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Technical Paper

A Fatigue S-N Curve Transformation Technique and Its Applications in Fatigue Data Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0791
The approaches of obtaining both fatigue strength distribution and fatigue life distribution for a given set of fatigue S-N data are reviewed in this paper. A new fatigue S-N curve transformation technique, which is based on the fundamental statistics definition and some reasonable assumptions, is specifically developed in this paper to transform a fatigue life distribution to a fatigue strength distribution. The procedures of applying the technique to multiple-stress level, two-stress level, and one-stress level fatigue S-N data are presented.
Technical Paper

A Probabilistic Approach in Virtual CAE Fatigue Life Prediction for Components of Exhaust System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1397
Component bench testing is a basic method to validate the component fatigue life. However, the component bench testing takes long time and is costly. With the development of more powerful computer and CAE simulation techniques, virtual CAE simulation method becomes more important in the component design, optimization, and validation due to its efficiency and low cost. Fatigue life of components of exhaust system is a critical characteristic and it is not deterministic but statistical phenomenon. Thus, a probabilistic approach is necessary. Variations and reliability of fatigue life can be considered in physical testing by testing more samples. However, how to account variations from manufacturing and testing in virtual CAE simulation is a big challenge. In this paper, a virtual CAE fatigue life prediction of components of exhaust system by probabilistic approach is studied and proposed.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Reliability Demonstration Methods Based on Three-Parameter Weibull Distribution

2017-03-28
2017-01-0202
Life testing or test-to-failure method and binomial testing method are the two most commonly used methods in product validation and reliability demonstration. The two-parameter Weibull distribution function is often used in the life testing and almost exclusively used in the extended time testing, which can be considered as an accelerated testing method by appropriately extending the testing time but with significantly reduced testing samples. However, the fatigue data from a wide variety of sources indicate that the three-parameter Weibull distribution function with a threshold parameter at the left tail is more appropriate for fatigue life data with large sample sizes. The uncertainties introduced from the assumptions about the underlying probabilistic distribution would significantly affect the interpretation of the test data and the assessment of the performance of the accelerated binomial testing methods, therefore, the selection of a probabilistic model is critically important.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Dynamic Response Correlation of Exhaust System between Measurements and FE-Simulations

2010-05-05
2010-01-1569
Study and design of the lifetime durability of mechanical components in an automotive exhaust system becomes a challenging task today for engineers. During the investigation, both experimental tests and finite element simulations are used for the investigation under dynamic engine excitations. For the dynamic finite element analysis, the experimental system must be simplified as a linear mathematic model and real boundary conditions are idealized. Due to this simplification, the dynamic behavior of the finite element model may strongly deviate from that in operational conditions. To gain insight into the dynamic behavior of exhaust systems from simulations, the finite model must be modified based on experimental results. As known the harmonic response is related to modal shapes and engine loads. Therefore, modifications of the finite element model can be done from these two aspects.
Technical Paper

An Investigation and Validation of Tailpipe Noise Contribution to Vehicle Cabin via Transfer Path Analysis Concept

2009-05-19
2009-01-2044
To facilitate the design and validation of exhaust system, quantification of tailpipe noise contribution to vehicle cabin is usually necessary. In this paper, transfer path analysis (TPA) concept has been applied to investigate the contributions from tailpipe and other noise sources as well as the interaction between tailpipe noise and its transmission path to vehicle cabin. An artificial acoustic source has been designed for transfer function measurement and an all-wheel-drive dynamometer located in anechoic chamber is used as a testing platform to collect operational data. A validation methodology has also been proposed and implemented by comparing the measured and predicted interior noise response with a big auxiliary muffler (BAM).
Journal Article

Approaches to Achieving High Reliability and Confidence Levels with Small Test Sample Sizes

2015-09-29
2015-01-2758
In product design and development stage, validation assessment methods that can provide very high reliability and confidence levels are becoming highly demanded. High reliability and confidence can generally be achieved and demonstrated by conducting a large number of tests with the traditional approaches. However, budget constraints, test timing, and many other factors significantly limit test sample sizes. How to achieve high reliability and confidence levels with limited sample sizes is of significant importance in engineering applications. In this paper, such approaches are developed for two fundamental and widely used methods, i.e. the test-to-failure method and the Binomial test method. The concept of RxxCyy (e.g. R90C90 indicates 90% in reliability and 90% in confidence) is used as a criterion to measure the reliability and confidence in both the test-to-failure and the Binomial test methods.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Verity and Volvo Methods for Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures

2013-09-24
2013-01-2357
Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly predict the durability and reliability of vehicles in the early development stage, especially for welded joints, which are usually the weakest locations in a vehicle system. A reliable and validated life assessment method is needed to accurately predict how and where a welded part fails, while iterative testing is expensive and time consuming. Recently, structural stress methods based on nodal force/moment are becoming widely accepted in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. There are several variants of structural stress approaches available and two of the most popular methods being used in automotive industry are the Volvo method and the Verity method. Both methods are available in commercial software and some concepts and procedures related the nodal force/moment have already been included in several engineering codes.
Journal Article

Components Durability, Reliability and Uncertainty Assessments Based on Fatigue Failure Data

2014-09-30
2014-01-2308
Road vibrations cause fatigue failures in vehicle components and systems. Therefore, reliable and accurate damage and life assessment is crucial to the durability and reliability performances of vehicles, especially at early design stages. However, durability and reliability assessment is difficult not only because of the unknown underlying damage mechanisms, such as crack initiation and crack growth, but also due to the large uncertainties introduced by many factors during operation. How to effectively and accurately assess the damage status and quantitatively measure the uncertainties in a damage evolution process is an important but still unsolved task in engineering probabilistic analysis. In this paper, a new procedure is developed to assess the durability and reliability performance, and characterize the uncertainties of damage evolution of components under constant amplitude loadings.
Technical Paper

Development of Probabilistic Fatigue Life Distribution Functions with Lower and Upper Bounds

2017-03-28
2017-01-0354
A probabilistic distribution function roughly consists of two parts: the middle part and the tails. The fatigue life distribution at a stress/load level is often described with two-parameter lognormal or Weibull distribution functions, which are more suitable for modeling the mean (middle) behaviors. The domains of the conventional probabilistic distribution functions are often unbounded, either infinite small (0 for the two-parameter Weibull) or infinite large or both. For most materials in low- and medium-cycle fatigue regimes, the domains of fatigue lives are usually bounded, and the inclusion of the bounds in a probabilistic model is often critical in some applications, such as product validation and life management. In this paper, four- and five-parameter Weibull distribution functions for the probabilistic distributions with bounds are developed. Finally, the applications of these new models in fatigue data analysis and damage assessment are provided and discussed.
Technical Paper

Durability Analysis of 3-Axis Input to Elastomeric Front Lower Control Arm Vertical Ride Bushing

2017-06-05
2017-01-1857
Fatigue life prediction of elastomer NVH suspension products has become an operating norm for OEMs and suppliers during the product quoting process and subsequent technical reviews. This paper reviews a critical plane analysis based fatigue simulation methodology for a front lower control arm. Filled natural rubber behaviors were measured and defined for the analysis, including: stress-strain, fatigue crack growth, strain crystallization, fatigue threshold and initial crack precursor size. A series of four distinct single and dual axis bench durability tests were derived from OEM block cycle specifications, and run to end-of-life as determined via a stiffness loss criterion. The tested parts were then sectioned in order to compare developed failure modes with predicted locations of crack initiation. In all cases, failure mode was accurately predicted by the simulation, and predicted fatigue life preceded actual end-of-life by not more than a factor of 1.4 in life.
Journal Article

Durability and Reliability Test Planning and Test Data Analysis

2013-09-24
2013-01-2379
Durability/reliability design of products, such as auto exhaust systems, is essentially based on the observation of test data and the accurate interpretation of these data. Therefore, test planning and related data analysis are critical to successful engineering designs. To facilitate engineering applications, testing and data analysis methods have been standardized over the last decades by several standard bodies such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). However, over the last few years, several effective testing and data analysis methods have been developed, and the existing standard procedures need to be updated to incorporate the new observations, knowledge, and consensus. In this paper, the common practices and the standard test planning and data analysis procedures are reviewed first. Subsequently, the recent development in accelerated testing, equilibrium based data fitting, design curve construction, and Bayesian statistical data analysis is presented.
Technical Paper

Failure Analysis and Problem Solving of Component Fatigue Tested Parts

2013-04-08
2013-01-1210
Automotive exhaust system is supported by the hanger rods welded to it. Tenneco validates the structural integrity of these joints to customer specific reliability and confidence targets. As part of that validation, it is common to hold part of the exhaust system and apply constant amplitude, fully-reversed load on the hanger rod and perform a fatigue test till there is a failure somewhere in the toe of the weld or in the hanger rod. The exhaust system is designed, engineered and manufactured per system design specification of the customer. In an exhaust system program life cycle, the same fatigue test is performed on Prototype and Production parts. The same test is also performed on an additional batch of Pre-Production parts in the current case. Prototype, pre-production and production parts are referred here as Design Verification (DV), Pre-Production Verification (PPV) and Process Verification (PV) tests and parts.
Journal Article

Failure Mode Effects and Fatigue Data Analyses of Welded Vehicle Exhaust Components and Its Applications in Product Validation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0374
Vehicle exhaust components and systems under fatigue loading often show multiple failure modes, which should be treated, at least theoretically, with rigorous advanced bi-modal and multi-modal statistical theories and approaches. These advanced methods are usually applied to mission-critical engineering applications such as nuclear and aerospace, in which large amounts of test data are often available. In the automotive industry, however, the sample size adopted in the product validation is usually small, thus the bi-modal and multi-modal phenomena cannot be distinguished with certainty.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Design Curve Construction for Test Data with Linear/Linearized and Universal Slope Characteristics

2015-04-14
2015-01-0427
Fatigue testing and related fatigue life assessment are essential parts of the design and validation processes of vehicle components and systems. Fatigue bench test is one of the most important testing methods for durability and reliability assessment, and its primary function is to construct design curves based on a certain amount of repeated tests, with which recommendations on product design can be advised. How to increase the accuracy of predictions from test results, the associated life assessment, and to reduce the cost through reducing test sample size is an active and continuous effort. In this paper the current engineering practices on constructing design curves for fatigue test data are reviewed first.
Journal Article

Fatigue Life and Non-Linear Strength Predictions for Heavy Stamping Steel Parts

2015-04-14
2015-01-0605
Strength and fatigue life prediction is very difficult for stamped structural steel parts because the manufacturing process alters the localized material properties. Traditional tensile tests cannot be used to obtain material properties due to size limitations. Because of this, FEA predictions are most often “directional” at best. In this paper an improved prediction methodology is suggested. With a material library developed from standard homogenous test specimens, or even textbook material property tables, localized strength and plastic strain numbers can be inferred from localized hardness tests(1). The new method, using standard ABAQUS static analysis (not commercial fatigue analysis software with many unknowns), is shown to be very accurate. This paper compares the new process FEA strength and fatigue life predictions to laboratory test results using statistical confidence intervals.
Technical Paper

Micro-Channel Heat Exchanger: An Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Device

2018-04-03
2018-01-0052
Almost one-third of the fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of a vehicle. An efficient waste heat recovery (WHR) process will undoubtedly lead to improved fuel efficiency and reduced greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. Currently, there are multiple WHR technologies that are being investigated by various entities in the auto industry. One relatively simple device to extract heat energy from the exhaust is a heat exchanger. Heat exchangers are used in some automotive applications to transfer heat from the hot exhaust gas to the colder coolant fluid to raise the coolant temperature. The warmer coolant fluid can be used for several purposes such as; faster heating of the engine’s lubrication oil and transmission fluids during cold starts, and faster cabin heating, which in turn, can potentially improve the overall engine efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Modal Transient FEA Study to Simulate Exhaust System Road Load Test

2011-04-12
2011-01-0027
Durability life is one of the major concerns in the automotive industry. Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) is one of the most important steps to verify exhaust system durability performance. RLDA will not only provide data for system level rig testing drive file development but also for exhaust components validation (computing safety factors). Modal transient FEA can be utilized to simulate either vehicle durability testing or sub-system level rig testing. How to simulate correctly is critical in the simulation. One of the most challenging portions in the full exhaust system simulation is isolator modeling due to its non-linear characteristics. However, we have to use linear modeling to simulate isolator in modal transient analysis, which induces errors.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Urea SCR System for On-Highway Truck Applications

2010-10-05
2010-01-1938
In order to satisfy tightening global emissions regulations, diesel truck manufacturers are striving to meet increasingly stringent Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) reduction standards. The majority of heavy duty diesel trucks have integrated urea SCR NOx abatement strategies. To this end, aftertreatment systems need to be properly engineered to achieve high conversion efficiencies. A EuroV intent urea SCR system is evaluated and failed to meet NOx conversion targets with severe urea deposit formation. Systematic enhancements of the design have been performed to enable it to meet targets, including emission reduction efficiency via improved reagent mixing, evaporation, distribution, back pressure, and removing of urea deposits. Multiple urea mixers, injector mounting positions and various system layouts are developed and evaluated, including both CFD analysis and full scale laboratory tests.
Technical Paper

Potential Failure Modes and Accelerating Test Strategy of Burner

2012-04-16
2012-01-0523
Driven by diesel engine emission regulation, more emission aftertretment products have been under development by Tenneco to address the Particular Matter (PM) and NOx reduction needs. The T.R.U.E. (Thermal Regeneration Unit for Exhaust) Clean active thermal management system is one of the examples to reduce PM. The system is designed to increase exhaust temperatures for DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) regeneration. This product is exposed to high temperature and high oxidation. Therefore, thermal fatigue, creep, oxidation and the interaction become critical mechanism to be considered for its durability. One of the key challenges to validate this product is to find a way of accelerated testing for thermal, creep, and oxidation as well as for vibration. In this paper, accelerated durability test strategy for high temperature device like T.R.U.E Clean is addressed.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Isothermal, Anisothermal, and High-Temperature Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Life Assessment and CAE Implementations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0370
Fatigue life assessment is an integral part of the durability and reliability evaluation process of vehicle exhaust components and systems. The probabilistic life assessment approaches, including analytical, experimental, and simulation, CAE implementation in particular, are attracting significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, the state-of-the-art probabilistic life assessment methods for vehicle exhausts under combined thermal and mechanical loadings are reviewed and investigated. The loading cases as experienced by the vehicle exhausts are first categorized into isothermal fatigue, anisothermal fatigue, and high-temperature thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) based on the failure mechanisms. Subsequently, the probabilistic life assessment procedures for each category are delineated, with emphasis on product validation.
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