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Technical Paper

747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft/Space Shuttle Orbiter Mated Ground Vibration Test: Data via Transient Excitation and Fast Fourier Transform Analysis

The experimental procedure employed to define the natural modes of vibration of the 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft and Space Shuttle Orbiter mated configuration is described. A discussion of test results and comparison to structural analysis results is also included. Random transient signals were used as inputs to electromagnetic shakers to provide excitation to the mated vehicle test configuration. Acceleration signals were processed via the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. Magnitude and phase transfer functions were formed and processed to produce modal frequencies, damping, and modal displacements.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Noise, Its Source and Reduction

Since the advent of the turbojet engine, there has been much research by aircraft and engine manufacturers into the source of aircraft noise and its reduction. A review of this research is presented delineating the transition from turbojet engines to turbofan engines to the high by-pass ratio engines being introduced today, and the progress that has been made. Application of the current state-of-the-art to existing airplanes through engine replacement, nacelle retrofit, and flight procedures are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Assembly Techniques for Space Vehicles

Assembly techniques for the majority of expendable and reusable launch vehicles have not changed much over the last thirty years. Some progress has been made, specifically on new programs, however, improvements on existing expendable launch vehicle production lines can be difficult to justify; even more so for one or two reusable vehicles. This presentation will focus on techniques and systems used for manual and automated assembly of expendable and reusable launch vehicle primary structures. Today's assembly is characterized by manual operations involving fixtures and templates, and all tasks are carried out primarily with single function hand tools. Typical assembly approaches used for metallic and composite primary structures will be discussed. Potential opportunities for process improvements utilizing advanced hand tools, mechanized and/or automated equipment will be addressed.
Technical Paper

CFD Studies on the ECLSS Airflow and CO2 Accumulation of the International Space Station

During a recent International Space Station (ISS) flight (Flight 2A.1), an improper ventilation event might have occurred and resulted in stuffy air, as reported by the crew. Even though no air samples were analyzed, the accumulation of metabolic CO2 in the ISS was suspected as the cause of the crew sickness. With no possibility of conducting an on-orbit test of this kind, it was decided to utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to investigate this problem. Based on the Flight 2A.1 and 2A.2a configurations, a CFD model of the air distribution system was built to characterize airflow between the ISS elements. This model consists of Inter-module Ventilation (IMV) covering the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), two Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMA-1 and PMA-2), the Node-1, and portions of the Orbiter volume.
Technical Paper

Comparative Test Data Assessment and Simplified Math Modelling for the Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem

Space Station Freedom (SSF) has an extended mission duration of 30 years. Trade studies for extended missions of manned spacecraft almost invariably show that large resupply weight and consequent cost savings can be achieved by recovering potable water from wastewater sources. This rationale has led to the present baseline Water Recovery and Management (WRM) system for the Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) phase of SSF. The baseline WRM includes the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) subsystem for recovering water from urine. This process serves as a preliminary processing step in achieving potable water from wastewater sources. The basic principle of the VCD is that water is evaporated from urine and then condensed in a zero-gravity device containing an evaporator and a condenser in a rotating drum. The VCD was selected for the baseline WRM following the assessment of test results from competitive urine processing subsystems obtained from the Comparative Test (CT) program.
Technical Paper

Composite Structure for Orbiting Space Stations

An overview of composite structure required for manned orbiting space stations is presented. Following a brief introduction of typical configurations and major subsystems, the major structural areas requiring composite structure and their particular functions and requirements are discussed. A summary weight breakdown is presented to assess the dependence of launch weight on these areas. To illustrate, the primary wall composite structure is presented in detail. The design interplay of boost, pressure, meteoroid, radiation, and thermal control requirements are presented. Resultant composite structure for each remaining major structural area is presented in summary form with a brief description of typical design compromises required.
Technical Paper

Design Trade-Offs that Determine Fastener Selection

Fastener selection entails two functions, a staff function to select a group of fasteners for consideration and a design function to select the most suitable fastener for a specific function. This paper itemizes in detail the considerations that enter into each function in selecting fasteners for commercial and military aircraft, military unmanned vehicles, and space vehicles. Characteristics of specific bolts and fasteners are also tabulated.
Technical Paper

Detailed Integration Analysis of the Space Station Life Support System

A considerable amount of integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) analysis has been performed and documented for the proposed habitable Space Station. Earlier analytic activities have resulted in highly refined models simulating Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) and Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) hardware. As the mechanisms by which these items affect the Space Station environment have become better understood (along with the effects due to operation of various Man Systems utilities), the next stage of the integrated analysis task has been accomplished; i.e., the simulation of the Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS) subsystem. The focus of the present paper is upon the ACS function in the overall life support system. Modeling of the ACS is unique among the life support disciplines in that it requires accurate representation of all other ECLSS subsystems that interact with the cabin atmosphere (which has now been achieved) in order to be realistic.
Technical Paper

Dew Point Analysis Developments for Space Station

This paper reviews the recent G189A computer program developments in the area of humidity control for the U.S. Lab Module in the Space Station. The humidity control function is provided as an indirect or passive function by the Common Cabin Air Assemblies (CCAA) in pressurized elements or modules in the Space Station. The CCAAs provide active cabin temperature control through implementation of a digital/electromechanical control system (i.e., a proportional/integral (PI) control system). A selected cabin temperature can be achieved by this control system as long as the sensible and latent heat loads are within specified limits. In this paper three pertinent analytical cases directed to determining minimum or maximum dew point temperatures are discussed. In these cases the basic sensible heat loads are set at constant values.
Technical Paper

ETOPS and Service Ready Standards and Processes

A review of the current extended-range twin-engine operations (ETOPS) and the modifications to the standards and processes that led to its successful operational record has contributed to the feasibility of developing an airplane and preparing an operator for ETOPS at entry into service. The airplane and engine manufacturers and component suppliers have continued to expand on these modified standards and processes in their design, build, test and support programs to meet regulatory authority ETOPS requirements and to facilitate the development of regulatory authority criteria for substantiating ETOPS capability prior to entry into service. Airlines, in conjunction with the manufacturers, have also developed improved processes that meet regulatory authority requirements for preparing an operator to integrate a new airplane into its existing ETOPS programs at entry into service.
Technical Paper

EVA Operations Using the Spacelab Logistics Pallet for Hardware Deliveries

There are a large number of space structures, orbital replacement units (ORUs) and other components that must be transported to orbit on a regular basis for the assembly and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Some of this hardware will be ferried on the Spacelab Logistics Pallet (SLP), which has a long and reliable history of space flight successes. The carrier is well used, well qualified, and very adaptable for repeated use in accommodating cargoes of various sizes and shapes. This paper presents an overview of past, present and future hardware design solutions that accommodate EVA operations on the SLP. It further demonstrates how analysis techniques and design considerations have influenced the hardware development, EVA operations, and compliance with human engineering requirements for the SLP.
Technical Paper

Evolution to Lean Manufacturing A Case Study of Boeing of Spokane

The evolution of a manufacturing organization toward “Lean” manufacturing does not necessarily come cheaply or quickly. It is the experience at Boeing that technology and different visions can dramatically impact the evolutionary process-consuming great amounts of time and resources. The Boeing of Spokane case study, where aircraft floor panels are manufactured1, is but one of several case studies that suggests moving to “Lean” manufacturing is usually done in large steps, not small ones. These initial steps can be costly unless the systems (equipment and workforce) are flexible. Workforce flexibility is dependent on the attitude in the workforce as both touch and support labor move from their comfort zone to try new approaches and job descriptions. The workforce must be properly motivated to make the change. The equipment must also be flexible in adapting to new line layouts, product mixes, and process change or large cost penalties will be incurred.
Technical Paper

Incipient Failure Detection - The Detection of Certain Contaminating Processes

Three separate and distinct electrolytic and one galvanic process were identified by visual inspection, metallographic, electron microprobe, and x-ray diffraction analysis in a clocked, flip-flop integrated circuit flat pack and/or the associated printed circuit test jig (two on flat pack and two on circuit board). These four processes were all found to be detectable by the use of noise measurements in microvolts per root cycle at 1000 Hz (cycles per second). The direct current applied for noise measurement to the integrated circuit devices was 100 micro-amperes, as compared to the 6-8 milliamperes required for normal operation. After initial experimentation, the devices were caused to fail in a laboratory ambient environment, followed by an acceleration of the rate of electrolytic reaction through the use of essentially 100 percent relative humidity, versus the upper specification limit of 80 to 98% relative humidity.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Design for Dexterous Robotics - Inboard Truss Segments

Over 200 International Space Station external high maintenance items have been designed for replacement by a dexterous robotics system in addition to space-suited astronauts. Planning for dexterous robotics maintenance increases flexibility for space station operations with a robot able to execute many tasks in place of a suited crew member, lowering the number of hours crew must spend on Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The five inboard truss segments of the station - S3, S1, S0, P1 and P3 - include 122 of these robot compatible maintenance items or On-orbit Replaceable Units (ORUs). This paper describes the impact robotic compatibility has had on the International Space Station (ISS) design, reviewing the inboard truss items as examples. Diverse challenges exist to verify each genre of ORU meets the dexterous robotics requirements.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Propulsion Module Environmental Control and Life Support System

The United States Propulsion Module (USPM) is a pressurized element and provides reboost, propulsive attitude control, control moment gyro (CMG) desaturation, and collision avoidance functions for the International Space Station (ISS). The USPM will dock with Node 2 at the pressurized mating adapter-2 (PMA-2). After docking with PMA-2, the USPM will provide mechanical and structural interfaces to the Space Shuttle, along with facilities for crew transfer and receiving resupply oxygen, nitrogen, water, helium, and propellants from the Space Shuttle. It is essential that the USPM maintain a safe and functional life support system during crew member passage and maintenance activities. It is complex and costly to design an operational system to satisfy all ISS requirements. This paper details an innovative USPM environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) design that satisfies all ISS requirements at a reduced cost.
Technical Paper

Machine Readable Coding of 777 Wing Fastening Systems Tooling

This paper presents a detailed overview of the advantages and benefits of using 2-D barcodes, called Data Matrix codes, on Wing Fastening System (WFS) Tooling. This project was conducted on, but not limited to, the 777 Wing Fastening System (GEMCOR) tooling including the drills, fingers, and button dies. This paper will show how using Data Matrix codes to identify tooling will: Eliminate excessive downtime due to the operator using the incorrect tooling for a given tool setup. Reduce the cost associated with panel rework due to the use of incorrect tooling. Reduce the cost associated with excessive tool inventory or last minute ordering to keep up with production needs. Track tool life information for each specific tool. Provide operators with an easy to use tool setup reference document. And provide the factory with the ability to trace panel damage or defects back to the specific machine and exact tooling used.
Technical Paper

Meteoroid Design Criteria

The effects of meteoroid protection weight requirements on space exploration costs are examined. A basis is developed for selecting upper and lower bounds to the acceptable risk. The quality of present knowledge of the meteoroid environment and of hypervelocity impact penetration is reviewed. This information is synthesized and criteria are developed that are suitable for selecting methods of designing simple and composite barrier systems. Techniques are established for controlling damage to spacecraft components. Short and long term goals are recommended to improve present design capability.
Technical Paper

Modular Rack Design for Multiple Users

The Space Station program was faced with a unique design environment-to design a common systems and payload support structure that could accommodate changeout for repair or technology growth over a 30-year lifetime. The vibration environment and weight allocation for rack structure necessitated a lightweight, yet stiff structure. The design answer was a modular rack structure using graphite/epoxy composites and selected aluminum components that could support a wide variety of systems, payload and stowage functions. A modular set of mounting locations allow the installation of a wide variety of secondary structures without permanent modifications to the rack. Aircraft-style seat track rails on the front edges of the rack permit attachment of handrails, foot restraints and accessories such as lights, fans, clipboards or computers to the rack face.
Technical Paper

Noise Implications for VTOL Development

Noise from the aircraft may prevent the establishment of VTOL ports near population centers-the locations which can provide a significant contribution to mass transportation. To determine how annoying these aircraft may be, a total community annoyance measure (TCAM) has been developed. The TCAM can indicate flight trajectories which minimize the annoyance of the aircraft and the type of aircraft which are acoustically acceptable for operations from a V/STOL port. Low disc loading rotors seem best for operation near terminals while low tip speed propellers are best for cruise.
Technical Paper

Parametric Relationships of Factors Affecting Maintainability of Long Duration Manned Space Flights

There are many parameters which influence the maintainability of long duration manned space flights. This study involved a detailed investigation of the sensitivity of some of the major parameters on a typical 1975 near earth orbit spacecraft and mission. A mechanized analytical math model and a mission simulation model were utilized to evaluate the effects of: spacecraft system weight, volume and reliability; mission duration and resupply rate; and maintenance requirements on the total spacecraft requirements to achieve various probabilities of crew survival and mission success. Preliminary information developed in the NAS 2-3705 contract is presented. The results obtained to date are given, but specific conclusions will not be made until the study is completed.