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Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Real-Time Estimation of the Individual Cylinder Combustion Pressure for S.I. Engine Control

1999-03-01
1999-01-0209
Over the last decade, many methods have been proposed for estimating the in-cylinder combustion pressure or the torque from instantaneous crankshaft speed measurements. However, such approaches are typically computationally expensive. In this paper, an entirely different approach is presented to allow the real-time estimation of the in-cylinder pressures based on crankshaft speed measurements. The technical implementation of the method will be presented, as well as extensive results obtained for a V-6 S.I. engine while varying spark timing, engine speed, engine load and EGR. The method allows to estimate the in-cylinder pressure with an average estimation error of the order of 1 to 2% of the peak pressure. It is very general in its formulation, is statistically robust in the presence of noise, and computationally inexpensive.
Technical Paper

AFR Control on a Single Cylinder Engine Using the Ionization Current

1998-02-23
980203
Over the years numerous researchers have suggested that the ionization current signal carries within it combustion relevant information. The possibility of using this signal for diagnostics and control provides motivation for continued research in this area. To be able to use the ion current signal for feedback control a reliable estimate of some combustion related parameter is necessary and therein lies the difficulty. Given the nature of the ion current signal this is not a trivial task. Fei An et al. [1] employed PCA for feature extraction and then used these feature vectors to design a neural network based classifier for the estimation of air to fuel ratio (AFR). Although the classifier predicted AFR with sufficient reliability, a major draw back was that the ion current signals used for prediction were averaged signals thus precluding a cycle to cycle estimate of AFR.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Characteristics of Coupled Dissipative and Reactive Silencers

2003-05-05
2003-01-1643
The acoustic characteristics of a hybrid silencer consisting of two dissipative chambers and a Helmholtz resonator are investigated first computationally and experimentally. Complex wave number and characteristic impedance are used for the dissipative chambers to account for the wave propagation through absorbing material. Three-dimensional boundary element method (BEM) is employed to predict the transmission loss in the absence of mean flow and the predictions are compared with the experimental results obtained from an impedance tube setup. Noting that the long connecting tube between acoustic elements may reduce the transmission loss near the resonance frequency, two alternative hybrid silencers with short connecting tubes are also investigated by BEM. The present study shows the effectiveness of hybrid silencers over a wide frequency range and demonstrates the importance of understanding each acoustic element, as well as their interaction in designing silencers.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Control for a High Performance Engine using Throttle Angle Information

1999-03-01
1999-01-1169
This paper presents the development of a model-based air/fuel ratio controller for a high performance engine that uses, in addition to other usual signals, the throttle angle to enable predictive air mass flow rate estimation. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to achieve a finer air/fuel ratio control during transients that involve sudden variations in the physical conditions inside the intake manifold, due, for example, to fast throttle opening or closing actions. The air mass flow rate toward the engine cylinders undertakes strong variation in such transients, and its correct estimation becomes critical mainly because of the time lag between its evaluation and the instant when the air actually enters the cylinders.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion and Emissions in SI Engines under Part-Load Conditions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2973
Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Mixture Formation Processes During Start-Up of a Natural Gas Powered SI Engine

1998-05-04
981387
The mixture formation processes of methane and air in an optical access engine operating steadily at 200 RPM have been explored in order to study charge inhomogeneity in a natural gas powered spark ignition engine during transient engine cranking. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence has been used to create fuel/air equivalence ratio maps as a function of injection timing for various image planes at intervals throughout the intake and compression strokes. The work has been done using a Honda VTEC-E engine head that features port injection, four valves per cylinder, a pentroof style combustion chamber for the generation of tumble motion, and one nearly deactivated intake valve to generate swirl motion at low engine speeds in order to enhance mixing.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Shaft Dynamic Effects on Gear Vibration and Noise Excitations

2003-05-05
2003-01-1491
Transmission error has long been identified to be the main exciter of gear whine noise. This research effort seeks to investigate the mechanisms and principal controlling factors that affect the actual noise generation from a typical gearbox housing due to transmission error excitations. The insight gained is expected to help in identifying possible noise control procedures in typical gearing applications. The example gearbox of this paper is an aircraft auxiliary-drive idler gearbox run at low load so that transmission error is the primary mesh excitation. A limited set of dynamic noise and vibration data are collected in transient speed run-ups. A contact-mechanics gear-tooth model is used to predict the static transmission error at each mesh. A finite-element model of the shafting that incorporates complex shaft and bearing data is used to predict the shaft dynamics with the static transmission error at the gear mesh(es) as the sole excitation.
Journal Article

Analysis of Speed-Dependent Vibration Amplification in a Nonlinear Driveline System Using Hilbert Transform

2013-05-13
2013-01-1894
The engine start-up process introduces speed-dependent transient vibration problems in ground vehicle drivelines as the torsional system passes through the critical speeds during the acceleration process. Accordingly, a numerical study is proposed to gain more insights about this transient vibration issue, and the focus is on nonlinear analysis. First, a new nonlinear model of a multi-staged clutch damper is developed and validated by a transient experiment. Second, a simplified nonlinear torsional oscillator model with the multi-staged clutch damper, representing the low frequency dynamics of a typical vehicle driveline, is developed. The flywheel velocity measured during the typical engine start-up process is utilized as an excitation. The envelope function of the speed-dependent response amplification is estimated via the Hilbert transform technique. Finally, the envelope function is effectively utilized to examine the effect of multi-staged clutch damper properties.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0143
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Technical Paper

Approximating Engine Tailpipe Orifice Noise Sound Quality using a Surge Tank and In-Duct Measurements

2003-05-05
2003-01-1641
Because of the need to safely vent exhaust gases, most engine dynamometer facilities are not well suited to measuring engine exhaust orifice noise. Depending on the location of the dyno facility within the building, the exhaust system may need to be extended in order to properly vent the exhaust fumes. This additional ducting changes the acoustic modes of the exhaust system which will change the measured orifice noise. Duct additions downstream of the original orifice location also alter the termination impedance such that in-duct pressure measurements with and without the extended exhaust system can vary significantly. In order to minimize the effect of the building's exhaust system on the desired engine exhaust system measurements, the present approach terminates the engine exhaust into a large enclosed volume or surge tank before venting the gases into the building's ventilation system.
Technical Paper

Autoignition Characteristics of Primary Reference Fuels and their Mixtures

2009-11-02
2009-01-2624
This study investigates the autoignition of Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) using a detailed kinetic model. The chemical kinetics software CHEMKIN is used to facilitate solutions in a constant volume reactor and a variable volume reactor, with the latter representing an IC engine. Experimental shock tube and HCCI engine data from literature is compared with the present predictions in these two reactors. The model is then used to conduct a parametric study in the constant volume reactor of the effect of inlet pressure, inlet temperature, octane number, fuel/air equivalence ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the autoignition of PRF/air mixtures. A number of interesting characteristics are demonstrated in the parametric study. In particular, it is observed that PRFs can exhibit single or two stage ignition depending on the inlet temperature. The total ignition delay, whether single or two stage, is correlated withn-C7H16/O2 ratio.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Responses of PMHS Subjected to Abdominal Seatbelt Loading

2016-11-07
2016-22-0004
Past studies have found that a pressure based injury risk function was the best predictor of liver injuries due to blunt impacts. In an effort to expand upon these findings, this study investigated the biomechanical responses of the abdomen of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to high-speed seatbelt loading and developed external response targets in conjunction with proposing an abdominal injury criterion. A total of seven unembalmed PMHS, with an average mass and stature of 71 kg and 174 cm respectively were subjected to belt loading using a seatbelt pull mechanism, with the PMHS seated upright in a free-back configuration. A pneumatic piston pulled a seatbelt into the abdomen at the level of the umbilicus with a nominal peak penetration speed of 4.0 m/s. Pressure transducers were placed in the re-pressurized abdominal vasculature, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta, to measure internal pressure variation during the event.
Technical Paper

Case History: Engine Timing Gear Noise Reduction

1999-05-17
1999-01-1716
This paper describes the procedures used to reduce the tonal noise of a class eight truck engine timing gear train that was initially found to be objectionable under idle operating conditions. Initial measurements showed that the objectionable sounds were related to the fundamental gear mesh frequency, and its second and third harmonics. Experimental and computational procedures used to study and trouble-shoot the problem include vibration and sound measurements, transmission error analysis of the gears under light load condition, and a dynamic analysis of the drive system. Detail applications of these techniques are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Catalytic Converter Mat Material for Predictive Analysis

2000-03-06
2000-01-0218
Catalytic converters are typically constrained and cushioned by an intumescent mat material that is critical to the durability of the ceramic and metallic substrates. In an effort to reduce costs and improve designs, this work attempts to develop and verify a material model for the mat that can be utilized in predictive analysis. Test data are used in conjunction with the finite element program ABAQUS™ to create both a hyperfoam and a user-defined material model. These models will be verified and compared by modelling with ABAQUS the specimens and test conditions used to generate the data.
Technical Paper

Combining Flow Losses at Circular T-Junctions Representative of Intake Plenum and Primary Runner Interface

2007-04-16
2007-01-0649
The interface between a plenum and primary runner in log-style intake manifolds is one of the dominant sources of flow losses in the breathing system of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). A right-angled T-junction is one such interface between the plenum (main duct) and the primary runner (sidebranch) normal to the plenum's axis. The present study investigates losses associated with the combining flow through these junctions, where fluid from both sides of the plenum enters the primary runner. Steady, incompressible-flow experiments for junctions with circular cross-sections were conducted to determine the effect of (1) runner interface radius of 0, 10, and 20% of the plenum diameter, (2) plenum-to-runner area ratio of 1, 2.124, and 3.117, and (3) runner taper area ratio of 2.124 and 3.117. Mass flow rate in each branch was varied to obtain a distribution of flow ratios, while keeping the total flow rate constant.
Journal Article

Comparative Assessment of Multi-Axis Bushing Properties Using Resonant and Non-Resonant Methods

2013-05-13
2013-01-1925
Shaped elastomeric joints such as engine mounts or suspension bushings undergo broadband, multi-axis loading; however, in practice, the elastomeric joint properties are often measured at stepped single frequencies (non-resonant test method). This article helps provide insight into multi-axis properties with new benchmark experiments that are designed to permit direct comparison between system resonant and non-resonant identification methods of the dynamic stiffness matrices of elastomeric joints, including multi-axis (non-diagonal) terms. The joints are constructed with combinations of inclined elastomeric cylinders to control non-diagonal terms in the stiffness matrix. The resonant experiment consists of an elastic metal beam end-supported by elastomeric joints coupling the in-plane transverse and longitudinal beam motion.
Journal Article

Design Challenges in the Development of a Large Vehicle Inertial Measurement System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0096
The (Vehicle Inertia Parameter Evaluation Rig) VIPER II is a full vehicle mass and inertia parameter measurement machine. The VIPER II expands upon the capabilities of its predecessor and is capable of measuring vehicles with a mass of up to 45,360 kg (100,000 lb), an increase in capacity of 18,100 kg (40,000 lb). The VIPER II also exceeds its predecessor in both the length and width of vehicles it can measure. The VIPER II's maximum vehicle width is 381 cm (150 in) an increase of 76 cm (30 in) and maximum distance from the vehicle CG to the outer most axle is 648 cm (255 in) an additional 152 cm (60 in) The VIPER II is capable of performing measurements including vehicle CG height, pitch, roll, and yaw moments of inertia and the roll/yaw cross product of inertia. While being able to measure both heavier and larger vehicles, the VIPER II is designed to maintain a maximum error of 3% for all inertia measurements and 1% for CG height.
Journal Article

Design and Operation of a Brake and Throttle Robot

2009-04-20
2009-01-0429
This paper describes the design and implementation of the SEA, Ltd. Brake and Throttle Robot (BTR). Presented are the criteria used in the initial design and the development and testing of the BTR, as well as some test results achieved with the device. The BTR is designed for use in automobiles and light trucks. It is based on a servomotor driven ballscrew, which in turn operates either the brake or accelerator. It is easily portable from one vehicle to another and compact enough to fit even smaller vehicles. The BTR is light enough so as to have minimal effect on the measurement of vehicle parameters. The BTR is designed for use as a stand-alone unit or as part of a larger control system such as the Automated Test Driver (ATD) yet allows for the use of a test driver for safety, as well as test selection, initiation, and monitoring. Installation in a vehicle will be described, as well as electronic components that support the BTR.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hybrid Exhaust Silencing System for a Production Engine

2005-05-16
2005-01-2349
A prototype hybrid exhaust silencing system consisting of dissipative and reactive components is designed based on the boundary element method (BEM) with a specific emphasis on its acoustic performance as evaluated relative to a production system. The outer dimensions of the prototype system are comparable to its production counterpart, which has two silencers connected by a pipe. The predicted transmission loss by BEM for the prototype is compared with the experimental results in an impedance tube for both the prototype and production hardware, providing a design guidance for the former. The sound pressure levels measured at the tailpipe exit during the engine ramp-up experiments in a dynamometer laboratory are presented to compare the two systems, providing the final assessment.
Journal Article

Design of a Multi-Chamber Silencer for Turbocharger Noise

2009-05-19
2009-01-2048
A multi-chamber silencer is designed by a computational approach to suppress the turbocharger whoosh noise downstream of a compressor in an engine intake system. Due to the significant levels and the broadband nature of the source spanning over 1.5 – 3.5 kHz, three Helmholtz resonators are implemented in series. Each resonator consists of a chamber and a number of slots, which can be modeled as a cavity and neck, respectively. Their target resonance frequencies are tuned using Boundary Element Method to achieve an effective noise reduction over the entire frequency range of interest. The predicted transmission loss of the silencer is then compared with the experimental results from a prototype in an impedance tube setup. In view of the presence of rapid grazing flow, these silencers may be susceptible to whistle-noise generation. Hence, the prototype is also examined on a flow bench at varying flow rates to assess such flow-acoustic coupling.
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