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Technical Paper

A Simplified Battery Model for Hybrid Vehicle Technology Assessment

The objective of this work is to provide a relatively simple battery energy storage and loss model that can be used for technology screening and design/sizing studies of hybrid electric vehicle powertrains. The model dynamic input requires only power demand from the battery terminals (either charging or discharging), and outputs internal battery losses, state-of-charge (SOC), and pack temperature. Measured data from a vehicle validates the model, which achieves reasonable accuracy for current levels up to 100 amps for the size battery tested. At higher current levels, the model tends to report a higher current than what is needed to create the same power level shown through the measured data. Therefore, this battery model is suitable for evaluating hybrid vehicle technology and energy use for part load drive cycles.
Journal Article

Admissible Shape Parameters for a Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

Computationally efficient tire models are needed to meet the timing and accuracy demands of the iterative vehicle design process. Axisymmetric, circumferentially isotropic, planar, discretized models defined by their quasi-static constraint modes have been proposed that are parameterized by a single stiffness parameter and two shape parameters. These models predict the deformed shape independently from the overall tire stiffness and the forces acting on the tire, but the parameterization of these models is not well defined. This work develops an admissible domain of the shape parameters based on the deformation limitations of a physical tire, such that the tire stiffness properties cannot be negative, the deformed shape of the tire under quasi-static loading cannot be dominated by a single harmonic, and the low spatial frequency components must contribute more than higher frequency components to the overall tire shape.
Technical Paper

An Extended-Range Electric Vehicle Control Strategy for Reducing Petroleum Energy Use and Well-to-Wheel Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is participating in the 2008 - 2011 EcoCAR: The NeXt Challenge Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series organized by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and sponsored by General Motors (GM) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE). Following GM's vehicle development process, HEVT established goals that meet or exceed the competition requirements for EcoCAR in the design of a plug-in, range-extended hybrid electric vehicle. The challenge involves designing a crossover SUV powertrain to reduce fuel consumption, petroleum energy use and well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In order to interface with and control the vehicle, the team added a National Instruments (NI) CompactRIO (cRIO) to act as a hybrid vehicle supervisory controller (HVSC).
Technical Paper

AutoDSS: A System Level KBE Tool for Vehicle Product Definition

A key to shortening the design cycle is to shorten the initial or conceptual design phase. An enabling technology towards this goal is an architecture called the Design Support System (DSS), which is based on the virtual prototype concept. The DSS combines knowledge with hardware and software into a system that is a model for the design process. It produces a virtual prototype of the design and maintains an intelligent design document, which is automatically updated during the design process. A design domain dependent version for automotive design, known as “Automobile Design Support System” (AutoDSS) was developed in the CADTECH Research Lab at the University of Washington.
Journal Article

Battery Charge Balance and Correction Issues in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Individual Phases of Certification Dynamometer Driving Cycles as Used in EPA Fuel Economy Label Calculations

This study undertakes an investigation of the effect of battery charge balance in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) on EPA fuel economy label values. EPA's updated method was fully implemented in 2011 and uses equations which weight the contributions of fuel consumption results from multiple dynamometer tests to synthesize city and highway estimates that reflect average U.S. driving patterns. For the US06 and UDDS cycles, the test results used in the computation come from individual phases within the overall certification driving cycles. This methodology causes additional complexities for hybrid vehicles, because although they are required to be charge-balanced over the course of a full drive cycle, they may have net charge or discharge within the individual phases. As a result, the fuel consumption value used in the label value calculation can be skewed.
Technical Paper

CALVIN: Winner of the Fourth Annual Unmanned Ground Vehicle Design Competition

The Unmanned Ground Vehicle Competition is jointly sponsored by the SAE, the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems (AUVS), and Oakland University. College teams, composed of both undergraduate and graduate students, build autonomous vehicles that compete by navigating a 139 meter outdoor obstacle course. The course, which includes a sand pit and a ramp, is defined by painted continuous or dashed boundary lines on grass and pavement. The obstacles are arbitrarily placed, multi-colored plastic-wrapped hay bales. The vehicles must be between 0.9 and 2.7 meters long and less than 1.5 meters wide. They must be either electric-motor or combustion-engine driven and must carry a 9 kilogram payload. All computational power, sensing and control equipment must be carried on board the vehicle. The technologies employed are applicable in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS).
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Transaxle Synchronization Control Design

This paper covers the development of a closed loop transaxle synchronization algorithm which was a key deliverable in the control system design for the L3 Enigma, a Battery Dominant Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Background information is provided to help the reader understand the history that lead to this unique solution of the input and output shaft synchronizing that typically takes place in a manual vehicle transmission or transaxle when shifting into a gear from another or into a gear from neutral when at speed. The algorithm stability is discussed as it applies to system stability and how stability impacts the speed at which a shift can take place. Results are simulated in The MathWorks Simulink programming environment and show how traction motor technology can be used to efficiently solve what is often a machine design issue. The vehicle test bed to which this research is applied is a parallel biodiesel hybrid electric vehicle called the Enigma.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Measurement Methods for Evaluating Displacement of Commercial Vehicle Seats

Measuring the displacements in vehicle seat suspensions and the displacements the seat has to absorb may assist vehicle seat designers in better designing seats to absorb vibrations. Low frequency seat displacement is important in seat design to identify end-stop events and higher frequency shorter displacements are also important since seat components can be optimized to absorb these smaller displacements. Displacements can be directly measured with special instruments, but it would be less complicated if simple, compact accelerometers could be used to measure the seat displacements. This paper compares accelerometer-derived displacement measurements to known displacements derived from sinusoidal physics and field measured random displacements measured with potentiometers. Using known, controlled sinusoidal displacements, three lab-based experiments were conducted to determine how well accelerometers, using double integration, could measure displacements.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design and Weight Optimization of Aircraft Power Systems with High-Peak Pulsed Power Loads

The more electric aircraft (MEA) concept has gained popularity in recent years. As the main building blocks of advanced aircraft power systems, multi-converter power electronic systems have advantages in reliability, efficiency and weight reduction. The pulsed power load has been increasingly adopted--especially in military applications--and has demonstrated highly nonlinear characteristics. Consequently, more design effort needs to be placed on power conversion units and energy storage systems dealing with this challenging mission profile: when the load is on, a large amount of power is fed from the power supply system, and this is followed by periods of low power consumption, during which time the energy storage devices get charged. Thus, in order to maintain the weight advantage of MEA and to keep the normal functionality of the aircraft power system in the presence of a high-peak pulsed power load, this paper proposes a novel multidisciplinary weight optimization technique.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy Development for Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Fuzzy Control Logic

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is currently developing a control strategy for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The hybrid powertrain is being implemented in a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro for the EcoCAR 3 competition. Fuzzy rule sets determine the torque split between the motor and the engine using the accelerator pedal position, vehicle speed and state of charge (SOC) as the input variables. The torque producing components are a 280 kW V8 L83 engine with active fuel management (AFM) and a post-transmission (P3) 100 kW custom motor. The vehicle operates in charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes. In CD mode, the model drives as an electric vehicle (EV) and depletes the battery pack till a lower state of charge threshold is reached. Then CS operation begins, and driver demand is supplied by the engine operating in V8 or AFM modes with supplemental or loading torque from the P3 motor.
Journal Article

Design Tradeoffs: The Social Costs of Vehicle Fire Protection

Rational design for fire safety necessarily includes consideration of risk tradeoffs that tend to reduce one risk but may increase another. Traditional engineering design criteria can be supplemented with important factors that rely on expertise from other disciplines. Engineering analysis may be able to address reduction in fire risk due to the introduction of new technology, but may not address the social costs associated with this new technology. For example, the resultant increase in vehicle cost may prevent some people from purchasing a vehicle (impacting individuals' lives), may reduce the number of vehicles sold (impacting manufacturers), and may reduce taxes collected (impacting the government). This must be weighed against decreased risk of property damage, injury, and fatality due to fire. In this paper, the methods of benefit-cost analysis from economics were applied to make this evaluation.
Technical Paper

Developing a Compact Continuous-State Markov Chain for Terrain Road Profiles

Accurate terrain models provide the chassis designer with a powerful tool to make informed design decisions early in the design process. It is beneficial to characterize the terrain as a stochastic process, allowing limitless amounts of synthetic terrain to be created from a small number of parameters. A continuous-state Markov chain is proposed as an alternative to the traditional discrete-state chain currently used in terrain modeling practice. For discrete-state chains, the profile transitions are quantized then characterized by a transition matrix (with many values). In contrast, the transition function of a continuous-state chain represents the probability density of transitioning between any two states in the continuum of terrain heights. The transition function developed in this work uses a location-scale distribution with polynomials modeling the parameters as functions of the current state.
Technical Paper

Development & Integration of a Charge Sustaining Control Strategy for a Series-Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is participating in the 2012-2014 EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series organized by Argonne National Lab (ANL), and sponsored by General Motors Corporation (GM) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goals of the competition are to reduce well-to-wheel (WTW) petroleum energy consumption (PEU), WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emissions while maintaining vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and safety. Following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP), HEVT is designing, building, and refining an advanced technology vehicle over the course of the three year competition using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu donated by GM as a base vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of an E85 Split Parallel E-REV

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is participating in the 2009 - 2011 EcoCAR: The NeXt Challenge Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series organized by Argonne National Lab (ANL), and sponsored by General Motors Corporation (GM), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Following GM's Vehicle Development Process (VDP), HEVT established team goals that meet or exceed the competition requirements for EcoCAR in the design of a plug-in extended-range hybrid electric vehicle. The competition requires participating teams to improve and redesign a stock Vue XE donated by GM. The result of this design process is an Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV) that uses grid electric energy and E85 fuel for propulsion. The vehicle design is predicted to achieve an SAE J1711 utility factor corrected fuel consumption of 2.9 L(ge)/100 km (82 mpgge) with an estimated all electric range of 69 km (43 miles) [1].
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Disciplinary Optimization Framework for Nonconventional Aircraft Configurations in PACELAB APD

1 Most traditional methods and equations for estimating the structural and nonstructural weights and aerodynamics used at the aircraft conceptual design phase are empirical relations developed for conventional tube-and-wing aircraft. In a computation-heavy design process, such as Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization (MDO) simplicity of calculation is paramount, and for conventional configurations the aforementioned approaches work well enough for conceptual design. But, for non-traditional designs such as strut-braced winged aircraft, empirical data is generally not available and the usual methods can no longer apply. One solution to this is a movement toward generalized physics-based methods that can apply equally well to conventional or non-traditional configurations.
Technical Paper

ESS Design Process Overview and Key Outcomes of Year Two of EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future

EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
Journal Article

Finite Element Modeling of Tire Transient Characteristics in Dynamic Maneuvers

Studying the kinetic and kinematics of the rim-tire combination is very important in full vehicle simulations, as well as for the tire design process. Tire maneuvers are either quasi-static, such as steady-state rolling, or dynamic, such as traction and braking. The rolling of the tire over obstacles and potholes and, more generally, over uneven roads are other examples of tire dynamic maneuvers. In the latter case, tire dynamic models are used for durability assessment of the vehicle chassis, and should be studied using high fidelity simulation models. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) has been developed using the commercial software package ABAQUS. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tire dynamic behavior in multiple case studies in which the transient characteristics are highly involved.
Technical Paper

Frictional Behavior of Automotive Interior Polymeric Material Pairs

As automotive manufacturers continue to increase their use of thermoplastics for interior components (due to cost, weight, …), the potential for frictionally incompatible materials contacting each other, resulting in squeaks and rattles, will also increase. This will go counter to the increased customer demand for quieter interiors. To address this situation, Ford's Advanced Vehicle Technology Squeak and Rattle Prevention Engineering Department and Virginia Tech have developed a tester that can measure friction as a function of relative sliding velocity during frictional instabilities such as stick slip. The Ford/VT team is developing a polymeric material pairing database that will be used as a guide for current and future designs to eliminate potential squeak concerns. Based upon the database, along with a physical property analysis of the various plastic (viscoelastic) materials used in the interior, an analytical model will be developed as a tool to predict frictional behavior.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Architecture Selection to Reduce Emissions and Petroleum Energy Consumption

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is participating in the 2012 - 2014 EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series organized by Argonne National Lab (ANL), and sponsored by General Motors Corporation (GM), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goals of the competition are to reduce well-to-wheel (WTW) petroleum energy consumption, WTW greenhouse gas and criteria emissions while maintaining vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and safety. Following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP), HEVT will design, build, and refine an advanced technology vehicle over the course of the three year competition using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu donated by GM as a base vehicle. In year 1 of the competition, HEVT has designed a powertrain to meet and exceed the goals of the competition.
Technical Paper

Modification of the Internal Flows of Thermal Propulsion Systems Using Local Aerodynamic Inserts

Modern thermal propulsion systems (TPS) as part of hybrid powertrains are becoming increasingly complex. They have an increased number of components in comparison to traditionally powered vehicles leading to increased demand in packaging requirements. Many of the components in these systems relate to achieving efficiency gains, weight saving and pollutant reduction. This includes turbochargers and diesel or gasoline particulate filters for example and these are known to be very sensitive to inlet boundary conditions. When overcoming packaging requirements, sub-optimal flow distributions throughout the TPS can easily occur. Moreover, the individual components are often designed in isolation assuming relatively flat and artificially quiescent inlet flow conditions in comparison to those they are actually presented with. Thus, some of the efficiency benefits are lost through reduced component aerodynamic efficiency.