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Technical Paper

3D Re-Engineering: A Comprehensive Process for Solving Production Assembly Fit Problems

Dimensional Management (DM) is a methodology to predict and control the impact of variation on assembly from, fit, and function. Application of Dimensional Management tools and other modeling and simulation techniques are combined in a process called 3D Re-Engineering for application to existing production designs. Analytical techniques for predicting the impact of variation on assembly fit, and corresponding methods for controlling variation are presented, as used in a production environment for root cause corrective action on existing assembly fit problems. Assembly variation analysis is typically performed early in the product development phases, by coordinating datums, assembly sequences, assembly methods, and detail part tolerances across the product development team.
Technical Paper

777X Control Surface Assembly Using Advanced Robotic Automation

Fabrication and assembly of the majority of control surfaces for Boeing’s 777X airplane is completed at the Boeing Defense, Space and Security (BDS) site in St. Louis, Missouri. The former 777 airplane has been revamped to compete with affordability goals and contentious markets requiring cost-effective production technologies with high maturity and reliability. With tens of thousands of fasteners per shipset, the tasks of drilling, countersinking, hole inspection, and temporary fastener installation are automated. Additionally and wherever possible, blueprint fasteners are automatically installed. Initial production is supported by four (4) Electroimpact robotic systems embedded into a pulse-line production system requiring strategic processing and safeguarding solutions to manage several key layout, build and product flow constraints.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Radiation Environments in Deep Space

Both humans and onboard radiosensitive systems (electronics, materials, payloads and experiments) are exposed to the deleterious effects of the harsh space radiations found in the space environment. The purpose of this paper is to present the space radiation environment extended to deep space based on environment models for the moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn and compare these radiation environments with the earth's radiation environment, which is used as a comparative baseline. The space radiation environment consists of high-energy protons and electrons that are magnetically “trapped” in planetary bodies that have an intrinsic magnetic field; this is the case for earth, Jupiter, and Saturn (the moon and Mars do not have a magnetic field). For the earth this region is called the “Van Allen belts,” and models of both the trapped protons (AP-8 model) and electrons (AE-8 model) have been developed.
Journal Article

A Fresh Look at Radiation Exposures from Major Solar Proton Events

Solar proton events (SPEs) represent the single-most significant source of acute radiation exposure during space missions. Historically, an exponential in rigidity (particle momentum) fit has been used to express the SPE energy spectrum using GOES data up to 100 MeV. More recently, researchers have found that a Weibull fit better represents the energy spectrum up to 1000 MeV (1 GeV). In addition, the availability of SPE data extending up to several GeV has been incorporated in analyses to obtain a more complete and accurate energy spectrum representation. In this paper we discuss the major SPEs that have occurred over the past five solar cycles (~50+ years) in detail - in particular, Aug 1972 and Sept & Oct 1989 SPEs. Using a high-energy particle transport/dose code, radiation exposure estimates are presented for various thicknesses of aluminum. The effects on humans and spacecraft systems are also discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

A Hypersonic Cruiser Concept for the 21st Century

This paper describes a hypersonic cruiser concept for the 21st century. It is based on studies conducted by The Boeing Company and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA - Langley) to assess the capability of a hypersonic vehicle concept to conduct cruise and/or space launch missions. It details a Mach 10 cruise vehicle from NASA's Dual-Fuel Airbreathing Hypersonic Vehicle Design study (1995/96), and a Mach 10 cruise/space access vehicle, which resulted from follow-on work. Vehicle performance is presented showing that the Mach 10 cruise vehicle can operate over a significant mission radius, and that the Mach 10 cruise/space access configuration can accomplish desired space launch and cruise missions. A rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) variant is also introduced showing favorable cruise and space launch capability. NASA's Hyper-X flight experiment, which is the next step towards achieving this vision, is also described.
Technical Paper

A Novel Repair Technique for the Internal Thermal Control System Dual-Membrane Gas Trap

A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the gas bubbles. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped gas bubbles to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The gas trap was designed to last for the entire lifetime of the ISS, and therefore was not designed to be repaired. However, repair of these gas traps is now a necessity due to contamination from the on-orbit ITCS fluid and other sources on the ground as well as a limited supply of flight gas traps. This paper describes a novel repair technique that has been developed that will allow the refurbishment of contaminated gas traps and their return to flight use.
Technical Paper

A Reduced-Order Enclosure Radiation Modeling Technique for Aircraft Actuators

Modern aircraft are aerodynamically designed at the edge of flight stability and therefore require high-response-rate flight control surfaces to maintain flight safety. In addition, to minimize weight and eliminate aircraft thermal cooling requirements, the actuator systems have increased power-density and utilize high-temperature components. This coupled with the wide operating temperature regimes experienced over a mission profile may result in detrimental performance of the actuator systems. Understanding the performance capabilities and power draw requirements as a function of temperature is essential in properly sizing and optimizing an aircraft platform. Under the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL's) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, detailed models of high performance electromechanical actuators (HPEAS) were developed and include temperature dependent effects in the electrical and mechanical actuator components.
Technical Paper

A Requirements-Based CNS/ATM Architecture

This paper identifies an approach to the definition of a National Airspace System (NAS) architecture which will support the future development of the U.S. air transportation system, consistent with long-range needs of the various users of the NAS. The approach outlined identifies the development of an FAA preliminary design methodology, with supporting tools and processes to provide the basis for NAS modernization. This approach begins with the quantification of the primary long-range objectives of the NAS, which the system architecture must support over its design life. These objectives are the basis of the mission analysis and requirements development, which, in turn, are used for technology tradeoff studies and the baselining of an architecture for evaluation.
Technical Paper

A Robust Method of Countersink Inspection Using Machine Vision

An automated system drills the outer moldline holes on a military aircraft wing. Currently, the operator manually checks countersink diameter every ten holes as a process quality check. The manual method of countersink inspection (using a countersink gauge with a dial readout) is prone to errors both in measurement and transcription, and is time consuming since the operator must stop the automated equipment before measuring the hole. Machine vision provides a fast, non-contact method for measuring countersink diameter, however, data from machine vision systems is frequently corrupted by non-gaussian noise which causes traditional model fitting methods, such as least squares, to fail miserably. We present a solution for circle measurement using a statistically robust fitting technique that does an exceptional job of identifying the countersink even in the presence of large amounts of structured and non-structured noise such as tear-out, scratches, surface defects, salt-and-pepper, etc.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Evaluation of VFR Heliport Operations in an Obstacle-Rich Environment

A study was conducted to investigate the impacts of obstacles on pilot performance, workload, and perceptions of safety in a visual flight rule (VFR) obstacle-rich environment (ORE). The study was conducted using a piloted simulation of a single-rotor, multi-engine helicopter operating in a highly detailed urban visual scene database. The database contained multiple obstacle types, with variable obstacle heights and densities. Nine pilots completed the approaches and departures into and out of a heliport located in the center of the generic urban environment. Two flight routes offered unique presentations of terrain and obstacle types. Obstacle height/density and time of day/lighting parameters were systematically manipulated. A multi-dimensional data collection methodology employing the simultaneous collection of direct aircraft state, pilot performance data, pilot physiological data and pilot subjective responses was employed.
Technical Paper

Adsorption and Desorption Effects on Carbon Brake Material Friction and Wear Characteristics

The characteristics of the friction materials used in aircraft brakes are extremely important to the performance and safe operation of transport airplanes. These characteristics can change during exposure to environmental effects in the duty cycle, which can lead to problems, such as abnormally low friction, or brake induced vibration. Water vapor in the atmosphere produces a direct lubricant effect on carbon. Observed transition temperatures within the range of 140°C to 200°C, associated with increases in friction and wear of carbon brake materials, are attributed to water vapor desorption. Friction and wear transitions in the range of 500°C to 900°C may be associated with oxygen desorption.
Technical Paper

Advanced Data Format (ADF): A Portable Hierarchical Database

Advanced Data Format (ADF) is a portable hierarchical database software library developed by The Boeing Company under contract with NASA [1] and with assistance from industry partners. ADF was designed and built to directly support the CFD General Notation System (CGNS1) project. The CGNS project defines conventions and supplies software to facilitate the exchange of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data between sites and between applications, and it allows stable archiving of CFD data. CGNS is implemented on the ADF foundation and is focused on the needs of the CFD community. This paper details the design, implementation, use, and future direction of ADF.
Technical Paper

Advanced Technology in Future Metal Cutting for Airframe Manufacturing

Metal cutting is a substantial constituent of airframe manufacturing. During the past several decades, it has evolved significantly. However, most of the changes and improvement were initiated by the machine tool industry and cutting tool industry, thus these new technologies is generally applicable to all industries. Among them, few are developed especially for the airframe manufacture. Therefore, the potential of high efficiency could not be fully explored. In order to deal with severe competition, the aerospace industry needs improvement with a focus on achieving low cost through high efficiency. The direction of research and development in parts machining must comply with lean manufacturing principles and must enhance competitiveness. This article is being forwarded to discuss the trend of new developments in the metal cutting of airframe parts. Primary driving forces of this movement, such as managers, scientists, and engineers, have provided significant influence to this trend.
Technical Paper

Air Circulation and Carbon Dioxide Concentration Study of International Space Station Node 2 with Attached Modules

Crew health is dependent on the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere breathed. Often, models used for concentration have used the assumption that each module of the space station is well mixed, i.e. that the CO2 concentration is constant throughout the module. In this paper, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling is used to assess and validate the accuracy of that assumption. The concentration of carbon dioxide as calculated by CFD was compared to the concentration as calculated by a lumped parameter model. The assumption that the module is well mixed allows the use of relatively simple models, which can be developed and run quickly in order to support decisions for on-orbit analysis. CFD models generate more detailed information, such as CO2 gradients within the modules and airflow and mixing characteristics. However, CFD models, particularly transient models, take longer to develop and use.
Technical Paper

Air Quality Simulation and Assessment (Aqsa) Model

An air quality simulation and assessment (AQSA) model was developed to simulate/evaluate the integrated system performance and obtain air quality characteristics and air contaminants inside the habitable compartments. This model applies both fixed control volume and quasi-steady-state approach for a multi-volume system to assess system performance, operating constraints, and capabilities. The model also integrates a state-of-the-art probabilistic analysis tool, UNIPASS, to compute failure probability due to the uncertainties of variables. In addition, this integrated model also predicts the most likely outcomes for analyzing risks and uncertainties as well as for quantitative toxicological evaluation. This model has been successfully and independently corrected/verified by NASA/JSC to be a very effective, reliable, and accurate tool, while providing savings in both the cost and time of the analysis.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Human Modeling Simulation Process for the International Space Station, Intra-Vehicular Activity

Defining a process for integrating human modeling within the design and verification activities of the International Space Station (ISS) has proven to be as important as the simulations themselves. The process developed (1) ensured configuration management of the required digital mockups, (2) provided consistent methodology for simulating and analyzing human tasks and hardware layout, (3) facilitated an efficient method of communicating design requirements and relaying satisfaction of contract requirements, and (4) provided substantial cost savings by reducing the amount of late redesign and expensive mockup tests. Human simulation is frequently the last step in the design process. Consequently, the influence it has on product design is minimal and oftentimes being used as a post-design verification tool.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Predicted Temperature Control of Crew Quarters added to Node 2 of the International Space Station

Currently scheduled to be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009, Crew Quarters (CQs) will be installed in the Node 2 Module. The CQs provide crewmembers with private space, a place to sleep, and minimal storage. Analysis is to be performed to determine if the United States Operational Segment (USOS) Node 2 can maintain temperature between 47°C and 62°C (65°F and 80°F) [units are CCGS with U.S unit in parenthesis] within the CQ. The analysis will concentrate on the nominal hot environmental case. Environmental heat is due to solar heating of the external shell of the ISS. Configurations including both three and four CQs are examined, as well as multiple configurations of the Low Temperature Loop (LTL) that flows through the Node 2 Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). This paper describes the analysis performed to determine if Node 2 will be able to maintain cabin temperature between 47°C and 62°C (65°F and 85°F).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Concentration in the Shuttle Orbiter Middeck for the Launch on Need (LON) Mission

This paper presents results of the CFD study aimed at evaluation of the CO2 concentration within the Shuttle Orbiter Middeck during the Launch on Need (LON) Crew Rescue flight. An assessment of the Middeck ventilation characteristics has been performed for two possible ventilation arrangements. A recommendation to use the ventilation system configuration with the open aft floor diffuser has been made on the basis of a three-dimensional airflow and CO2 gradient analysis.
Journal Article

Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer in the Orbiter Middeck for the Shuttle Rescue Mission

The paper presents the results of a CFD study for predictions of ventilation characteristics and convective heat transfer within the Shuttle Orbiter middeck cabin in the presence of seven suited crewmember simulation and Individual Cooling Units (ICU). For two ICU arrangements considered, the thermal environmental conditions directly affecting the ICU performance have been defined for landing operation. These data would allow for validation of the ICU arrangement optimization.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effect of Age on Shuttle Orbiter Lithium Hydroxide Canister Performance

Recent efforts have been pursued to establish the usefulness of Space Shuttle Orbiter lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters beyond their certified two-year shelf life, at which time they are currently considered “expired.” A stockpile of Orbiter LiOH canisters are stowed on the International Space Station (ISS) as a backup system for maintaining ISS carbon dioxide Canisters with older (CO2) control. Canister with older pack dates must routinely be replaced with newly packed canisters off-loaded from the Orbiter Middeck. Since conservation of upmass is critical for every mission, the minimization of canister swap-out rate is paramount. LiOH samples from canisters with expired dates that had been returned from the ISS were tested for CO2 removal performance at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD). Through this test series and subsequent analysis, performance degradation was established.