the exhaust stream to allow NOx to react with ammonia per SCR catalysts, as the mainstream approach for on-highway truck applications.
Journal Article

High-Temperature Life Assessment of Exhaust Components and the Procedure for Accelerated Durability and Reliability Testing

Fatigue, creep, oxidation, or their combinations have long been recognized as the principal failure mechanisms in many high-temperature applications such as exhaust manifolds and thermal regeneration units used in commercial vehicle aftertreatment systems. Depending on the specific materials, loading, and temperature levels, the role of each damage mechanism may change significantly, ranging from independent development to competing and combined creep-fatigue, fatigue-oxidation, creep-fatigue-oxidation. Several multiple failure mechanisms based material damage models have been developed, and products to resist these failure mechanisms have been designed and produced. However, one of the key challenges posed to design engineers is to find a way to accelerate the durability and reliability tests of auto exhaust in component and system levels and to validate the product design within development cycle to satisfy customer and market's requirements.
Technical Paper

Overview of Large Diesel Engine Aftertreatment System Development

The introduction of stringent EPA 2015 regulations for locomotive / marine engines and IMO 2016 Tier III marine engines initiates the need to develop large diesel engine aftertreatment systems to drastically reduce emissions such as SOx, PM, NOx, unburned HC and CO. In essence, the aftertreatment systems must satisfy a comprehensive set of performance criteria with respect to back pressure, emission reduction efficiency, mixing, urea deposits, packaging, durability, cost and others. Given multiple development objectives, a systematic approach must be adopted with top-down structure that addresses top-level technical directions, mid-level subsystem layouts, and bottom-level component designs and implementations. This paper sets the objective to provide an overview of system development philosophy, and at the same time touch specific development scenarios as illustrations.